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  • 31
  • Ecosystem

    1. 1. Chapter 7 ECOSYSTEM
    2. 2. Hierarchy of Life 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Individual, a single organism. Population, a group of members of speciesin a prescribed area at the same time. Community, an assembly of all populations which are potentially interacting in a particular area. Ecosystem, a system consist of communities and its abiotic components with their own characteristic. Biome, ecosystem in certain area. Biosphere, the entire portion of the earth inhabited by living organisms
    3. 3. Ecosystem Consist of Abiotic Components Biotic Components
    4. 4. Ecosystem Components A. Abiotics Components Abiotics components consist of non-living thing
    5. 5. B. Biotic Components Biotic component are made up from organisms. Biotic component comprise into producers, consumers, and decomposer.
    6. 6. In an ecosystem, there are relationships between its components : Food relationship : the relationship to find foods. 2. Symbiotics relationship : a close association between organisms of two or more species that live together in direct contact. 1. There are 3 main types of symbiotics relationship :
    7. 7. Mutualism Symbiotic
    8. 8. Comensalism Symbiotic
    9. 9. Parasitism Symbiotic
    10. 10. Types of Ecosystem
    11. 11. Types of Ecosystem Aquatic Ecosystem a) Freshwater ecosystem Freshwater ecosystem is distinguished as lotik freshwater ecosystem and lentik freshwater ecosystem.
    12. 12. Lotic Ecosystem
    13. 13. Lentic Ecosystem
    14. 14. b) Marine ecosystem marine ecosystem is subdivided in the litoral zone (intertidal), which includes estuaries and shores; oceans floor that is coral reefs area and pelagic zone (deep oceans).
    15. 15. Terestrial Ecosystem Desert
    16. 16. Terrestial Ecosystem 1. Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rain forest occurs in equatorial area where the average temperature is 25° C with high rainfall in average of 200 – 452 cm per year.
    17. 17. 2. Savana savana occurs in an area around the equator with low rainfall average of 90 – 150 cm per year.
    18. 18. 3. Meadow meadow occurs in area where the temperature is warm with low rainfall average of 25 – 27 cm per year.
    19. 19. 4. Desert Desert are located in the position of 20 – 30° N and S, with low rain falls average (around 25 cm per year)
    20. 20. 5. Decidious Forest temperate decidious forest are mostly located in the substropics with hot summer and clod winter .
    21. 21. 6. Taiga Taiga is located in the north area of temperate decidiuous forest and on tropical mountains.
    22. 22. 7. Tundra The Tundra located close to the North Pole (60°N) is called artic tundra. Whereas the tundra located in the top of mountain is called alpin tundra.
    23. 23. Artifical Ecosystem Artifical Ecosystem is the kind of ecosystem which is made of intentionally by human
    24. 24. Energy Flow and Biogeochemical Cycles 1. Energy Flow The energy usage passes one way through several processes, from producer to consumer I, consumer II, consumer III, and to the next ecosystem component in sequence, and ends in decomposition process. However, a part of the energy is lost as heat, and this phenomenon agrees with The Thermodynamics law.
    25. 25. a) Ecosystem Productivity The ability to take and keep energy in the body in an ecosystem is called ecosystem productivity. Ecosystem productivity is divided into primary and secondary productivity.
    26. 26. b) Food Chain and Food Web food Chain is relation between organisms of eating and being eaten in certain order. A certain producer can make up several food chains which are interconnected, forming a food web.
    27. 27. c) Ecological Pyramid The trophic structure of an ecosystem forms an ecological pyramids. Some pyramids can be recognized in ecosystem are a pyramid of number, the pyramid of biomass, and energy pyramid.
    28. 28. 2. Biogeochemical Cycles a) b) c) d) Water Cycle Is the movement process of water from atmosphere to the earth. Oxygen Cycle It is the main gas in life, necessary for the respiration process. Carbon Cycle in photosyntesis process CO₂ and water from complex organic molecule C₆H₁₂O₆ Nitrogen Cycle Plants can use nitrogen if it is in the form of nitric ion
    29. 29. Relationship between Human Activities and Environmental Problems 1.     Human activities which cause the environmental problems. Logging (Deforestation) Energy resources exploitation Environmental pollution Wastes
    30. 30. Types of Pollution  Soil pollution  Air pollution, consist of :  Smoke  Sulfur Dioxide  Nitrogen Oxide  Carbon Monoxide  Carbon Dioxide  Lead
    31. 31.  Water Pollution, consists of : 1. Water wastes 2. Inorganic poisonous
    32. 32. 3. Pesticide 4. Oils
    33. 33. Efforts in Environmental Conservation a) Environmental Conservation,      Conservation is an effort to protect, manage, and renew natural resources. The method are : Life source Conversation Soil Conservations Forest conservations Water Conservations Energy Conservations
    34. 34. b) Waste Recycling Is the reprocess of materials, which have been used to obtain new products. 1. Benefits of Waste Recycling     It reduces the needs of raw materials For energy used conversation For reducing the pollution It can save costs
    35. 35. 2. a) b) c) d) e) f) Recycling Process Reuse is to use again the wastes without changing its character. Recycle is to use again the wastes after being processed. The materials that can be recycled are : Glass Recycling Metal Recycling Plastic Recycling Paper Recycling Organic waste Recycling Water Recycling