Hierarchy of Life
Individual, a single organism.
Population, a group of members of speciesin a
prescribed area at the same time.
Community, an assembly of all populations which
are potentially interacting in a particular area.
Ecosystem, a system consist of communities and its
abiotic components with their own characteristic.
Biome, ecosystem in certain area.
Biosphere, the entire portion of the earth inhabited
by living organisms
Ecosystem Consist of
A. Abiotics Components
Abiotics components consist of non-living thing
B. Biotic Components
Biotic component are made up from organisms.
comprise into producers,
consumers, and decomposer.
In an ecosystem, there are relationships between its
Food relationship : the relationship to find foods.
2. Symbiotics relationship : a close association
between organisms of two or more species that live
together in direct contact.
There are 3 main types of symbiotics relationship :
1. Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical rain forest occurs in equatorial area where
the average temperature is 25° C with high rainfall
in average of 200 – 452 cm per year.
savana occurs in an area around the equator with
low rainfall average of 90 – 150 cm per year.
meadow occurs in area where the temperature is
warm with low rainfall average of 25 – 27 cm per
Desert are located in the position of 20 – 30° N and
S, with low rain falls average (around 25 cm per
temperate decidious forest are mostly located in
the substropics with hot summer and clod winter .
Taiga is located in the north area of temperate
decidiuous forest and on tropical mountains.
The Tundra located close to the North Pole (60°N)
is called artic tundra. Whereas the tundra located
in the top of mountain is called alpin tundra.
Artifical Ecosystem is the kind of ecosystem which is
made of intentionally by human
Energy Flow and Biogeochemical Cycles
1. Energy Flow
The energy usage passes one way through several
processes, from producer to consumer I, consumer
II, consumer III, and to the next ecosystem
component in sequence, and ends in decomposition
process. However, a part of the energy is lost as heat,
this phenomenon agrees with The
a) Ecosystem Productivity
The ability to take and keep energy in the body in
an ecosystem is called ecosystem productivity.
Ecosystem productivity is divided into primary and
b) Food Chain and Food Web
food Chain is relation between organisms of eating
and being eaten in certain order. A certain
producer can make up several food chains which
are interconnected, forming a food web.
c) Ecological Pyramid
The trophic structure of an ecosystem forms an
ecological pyramids. Some pyramids can be
recognized in ecosystem are a pyramid of number,
the pyramid of biomass, and energy pyramid.
Is the movement process of water from atmosphere to
It is the main gas in life, necessary for the respiration
in photosyntesis process CO₂ and water from complex
organic molecule C₆H₁₂O₆
Plants can use nitrogen if it is in the form of nitric ion
Relationship between Human Activities and
Human activities which cause the environmental
Types of Pollution
Air pollution, consist of :
Water Pollution, consists of :
Efforts in Environmental Conservation
a) Environmental Conservation,
Conservation is an effort to protect, manage, and
renew natural resources. The method are :
Life source Conversation
b) Waste Recycling
Is the reprocess of materials, which have
been used to obtain new products.
1. Benefits of Waste Recycling
It reduces the needs of raw materials
For energy used conversation
For reducing the pollution
It can save costs
Reuse is to use again the wastes without changing
its character. Recycle is to use again the wastes
after being processed. The materials that can be
recycled are :
Organic waste Recycling