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The light of unconditional love awakens the dormant seed potentials of the soul, helping
them ripen, blossom and bear fruit, allowing us to bring forth the unique gifts that are
ours to offer in this life.
John wehwood
2
3
Ch. Allaylay Devi
UHS14PGM426
Dept. of FSC
Seminar outline
4
Introduction
What is dormancy ??..
Mechanism of dormancy
Types of dormancy
Significance and its problems
Research reviews
Conclusion
Introduction
The seed, containing the embryo as the new plant in miniature,
is structurally and physiologically equipped to sustain the
growing seedling until it establish as new plant.
Some trait is acquired during evolution for capacity to survive
under unfavorable condition.
It’s a genetically inherited trait whose intensity is modified by
environment during seed development
One such trait is DORMANCY, an intrinsic block to
germination, exists.
5
Dormancy
“… A mechanism that prevents germination of a seed at an
inappropriate time” (Vivrette, Seed Technologist Training Manual, Chap.
9)
“… The absence of germination of an intact, viable seed under
germination favoring conditions within a specific time lapse”.
(Hilhorst,1995)
“… Seed dormancy is a block to the completion of germination
of an intact viable seed under favourable conditions”. (Hilhorst,
1995; Bewley, 1997; Li & Foley, 1997).
6
What is seed ???
7
Classes of Seed
Orthodox seed
Recalcitrant seed
Intermediate seed
8
Orthodox seeds
What is Orthodox seed
Seeds which can be dried down to a low Moisture Content
of around 5% to 10% and successfully stored at low or sub-
freezing temperatures for long periods.
Orthodox seeds are seeds which will survive drying and/or
freezing during ex-situ conservation.
Examples-
Guava, Sapota, Banana, Apple, Cherry, etc.
9
Recalcitrant seed
What is recalcitrant seed
Seeds which cannot survive drying below a relatively high
moisture content (30–50%) and which cannot be successfully
stored for long periods.
Recalcitrant seeds are seeds that do not survive drying and
freezing during ex-situ conservation.
Examples-
Jamun, Jackfruit, Mango, Litchi, Mangosteen,
Durian, Avocado, Citrus, Rambutan, etc.
10
Intermediate seeds
Which exhibit the drying tolerance characteristic of the
orthodox seeds but are sensitive to low temperature storage
like the recalcitrant seeds.
Examples-
Papaya, Macadamia nut
11
Mechanism of seed dormancy
There are three mechanism for imposing dormancy
1. Seed covering which restrict the water uptake, embryo
expansion, gas permeability, leaching of inhibitors .
2. Chemical inhibitors include growth regulator, etc.
3. Morphological aspects such as small and underdeveloped
embryos.
12
Baskin and Baskin, 2004
Factors affecting seed dormancy
1. Internal chemical inhibitors which may need to degrade or need to be
leached out.
2. Hard impermeable seed coats disallowing imbibition of H20.
3. Hydrophobic hairs or tissue covering seed.
4. Immature embryos needing an "after-ripening" period for internal
chemical changes.
5. Light or darkness requirements involving light intensity levels or
wavelengths, particularly in the red and far red wavelengths which
influence the chemistry of phytochrome molecules.
6. Oxygen content reaching the embryo. Many aquatic and wetland plants
germinate under water where 02 levels are low and may not germinate
when exposed to air.
13Baskin and Baskin, 2004
Types of dormancy
 Primary dormancy
Baskin and Baskin, 2004
14
1. Exogenous
i. Physical
ii. Mechanical
iii. Chemical
2. Endogenous
i. Morphological
a. Rudimentary
b. Linear
c. Undifferentiated
ii. Physiological
a. Non- deep
b. Intermediate
c. Deep
3. Intermediate
i. Morpho-
physiological
a. Epicotyl
b. Double dormancy
ii. Exo- endodormancy
 Secondary dormancy
1. Thermodormancy
2. Photodormancy
3. Skotodormancy
Classification and explaination of dormancy
 Primary dormancy
1. Exogenous dormancy
i. Physical dormancy
Seeds coats are impermeable in water due to macrosclereid
cells, mucilaginous outer cell layer or hardened endocarp.
