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Instructional Design basics

Presentation about instructional design and its theories

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Instructional Design basics

  1. 1. Chris Fuller PRST5430 (Blackman) Assignment 1.1: Instructional Design 101
  2. 2. Instructional Design (ID) is generally defined as “the systematic process of planning events to facilitate learning.” (Chen, p.80) Introduction Source: Chen, I. “Instructional Design Methodologies”. Instructional Design : Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. (2011). IGI Global.
  3. 3. Merrill's First Principles of Instruction Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction Bloom's Learning Taxonomy Various Models of the Instructional Design Process The following are ID models to be highlighted in this slide presentation: Rapid Instructional Design (RID) Each model’s section will include definitions, phases, and other key information concerning the theory in question. Any sources cited will be listed at the bottom of the slide.
  4. 4. Rapid Instructional Design (RID) The RID model, developed by Dave Meier, uses enhanced learning practices that function “to design the learning environment with more practice, feedback, and experience rather than presentations.” (Clark, online) Source: Clark, D. (2011). “Rapid Instructional Design (RID)”. Retrieved 2012 January 19.
  5. 5. Rapid Instructional Design (RID) This model employs the use of four phases: Preparation (initiate interest) Presentation (encounter knowledge) Practice (integrate knowledge) Performance (apply knowledge)
  6. 6. Rapid Instructional Design (RID) Each phase in the RID model has their own method of implementation: Preparation  Orientation  Learner/Teacher Engagement  Material Introduction Presentation  Exercises  Activities  Interactivity Practice  Hands-on Learning  Reflection  Feedback Performance  Training Transfer  Reinforcement  Rewards
  7. 7. Bloom's Learning Taxonomy omyoflearningdomains.htm Created by Dr. Benjamin Bloom, this model was initially designed for academic purposes (systemic categories of learning performance helping in educational design/assessment). It is usually broken down into three parts (domains):  Cognitive (knowledge)  Affective (emotions)  Psychomotor (skills)
  8. 8. Bloom's Learning Taxonomy Each of the domains in Bloom’s model (cognitive, affective, psychomotor) has their own phase or level.  Knowledge  Comprehension  Application  Analysis  Synthesis  Evaluation Affective PsychomotorCognitive  Receive  Respond  Value  Values (Organize)  Values (Internalize)  Imitation  Manipulation  Precision  Articulation  Naturalization
  9. 9. Bloom's Learning Taxonomy During the 1990’s, a former student of Bloom’s (Lorin Anderson) revised the model to incorporate 21st Century methodologies. Basically, a rearrangement in hierarchy and the inclusion of verbs over nouns were the basis of the revision. Listed below is a brief summary of the revised Bloom model: Lower Order Thinking Skills Higher Order Thinking Skills Creating Evaluation Analyzing Applying Understanding Remembering
  10. 10. Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction The model credited to Robert Gagne is essentially a theory on instructional processes. The theory “stipulates that there are several different types or levels of learning and that each specific type requires unique types of instruction.” (Ryerson University, online) Source: “Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction”. (2009). The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education. Ryerson University (Canada). Accessed 2012 January 19.'s_Nine_Events.pdf
  11. 11. Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction Gagne’s theory utilizes nine phases (“events”) in the instructional process: 1. Gain Attention 2. Inform Learner of Objectives 3. Stimulate Recall of Prior Learning 4. Present Stimulus Material 5. Provide Learner Guidance 6. Elicit Performance 7. Provide Feedback 8. Assess Performance 9. Enhance Retention and Transfer
  12. 12. Merrill's First Principles of Instruction M. David Merrill proposed this model after researching and reviewing other instructional theories. The purpose of the model was to establish a general set of principles with which other theories would be in general agreement.
  13. 13. Merrill's First Principles of Instruction Merrill’s theory encompasses five phases (“principles”): 1. Problem- Centered 2. Activation 3. Demonstration 4. Application 5. Integration
  14. 14. Merrill's First Principles of Instruction “At the top level the instructional design prescriptions based on first principles are as follows:  Learning is facilitated when learners are engaged in solving real-world problems.  Learning is facilitated when existing knowledge is activated as a foundation for new knowledge 3 .  Learning is facilitated when new knowledge is demonstrated to the learner.  Learning is facilitated when new knowledge is applied by the learner  Learning is facilitated when new knowledge is integrated into the learner's world.” (Merrill, online) Source: Merrill, M.D. (2001). “First Principles of Instruction”. Utah State University. Accessed 2012 January 20.
  15. 15. Additional Resources Instructional Design Models by Martin Ryder Instructional Design by Don Clark Instructional Design Models & Theories Bloom's Taxonomy Blooms Digitally by Andrew Churches The Processes of Learning and Instruction Expanding On The Nine Events Of Instruction by Connie Malamed Send comments and suggestions to: