The Hadoop Distributed File System is the foundational storage layer in typical Hadoop deployments. Performance and stability of HDFS are crucial to the correct functioning of applications at higher layers in the Hadoop stack. This session is a technical deep dive into recent enhancements committed to HDFS by the entire Apache contributor community. We describe real-world incidents that motivated these changes and how the enhancements prevent those problems from reoccurring. Attendees will leave this session with a deeper understanding of the implementation challenges in a distributed file system and identify helpful new metrics to monitor in their own clusters.