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Layers of the Brain <ul><li>The brain develops sequentially from the brainstem up, with the cortex developing last and con...
Brain Stem and  Mid Brain: Survival <ul><li>The autonomic nervous system is regulated by the brain stem.  It is the first ...
Organization of Nervous System
 
Brain Stem & Mid Brain cont’d <ul><li>Brain stem and mid-brain monitor the outer world through sensory input and activates...
Brain Stem & Mid Brain cont’d <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Brain Stem & Mid Brain cont’d <ul><li>Nickname is Reptilian Brain </li></ul>
Cerebellum:  Coordination <ul><li>Automatic movements and balance </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of movement and of though...
Cerebellum:Coordination cont’d <ul><li>Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motor skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doe...
Limbic System: Emotions <ul><li>Receives, interprets and responds to emotional signals sent from the body </li></ul><ul><l...
Cortex: Higher Level Thinking <ul><li>All higher level thinking at the conscious level occurs in the cortex. </li></ul>
Cortex: Higher Level Thinking <ul><li>Making sense of the world, decision making,creativity, reason, logic, imagination, s...
Cortex cont’d <ul><li>The cortex loves change, novelty, fresh input, variety </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most plastic laye...
 
 
Lobes of the Cortex Sensory Lobes <ul><li>Back lobes are sensory related </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe -  processes vis...
 
Lobes cont’d <ul><li>Parietal Lobe - processes incoming sensory information; touch, pressure, pain, cold, heat, taste, pro...
Lobes of the Cortex Prefrontal Lobes <ul><li>Responsible for critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving </li...
Prefrontal Lobes cont’d <ul><li>Integrates emotions with thought (essential to the decision making process) </li></ul><ul>...
Prefrontal Lobes cont’d <ul><li>Touch fingers lightly on forehead to engage the frontal lobes  </li></ul><ul><li>Prefronta...
Phineas Gage  Case study <ul><li>1848 was a 25 year old railroad worker </li></ul><ul><li>Tamping iron through left cheek ...
Phineas Gage cont’d <ul><li>Frontal lobe damage </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and mental abilities intact </li></ul><ul><li>Per...
Review <ul><li>Watching the Power Point and looking at the diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Movement you are doing </li></ul><ul>...
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Layers And Lobes Of The Brain

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Layers And Lobes Of The Brain

  1. 1. Layers of the Brain <ul><li>The brain develops sequentially from the brainstem up, with the cortex developing last and continuously throughout life </li></ul>
  2. 2. Brain Stem and Mid Brain: Survival <ul><li>The autonomic nervous system is regulated by the brain stem. It is the first part of the brain to develop and mature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Babies are born with autonomic nervous system neurons fully myelinated (e.g. heart beat, breathing, sucking) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Organization of Nervous System
  4. 5. Brain Stem & Mid Brain cont’d <ul><li>Brain stem and mid-brain monitor the outer world through sensory input and activates the body to respond in ways that ensure self-preservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Brain stem processes information at a subconscious level; it is quick and reactive </li></ul>
  5. 6. Brain Stem & Mid Brain cont’d <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight/freeze/flight response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexes (along with the spinal cord) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rote responses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is the least plastic layer of the brain - highly resistant to change </li></ul>
  6. 7. Brain Stem & Mid Brain cont’d <ul><li>Nickname is Reptilian Brain </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cerebellum: Coordination <ul><li>Automatic movements and balance </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of movement and of thought (balance) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Cerebellum:Coordination cont’d <ul><li>Procedural memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>motor skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not involve conscious thought, except when first learning (riding a bike) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matures in early childhood </li></ul><ul><li>Works with brain stem </li></ul>
  9. 10. Limbic System: Emotions <ul><li>Receives, interprets and responds to emotional signals sent from the body </li></ul><ul><li>Processes information at the subconscious level and forms emotional patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Matures during puberty </li></ul><ul><li>The heart of the brain </li></ul>
  10. 11. Cortex: Higher Level Thinking <ul><li>All higher level thinking at the conscious level occurs in the cortex. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Cortex: Higher Level Thinking <ul><li>Making sense of the world, decision making,creativity, reason, logic, imagination, self awareness, self control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>everything that makes us uniquely human is the result of the interplay between the cortex working in harmony with the lower brain structures. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Cortex cont’d <ul><li>The cortex loves change, novelty, fresh input, variety </li></ul><ul><li>It is the most plastic layer of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>The cortex is divided into specialized areas called lobes that are determined by their function </li></ul><ul><li>Matures over a long period of time, from the back to the front </li></ul>
  13. 16. Lobes of the Cortex Sensory Lobes <ul><li>Back lobes are sensory related </li></ul><ul><li>Occipital Lobe - processes vision and matures very early </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe - processes hearing, speech and language, memory </li></ul>
  14. 18. Lobes cont’d <ul><li>Parietal Lobe - processes incoming sensory information; touch, pressure, pain, cold, heat, taste, proprioception </li></ul><ul><li>Frontal Lobe - Gross and fine motor movements </li></ul>
  15. 19. Lobes of the Cortex Prefrontal Lobes <ul><li>Responsible for critical thinking, creative thinking and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Allows us to imagine, plan and rehearse future actions </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to limbic system to regulate emotions </li></ul>
  16. 20. Prefrontal Lobes cont’d <ul><li>Integrates emotions with thought (essential to the decision making process) </li></ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering something or a series of things for a short time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max number for adults is 7 (+ or - 2) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Prefrontal Lobes cont’d <ul><li>Touch fingers lightly on forehead to engage the frontal lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Prefrontal lobes start to develop around 8 months and continue to develop into late adolescence (around 18-20 or longer) </li></ul>
  18. 22. Phineas Gage Case study <ul><li>1848 was a 25 year old railroad worker </li></ul><ul><li>Tamping iron through left cheek out top of skull </li></ul>
  19. 23. Phineas Gage cont’d <ul><li>Frontal lobe damage </li></ul><ul><li>Memory and mental abilities intact </li></ul><ul><li>Personality was not! </li></ul>
  20. 24. Review <ul><li>Watching the Power Point and looking at the diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Movement you are doing </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing your hands on your head </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to me and remembering where the lobes are </li></ul><ul><li>Makes it possible for you to think about your responses to these questions </li></ul>

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