Presented by :1. Ingrid Elvina (17)2. Nurul Rosyidah (25)
Principles of Animal Classification1. Based on the presence or absence of vertebral column : * Invertebrates is the group of animal without vertebral column. * Vertebrats is the group of animal which has vertebral column.2. Based on the type of body symmetry : • Asymmetrical, such as sponges • Bilaterally symmetrical, such as vertebrates • Radially symmetrical, such as starfish3. Based on the number of germ layer : •Diploblastic, example : porifera and coelenterate •Triploblastic, example : all animals (expect porifera and coelenterata)
4. Based on the type of 5. Based on temperature body cavities (coelom) : regulation :• Acoelomata is animal which • Poikilotherms animal has no true body (heterotherm or ectotherm). cavity(coelom). Example : It is also called as cold- Platyhelminthes bloodedness animal. Ex :• Pseudocoelomata is animal worms, reptiles, insects which has a pseudocoelom. • Homeotherms animal Ex : Nemathelminthes (homotherm or endotherm )• Coelomata is animal which is warm-bloodedness animal. has a true coelom. Ex : Ex : mammals and birds vertebrates and invertebrates
Phylum PoriferaCharacteristics of porifera1. The body does not actively move and is attached to some objects or another in a relatively shallow water.2. Skeleton is composed of calcium carbonate, silicates, or sponging.3. Has high regeneration ability.4. Sexual reproduction by internal fertilization. Asexual reproduction through the formation of gemmule (bud)
Classification of Porifera1. The type of water canal : – Ascon type – Sycon type – Leucon or ragon type2. Component of a sponge skeleton : – Calcarea, ex : Clathrina blanca and Sycon gelatinosum – Hexactinelida, ex : Pheronema sp and Euplectella – Desmospongiae, ex : Euspongia sp and Haliclona
The Role of Porifera• Skeleton of porifera has economic value because it can be used as cleaner tools(polisher) or seat-filled of veechicle.• Euspongia oficinalis is sponge, which usually used to wash.• Euspongia mollisima is usually used for cleaner tools of toilet.• Sponge produces bioactive compounds that is potensial as material of medicines.
Phylum CoelenterataCharacteristics of Coelenterata :• Triploblastic animal• Radially symmetrical• Its nervous system is diffuse nerve• Reproduce sexually and asexually• Food digestion happens intracellularly and extracellularly• It has two types of body shape that is called polyp andmedusa
Classification of Coelenterata Class Hydrozoa • Class hydrozoa have a small body size • Hydra reproduces sexually or asexually Class Scyphozoa • Class Scyphozoa life cycle dominated by medusa generation and is known as jellyfish Class Anthozoa • Members of the class anthozoa only has a polyp shape and has no metagenesis • Sexual reproduction occurs by external fertilization .
The Role of Coelenterata• To protect beach against the blast of waves, so it can reduce beach aberretion• As the site of reproduction and provide shelter for fish• Can be made into accessories• As an ocean tourism attraction• Can be used as raw material of airport runway
Phyum PlatyhelminthesCharasteristics of Platyhelminthes :• Triploblastic acoelomate• The body stucture is dorsoventrally flat nonsegmented and bilaterally symmetrical• Does not have anus, blood circulatory system, respiratory system, and skeletal system• Already have nervous system, reproductive system, excretory system, and digestive system• Hermaphrodite, it can produce both eggs and sperm
Classification of PlatyhelminthesClass Turbellaria• Turbellaria is having cilia at adult phase, so that they are called cilia wormsClass Trematoda• Members of trematodes live as parasite in human and animalClass Cestoda• Class cestoda doesn’t have cilia and digestive system however they have scolex(head), which is completed with sucker and rostelum
The Role of Platyhelminthes• Most of flatworms are parasites, which has negative impacts for human population. Generally, they cause diseases, which can destroy the organs in the host organism
Phylum NemathelminthesCharacteristic of Nemathelminthes :• Triploblastic pseudocoelomate animal• Its body is bilaterally symmetry• The surface body is covered by cuticle from keratin• The digestive system has been perfect• Has no circulatory system, respiration is done by diffusion• Its sex can be distinguished(gonochoristic). Fertilization occurs internally
The Followings are Several Nematodes, which are Parasitic1. Filaria Filarial worms can make elephantiasis disease2. Trichinella spiralis(Muscle worms) Trichinella spiralis can make trichinosis disease3. Enterobius vermicularis(pinworms) Pinworms develop in human’s large intestine4. Ancylostoma duodenale(Hookworm) it is the cause of bookworm in Indonesia5. Ascaris lumbricoides(Intestinal Roundworm)
The Role of Nemathelminthes• The parasitic round worm can cause various diseases in human, animal, or plant• Hookworm is one of the most dangerous parasites in tropical region