Depth of the puncture to the seed coat increased, so did the
permeability of seed coat to water.
Eg: Olive, Peach, Plum, Apricot, Cherry etc. (hardened
endocarp), Walnut and Pecan nut (surrounding shell).
15
ii. Mechanical dormancy
Seed coats are too hard to allow the embryo to expand during
germination.
In nature coats are softened by environmental agents such as
acids in guts, microorganism in warm, moist, forest fire,
environment, etc.
To overcome horticultural – scarify with sandpaper, hot water,
acid, moist environment, fire and immature embryo.
Eg. Stones of olive, Pits of stone fruits, Shells of walnut.
16
iii. Chemical dormancy
Presence of chemical inhibitors in the outer covering of the
seeds and fruits.
In nature overcome by heavy rains, some soil inhibits the toxins
such as ammonia given off.
In horticultural leach with running water, change the water
daily, excising embyro, chilling for a few days, use of hormone
gibberellic acid .
Eg. Citrus, Grapes, Apple, etc.
17
2. Endogenous dormancy
i. Morphological dormancy – Embryo is not fully developed at
the time of ripening. Need additional embryo growth after the
seed is separated from the plant. Eg. Datepalm
a. Rudimentary – about pro-embryo stage. May be inhibitors
present .
b. Linear – at torpedo stage. Takes up about ½ of the seed
cavity. May be inhibitors present.
c. Undifferentiated – rare at fruit crops.
18
 To overcome horticultural :
Alternate warm and cool temperature.
Hormone such as GA3.
Exposure to cool temperature.
Some tropical spp. required extended period at high
temperature for full development of embryo. Eg. Date palm.
19
i. Non- deep
Short term and
disappear with
storage last up to
1-6 months
To overcome – dry
storage, pre-
chilling, light
alternating ,
KNO3 and GA3.
ii. Intermediate
The embryo itself
is quiescent, not
dormant and
germinate if
excised.
To overcome –
stratification and
GA3 treatment
response.
iii. Deep
Control are within the
embryo itself.
To overcome
stratification which
required temperature,
light, aeration,
moisture, time,
hormone interaction.
20
ii. Physiological dormancy
3. Combinition (Intermediate) dormancy
i. Epicotyl dormancy
Separate after ripening required for epicotyl, radicle and
hypocotyl.
Seeds initially germinate during warm period, produce root
and hypocotyl growth.
Require 1-3 months chilling to released epicotyl from
dormancy.
21
ii. Double dormancy
Combination of two or more types of dormancy is known as
double dormancy. It can be morpho-physiological or exo-
endodormancy.
Require chilling period for embryo, followed by warm period
for root, then followed by cold period for shoot growth.
22
 Secondary dormancy
Imposition of new dormancy mechanism under unfavourable
condition.
The critical point is that this dormancy occurs AFTER the seeds has
been separated from the plant. It is of three types:
i. Thermodormancy: high temperature induced dormancy.
ii. Photodormancy: prolonged exposure of seeds to an excess light
iii. Skotodormancy: required light for germination when they are imbibed
in dark for extended period of time.
To overcome this dormancy it requires chilling, light
or GA, etc.
23
Significance
Baskin and Baskin, 2004
 Permitting germination only when environmental conditions
favour seedling.
 Survival as in fruit plants of temperate region.
 Helpful in creation of a “seed bank”.
 Dormancy can also synchronize germination to a particular time
of the year.
 Seed disposal can be facilitated by specialized dormancy
conditions. For example modification of seed covering through
digestive tract of a bird or other animals.
…but, in horticulture ----- mostly a problem
It is a problem for plant establishment
 Deep dormancy is difficult to remove.
 May still be a problem in less domesticated genotypes.
 Also a problem for seed evaluation.
 Seeds will not germinate at correct time.
 Cost of storage is more.
 Additional cost in breaking dormancy.
Baskin and Baskin, 2004
26
Aim: To determine the water uptake pattern of
fresh and dry seed with or without scarification
and to relate this with the anatomical and
morphological features of testa and other
associated stuctures in selected banana
ecotypes.
African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (65), pp. 14373- 14379, 24 0ctober, 2011 ISSN 1684- 5315 © Academic Journals
Seed anatomy, moisture content and scarification
influence on imbibition in wild banana (Musa
acuminata colla) ecotypes
Adam. B. puteh, Elliah M. Aris, Uma R. Sinniah, Md. M. Rahman, Rosli
B. Mohamad and Nur. A.P. Abdullah
Department Of Crop Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
Department Of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh- 2202, Bangladesh.
Accepted 11 August, 2011
Table : 1 Seed moisture content (%) of freshly harvested and air
dried seeds of three wild banana ecotypes
27
Seed type Ecotypes
Krau White Serdang Red Serdang Yellow
Freshly harvested 58 ± 3 38 ± 3 47 ± 5
Air dried 24 ± 3 15 ± 2 21 ± 3
± indicates standard error of the means; seed moisture content (%): g H2O/100 g dry seed mass
Puteh et al., 2011
Table : 2 Fruit and seed morphological characteristic of three
wild banana (Musa acuminata) ecotypes
28
Morphological
character
Ecotypes
Krau White Serdang Red Serdang Yellow
Fruit length (cm) 9.28 ± 0.27 9.21 ± 0.26 7.68 ± 0.43
Fruit width (mm) 7.62 ± 0.21 7.08 ± 0.13 5.36 ± 0.11
No. of seed per fruit 55.20 ± 5.65 107.3 ± 3.90 28.6 ± 2.99
100 seed wt (g) 4.64 ± 0.02 3.68 ± 0.02 4.01 ± 0.05
Seed length (mm) 6.42 ± 0.17 2.16 ± 0.03 3.05 ± 0.19
Embryo length (mm) 1.10 ± 0.04 0.72 ± 0.16 0.92 ± 0.03
Testa thickness (mm) 0.24 ± 0.01 0.36 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.01
Hilum gap width (mm) 0.88 ± 0.05 0.70 ± 0.02 0.78 ± 0.05
± Indicates standard error of the means.
Puteh et al., 2011
Puteh et al., 2011
Figure : 1 SEM photomicrographs showing transverse sections of seed coat anatomy of
Krau White (A), Serdang Red (B) and Serdang Yellow (C) ecotypes.
AL: indicates aleurone layer; EN: indicates endosperm; ET: indicates endotesta;
MT: indicates mesotesta and TG: indicates tegmen.
A) Krau White B) Serdang Red C) Serdang Yellow
30
Figure : 2 SEM photomicrographs showing transverse sections of seed compounds of wild
banana ecotypes. Arrow indicates the water channel formation between TE and OP.
Scale bar = 100 micrometre for A,B,C and D and 200 micrometre for E and F.
EM; embryo
EN; endosperm
OP; operculum
TE; testa
Fresh seeds Dry seeds
Serdang Red
Serdang Yellow
Krau White
Puteh et al., 2011
Source df Increase in seed mass
Ecotype (E) 2 0.0035866***
Seed moisture content (SMC) 1 0.0094861***
Scarification (S) 1 0.0043513***
Imbibition interval (I) 9 0.0003606***
E × SMC 2 0.0004971***
E × S 2 0.0032021***
E × I 18 0.0000802***
SMC × S 1 0.0000032 ns
SMC × I 9 0.00005519***
S × I 9 0.0000109 ns
E × SMC × I 2 0.0000425***
E × S × I 18 0.0000316***
SMC × S × I 9 0.0000136 ns
E × SMC × S × I 36 0.0000144***
Error 240
*** significant at alpha 0.01 and non significant denoted as ns at alpha = 0.05
Table : 3 Mean squares from the analysis of variance of ecotypes, scarification, seed
moisture content and imbibition intervals on increase in seed mass
31
Puteh et al., 2011
32
Figure : 3 Increase of seed mass of cut and uncut fresh and air dried seeds of three
wild banana ecotypes during imbibition period
Puteh et al., 2011
Aim: To examined the suitable storage
temperature and seed moisture content for
maintaining the high germination and
viability rate of papaya seed cv. Sekaki
after three months storage.
33
Journal Of Sustainability Science and Management volume 8(1), June 2013: 87- 92 ISSN: 1823-8556© Penerbit UMT
Effect of storage temperature and seed moisture
contents on papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed viability
and germination
Zulhisyam A. K. , Chuah Tse Seng, Ahmad Anwar Ismail, N.N. Azwanida ,
Shazani, S. and Jamaludin, M. H.
Faculty Of Agro Based Industry, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Locked Bag No. 100, 17600,
Kelantan
Department Of Agrotechnology, Faculty Of Agrotechnology And Food Science, University Malaysia
Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu
C) Stored at 28⁰C
B) Stored at 4⁰CA) Stored at 0 ⁰C
Figure : 4 Changes in the percentage of germination
of papaya seeds with moisture contents at
6%, 8%, 10% stored at 0⁰C, 4⁰C and 28
⁰C
6%
8%
10%
34
Zulhisyam et al., 2013
Figure : 5 Changes in the percentage of
dormancy of papaya seeds with
moisture contents at 6%, 8%, 10%
stored at 0⁰C, 4⁰C and 28⁰C
A) Stored at 0⁰C B) Stored at 4⁰C
C) Stored at 28⁰C
6%
8%
10%
35
Zulhisyam et al., 2013
* Means with the same letter within the same column are not different at the 5% of significant level after
determined by Tukey test
Table : 4 Changes in the presence of germination, dormancy, death and mean time
germination (mtg) of papaya seeds with moisture contents at 6%, 8% and
10% stored at 0 ⁰C, 4 ⁰C and 28 ⁰C after three months storage.
36
Temperatu
re (⁰C)
Moisture
contents
(%)
Germination
(%)
Dormancy
(%)
Seed death
(%)
Mgt (Day)
0 6 54± 7a* 46± 7c 18± 7c 22.83± 0.47a
8 33± 7b 67± 7b 50± 8c 21.85± 0.59a
10 62± 11a 38± 11c 63± 4ab 21.96± 0.51a
4 6 36± 4b 64± 4b 41± 8cd 22.28± 0.74a
8 34± 1b 66± 1b 50± 7bc 21.69± 0.34a
10 5± 8c 95± 8a 57± 4abc 7.44± 12.89a
28 6 32± 9b 68± 9b 30± 6c 21.76± 0.77a
8 3± 5c 97± 5a 60± 3ab 6.98± 12.10a
10 0.00± 0.00d 100± 0a 69± 5a 0.00± 0.00b
Zulhisyam et al., 2013
EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON
SEED GERMINATION IN GUAVA
*M. Kalyani, S.G. Bharad, Polu, Parameshwar
Department of Horticulture , Dr. Panjabrao Desmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth
AkolAa – 444104, Maharashtra, India
International Journal on Biological Sciences, Vol. 5 (Issue II), pp. 81-91, 2014 ISSN No. 0976- 4518
Aim: To find out the effect of pre
sowing treatments like water
soaking, GA3, thiourea, hot water
and acid treatments on germination
percentage in guava cv. Sardar
37
Treatment Days required for
germination
Germination (%)
T1 = GA3 500 ppm 19.68 80.30 (63.65)
T2 = GA3 1000 ppm 19.20 83.79 (66.26)
T3 = Thiourea 2000 ppm 21.83 68.45 (55.82)
T4 = thiourea 4000 ppm 21.48 70.50 (57.10)
T5 = HCl 3 min. 23.54 66.47 (54.61)
T6 = HCl 5 min. 24.40 65.03 (53.75)
T7 = conc. H2SO4 3 min. 24.90 67.74 (55.39)
T8 = conc. H2SO4 5 min. 25.83 58.57 (49.93)
T9 = Hot water 25.33 67.52 (55.25)
T10 = Tap water 19.31 75.97 (60.65)
‘F’ test Sig. Sig.
SE (m) ± 0.17 1.27
CD at 5 % 0.52 3.76
Table : 5 Effect of different seed treatments on days required for
germination and germination percentage.
38Kalyani et al., 2014
Aim: To know the effect of Pre-
soaking of sapota cv. Kalipatti seeds
in growth regulators in seed
germination.
39
Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 14(4): (1030- 1036) 2001
Effect Of Growth Regulators On Seed Germination And
Seedlings Growth Of Sapota
Y. Pampanna and G.S. Sulikeri
Division of Horticulture
University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005
(Received: July, 2000)
Treatment Germination Percentage
Weeks after sowing
3 6 9 12
GA 200 ppm 16.00 (23.50) 31.00 (33.80) 50.00 (45.15) 56.00 (48.53)
GA 300 ppm 17.00 (24.19) 49.00 (44.57) 73.00 (58.70) 80.00 (63.49)
GA 400 ppm 22.00 (27.94) 43.00 (40.97) 60.00 (50.78) 68.00 (55.57)
Ethrel 200 ppm 7.00 (15.16) 19.00 (25.18) 33.00 (35.05) 50.00 (45.00)
Ethrel 300 ppm 5.00 (12.63) 18.00 (25.07) 29.00 (32.54) 46.00 (42.51)
Ethrel 400 ppm 8.00 (16.12) 18.00 (25.01) 33.00 (35.05) 46.00 (42.70)
GA 200 ppm + Ethrel 200 ppm 21.00 (27.25) 32.00 (34.43) 67.00 (49.11) 73.00 (59.36)
GA 300 ppm + Ethrel 300 ppm 19.00 (25.18) 35.00 (36.25) 58.00 (49.70) 72.00 (58.08)
GA 400 PPM + Ethrel 400 ppm 35.00 (36.25) 59.00 (50.20) 77.00 (62.05) 90.00 (72.04)
Control- water soaked 0.00 (0.57) 9.00 (17.99) 19.00 (25.81) 32.00 (33.20)
Control- unsoaked 0.00 (0.57) 4.00 (11.37) 13.00 (21.10) 26.00 (30.61)
S.E.M. ± (1.16) (0.94) (0.91) (1.23)
C.D. at 1% (4.47) (3.62) (3.53) (4.77)
Table : 6 Effect of growth regulators on seed germination of Sapota under Laboratory
condition
1. The value in paranthesis indicates arc- sin transformed value and the values without paranthesis indicates the original
value
2. Seed coat was cracked and then soaked in growth regulators/ water for 24 hrs as per the treatment.
40Pampanna and Sulikeri, 2001
Treatment Shoot length
of seedling
(cm)
Root length
of seedling
(cm)
No. of leaves
per seedlings
Seedling
vigour index
(SVI)
GA 200 ppm 9.35 5.12 5.50 809.68
GA 300 ppm 9.88 6.05 5.94 1274.15
GA 400 ppm 10.65 6.73 6.63 1182.54
Ethrel 200 ppm 8.80 4.33 4.19 657.90
Ethrel 300 ppm 8.58 4.39 4.56 629.45
Ethrel 400 ppm 8.70 4.73 4.38 617.67
GA 200 ppm + Ethrel 200 ppm 9.33 4.69 5.31 1036.84
GA 300 ppm + Ethrel 300 ppm 9.65 5.14 6.31 1064.41
GA 400 PPM + Ethrel 400 ppm 10.28 5.48 6.75 1416.30
Control- water soaked 6.35 3.79 3.06 304.08
Control- unsoaked 4.90 3.13 2.69 208.76
S.E.M. ± 0.16 0.17 0.19 30.37
C.D. at 1% 0.63 0.66 0.73 121.21
Table : 7 Effect of pre- soaking of sapota seeds in growth regulators on growth of seedlings
under laboratory conditions
41Pampanna and Sulikeri, 2001
Germination Capacity of Annonaceae Seeds (Annona
muricata L., A. squamosa L. and A. senegalensis Pers.)
Cultivated Under Axenic Conditions
Oumar BA, Maurice SAGNA, Mame Oureye SY
Aim: To evaluate the in vitro germination
capacity of Annonaceae seeds and to defined
the optimal conditions favourable to their
germination process
42
International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology (ISSN 2221- 8386) Volume 2 No. 6 June 2012
Scale Description Viability
1 Uniform red colour of the embryo
and radicle
Very high probability of
germination
2 Pale pink colour of the embryo and
radicle
High probability of
germination
3 Half of the cotyledon unstained Low probability of
germination
4 Radicle unstained or damaged No germination
5 No colour No germination
Table : 8 Colour scale of the different parts of the seed (Moore, 1985)
43
Oumar et al., 2012
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
44
Viability(%)
Group of Moore’s scale
Figure : 6 Distribution of Annona squamosa L. seed lots tested with TTC
(1%) according to the protocol Moore (1985)
Oumar et al., 2012
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
45
Group of Moore’s scale
Viability(%)
Figure : 7 Distribution of Annona muricata L. seed lots tested with TTC (1%)
according to the protocol Moore (1985)
Oumar et al., 2012
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5
46
Viability(%)
Group of Moore’s scale
Figure : 8 Distribution of Annona senegalensis L. seed lots tested with TTC
(1%) according to the protocol Moore (1985)
Oumar et al., 2012
Species
Annona squamosa
L.
Annona muricata L. Annona
senegalensis L.
Treatments Infection
(%)
Germination
(%)
Infection
(%)
Germination
(%)
Infection
(%)
Germination
(%)
Control seeds 100c 25a 100c 13a 100c 6a
Whole seeds 19b 29a 21b 21b 22b 16b
Shelled seeds 6a 73b 3a 60c 2a 60c
Table : 9 Infection and germination rates of disinfected or not and shelled or
not (control groups) of Annonaceae seeds after 30 days of culture
on sterile sand at 30 C
In column, for the same species and for the same parameter, values followed by the same letter are
not significant different according to the Newman Keuls test (P≤ 0.05)
47Oumar et al., 2012
Species Treatments Mean value of b CV (%)
A. muricata T1 3.25a 51.53
A. muricata T2 5.20a 52.36
A. muricata T3 15.34b 50.44
A. squamosa T1 4.97a 67.44
A. squamosa T2 7.47b 49.02
A. squamosa T3 33.12c 18.45
A. senegalensis T1 2.08a 30.28
A. senegalensis T2 5.05b 36.47
A. senegalensis T3 18.07a 38.15
Table : 10 “b” Parameter expressing the germination speed following
different disinfection and mechanical scarification treatments of
Annona seeds.
T1: None disinfected and unshelled seeds;
T2: Unshelled and disinfected seeds;
T3: Shelled and disinfected seeds;
CV: Coefficient of variation
48Oumar et al., 2012
Combinations of treatments Mean value of b
ASE T1 2.082a
AM T1 3.245ab
AS T1 4.96bc
ASE T2 5.052bc
AM T2 5.196bc
AS T2 7.465c
ASE T3 15.342d
AM T3 18.066e
AS T3 33.124f
Table : 11 Comparison of “b” value between disinfection and mechanical
scarification treatments applied to Annona species
ASE: Annona senegalensis;
AM: Annona muricata;
AS: Annona squamosa;
T1: None disinfected and unshelled seeds;
T2: Unshelled and disinfected seeds;
T3: Shelled and disinfected seeds; 49
Oumar et al., 2012
50
Table : 12 Infection and germination rates of scarified seeds or not with
sulfuric acid (95%) after 30 days of culture on sterile sand at 30 ⁰C
Species Annona squamosa L. Annona muricata L. Annona senegalensis Pers.