Phylum AnnelidaCharacteristic of Annelida :• Triploblastic coelomata animals• Its body shape is bilaterally symmetrical• The surface body is covered by cuticle• Its digestive system has been perfect• Excretory system constitute of nephridia• Its brain is a pair of head ganglia• The respiration is through their skin
Classification of Annelida Class Polycaeta • Class Polycaeta is having many setae on the surface of their body • Ex : Palolo worm and Wawo wormClass Oligochaeta• Class oligochaeta only has a few of setae• Ex : EarthwoormsClass Hirudinea• Class hirudinea has been adapted as blood- sucker animal• Ex : leech and tiger leech(haemadipsa sp)
The Role of Annelida• Some of annelida are used as food• Earthworms have benefit to make fertile of agriculture lands• Leech can be used to clean of infected wound
Phylum Mollusca• It is triploblastic animal• Its body is bilaterally symmetrical• It usually has sell• It has nervous system,which is consisted of 3 ganglia• Excretion was done by kidney• Some members of mollusks breathe by lung• Some of them proceed external fertilization
Classification of Mollusca Class Amphineura • Class of amphineura has a shell composed of 8 overlapping plates • Ex : Chiton Class Scaphopoda • Special characteristic of scaphopoda is having sell in the shape of tusk • Ex : Tusk shell Class Gastropoda • Characteristic of class Gastropoda is having abdomen, which can be used as foot • Ex : Snails
Class pelecypoda• The member of pelecypoda has foot in the shape of axe• Ex : oyster and clamClass Cephalopoda• Class Cephalopoda has foot on its head. Its foot has long tentacles• Ex : sepia sp and octopus sp
The Role of Mollusca• Some mollusks can be eaten, such as squids and clams• Mollusks can be made as accessories, such as clams and oyster• The shell powder of clams is potentially used as gastritis medicine
Phylum ArthropodaCharacteristic of Arthropoda• The body is segmented and covered with outer skeleton from chitin• The body consists of head, thorax, and abdomen• Its digestive system has been complete• Respiration is done by using gills, trachea, or book lungs• It is gonochoristic and reproduces by sexual reproduction
Classification of ArthropodaClass Crustacea Class Crustacea have carapace, the joining of head and thorax . Crustaceans is grouped into : Subclass Entomostraca and Subclass MalacostracaClass Insecta(Hexapoda)• Class insecta has 6 legs, which are adhered on thorax, therefore it is called hexapods.• Insects can be grouped into 10 orders.
Class Myriapoda• The body of Myriapoda consists of head and body• Their body has segment and each segment has a pair of leg. Example : Centipedes and MilipedesClass Arachnida• The body consists of cephalothorax and abdoment, except dog fleas• It has eye spots• Ex : scorpions, spiders.
The Role of Arthopoda• Bee : produce honey for food or medicine• Insect : help plant pollination• Fish flea : fish parasite• Termite : destroy material from wood• Butterfly : some can be exported
Phylum EchinodermataCharacteristic of Echinodermata• It is a triploblastic animal• Its body is radially symmetrical.• Skeleton is composed of calcium carbonate.• It has high regeneration ability.• The nervous system consists of ganglia and nerve cord.• Respiratory organs are skin lungs, ambulacral feet, or the respiratory tree.
Characteristic of Echinodermata Class Asteroidea(starfishes) • Starfish has 5 arms. Some starfish conduct asexual reproduction by releasing the arms Class Echinoidea(Sea Urchins) • Its body is in round or flat shape • Ex : Sea urchin and Sand dollar Class ophiuroidea(Brittle Stars) • The body shape of brittle star looks like starfish, but its arms are longer.
Class Crinoidea(Sea Lilies)• Shape of sea lilies is like a plant.• Usually sea lilies attach on coral by the arms or cirriClass Holothuroidea(Sea Cucumber)• The body of sea cucumber can not stand upright because they contain lots of fatty acid, but only little of calcium
The Role of Echinodermata• The most important role of Echinodermata is keeping the sea ecosystem clean by eating organic corpses.• Skeleton of this animal can be made into accessories.• Only a few kinds of Echinodermata are useful as food material.
Phylum ChordataCharacteristic of Chordata• Notochord is present in the embryonic phase• It has pharyngeal slits or gill slits on several phase during the development• It has dorsal nerve cord• It has post-anal tail, at least in the embryonic phase
Classification of Chordataa. Subphylum Tunicata The body has pharyngeal slits, which is useful as air circulation and food absorption, ex : Halocynthiab. Subphylum Cephalochordata Cephalochordata can swim and spend most of their time by scuttling their tail in the shallow water.
c. Subphylum Vertebrata Vertebrata have vertebral column(backbone) Vertebrata is grouped into 8 classes : 1. Class Agnatha 2. Class Placodermi 3. Class Chondrichthyes 4. Class Osteichthyes 5. Class Amphibia 6. Class Reptilia 7. Class Aves 8. Class Mammalia
The Role of Chordata• Food material• Medicine and health• Agricultural pest• Technology development• Hobbies and recreation• Material for clothing