Treatments
(min)
Infection
(%)
Germination
(%)
Infection (%) Germination
(%)
Infection
(%)
Germination
(%)
T0 100h 9a 100g 2a 100h 1a
T5 94h 11a 93g 4a 90g 5a
T10 95h 11a 95g 9b 92g 7a
T15 87g 13a 93g 13b 82f 16b
T20 78f 15a 76f 15b 80f 15b
T25 78f 23b 60e 23c 74f 12b
T30 69e 25b 52d 22c 57e 16b
T35 52d 26b 33c 39d 52e 30c
T40 38c 48c 29c 35d 37d 33c
T45 18b 52c 16b 45e 19c 35c
T50 14b 69d 6a 59f 9b 59d
T55 3a 67d 1a 65f 1a 57d
T60 2a 70d 0a 65f 2a 58d
Oumar et al., 2012
51
Table : 13 Parameters expressing the germination speed following different pre-
treatment time with concentrated sulfuric acid (95%) of Annona seeds.
Treatments
(min)
Mean value of “b” Cv (%)
A. muricata A. squamosa A. senegalensis A. muricata A. squamosa A. senegalensis
T0 1.30a 2.64a 0.61a 29.28 38.06 33.26
T5 1.75a 2.94a 1.90a 37.10 43.70 28.19
T10 2.64ab 2.97a 2.24a 29.79 43.34 31.92
T15 4.42bc 4.42a 4.25b 32.95 29.79 41.37
T20 4.75c 4.75a 4.75b 26.80 32.95 32.95
T25 7.59d 8.14b 4.97b 28.19 26.80 35.54
T30 8.14d 8.59b 5.24b 40.25 27.74 16.89
T35 10.63e 8.84b 9.34c 31.06 30.26 35.43
T40 11.10e 13.59c 10.42c 39.24 38.48 27.88
T45 13.03f 14.38c 10.90c 25.85 42.42 32.68
T50 19.05g 18.52d 19.16d 28.28 43.70 28.58
T55 20.59g 21.03e 19.17d 33.82 34.10 30.18
T60 23.75h 24.13f 22.01e 24.23 25.45 23.04
Oumar et al., 2012
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
17 23 27 30 38 42
52
Temperature ⁰C
Germination(%)
Annona muricata
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Figure : 9 Effect of different thermal levels on germination rates of
Annonaceous seeds
Oumar et al., 2012
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Annona
squamosa
Annona muricata Annona
senegalensis
53
Darkness
Light
Alternating Light and
Dark
Germination(%)
Species
Figure : 10 Germination rates of Annonaceous seeds according to light
conditions after 30 days of culture at 30 ⁰C
Oumar et al., 2012
Objective: To know the effects of
temperature regime and acid
scarification on seed germination of
Spondias mombin
54
Studies On The Dormancy and Germination of Stony
Fruits of Hog Plum (Spondias Mombin) In Response
to Different Pre- soaking Seed Treatments
Fadima O.Y., Idown O.T.H. and Ipinlaye S.J.
Department Of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin- Ma Katsina State, NIGERIA
Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources And Agricultural Research, Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B.
2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NIGERIA
Received 24th December 2013, Revised 16th February 2014, Accepted 15th March 2014
International research journal of biological sciences vol. 3(6), 57-62, June (2014) ISSN 2278- 3202
Figure : 11 Ripe fruits of Spondias mombin plant before extraction of seed
55
Fadima et al., 2014
Period of soaking Hot water treatment
80 ⁰C 90 ⁰C 100 ⁰C Control
1 mins. 35a 20a 15c 0d
2 mins. 15a 10b 10b 0c
3 mins 5a 5a 1b 0c
Table : 14 Effect of hot water treatments on seed germination of S.
mombin at 22 days after sowing
Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different according to
DMRT at P < 0.05
56
Fadima et al., 2014
Figure : 12 Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected to hot
water treatments
57Fadima et al., 2014
Period of soaking Oven drying heat treatment
80 ⁰C 90 ⁰C 100 ⁰C Control
1 mins. 25a 20b 15c 0d
2 mins. 20a 8b 2c 0c
3 mins 5a 1b 1b 0c
Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different
according to DMRT at P < 0.05
Table : 15 Effect of oven drying heat treatments on seed germination
of S. mombin at 22 days after sowing
58
Fadima et al., 2014
Figure : 13 Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected oven
drying heat treatments
59Fadima et al., 2014
Period of soaking Pre- soaking treatment methods
60% H2SO4 60% HNO3 60% HCl Control
15 mins. 50a 30b 20c 0d
20 mins. 55a 35b 30c 0c
25 mins 60a 40b 30c 0c
Table : 16 Effect of acid pre-soaking treatments on seed germination
of S. mombin at 22 days after sowing
Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different
according to DMRT at P < 0.05
60
Fadima et al., 2014
Figure : 14 Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected to
acid pre-soaking treatments
61
15 20 25
Fadima et al., 2014
Aim: To evaluate different
treatments for improving purple
passion fruit seeds germination
and determine the mycorrhizal
dependency of this species on the
AMF (Glomus fasciculatum)
62
Germination and growth of purple passion fruit
seedlings under pre- germination treatments and
mycorrhizal inoculation
Joaquin Guillermo Ramiraz Gil, Melissa Munoz Agudelo, Laura Osorno
Bedoya, Nelson Walter Osorio, Juan Gonzalo Morales Osorio
ISSN 1983-4063- www.agro.ufg.br/pat – Pesq. Agropec. Trop., Goiania, V. 45, N.3, P. 257-265, Jul/Sep. 2015
Table : 17 Effect of pre-germination treatments on purple passion fruit seeds
(Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013)
Treatment Germination
(%)
AGT (days) AGS (days) Viability (%)
T0 72.0a 28.3a 1.2a 85.3a
T1 50.0b 14.2b 1.3a 55.8c
T2 71.0a 25.2a 1.3a 81.2a
T3 69.2a 27.9a 1.5a 86.9a
T4 68.2a 24.5a 1.5a 78.9ab
T5 66.2a 21.3ab 1.4a 84.3a
T6 67.9a 15.2b 1.6a 86.1a
T7 68.3a 16.3b 1.8b 75.3b
T8 67.9a 10.3c 2.8c 79.1ab
AGT: average germination time; AGS: average germination speed. Averages followed by different letters
indicate that they are significantly different, according to the Turkey test (P≤ 0.01)
T0: control; T1: 2mm cut of the apical and basal seed ends; T2: cold/ warm stratification (12 hrs at 4
⁰C and 12 hrs at 28 ⁰C; T3: light (12 hrs of darkness and 12 hrs of light, using blue LED lights and red LED lights;
T4: GA3 (400 mg/l); T5: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for I min.; T6: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 5 min.;
T7: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 10 min.; T8: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 20 min.
63Joaquin et al., 2015
64
Figure : 15 Visual appearance of the pre- germination treatments in the purple
passion fruit seeds at 25 days after treatment application
(Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013).
Jaoquin et al., 2015
Figure:16 Effect of inoculum with G. fasciculatum, under three levels of P in the soil solution, on the
biometric variables of purple passion fruit seedlings (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013).
Error bars represent the standard deviation indicate significant differences, according to the
Turkey test (p ≤ 0.01)
65
Stem diameter (mm) Height (cm)
Biomass (g)
Leaf area (cm2)
Joaquin et al., 2015
Figure : 17
Effect of seedling inoculation with G.
fasciculatum, together with three levels of P in the
soil solution, on the variables mycorrhizal
colonisation, mycorrhizzal dependency and foliar
P content (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013). Error
bars represent standard deviation. Different letters
indicate significantly different averages, according
to the Turkey test (p≤ 0.01)
66
Joaquin et al., 2015
Figure : 18 Purple passion fruit seedlings at 90 days after inoculation with
G. fasciculatum and three P levels in the soil solution (Medellin,
Colombia, 2012/2013)
67
Joaquin et al., 2015
68
AIM : To determine the effect of seed moisture contents and germination ability on
cryoconservation of tropical fruits from the Passiflora, Psidium and Carica
species
SEED CRYOCONSERVATION OF PASSION FRUIT,
PAPAYAAND
GUAVA GERMPLASM
*I. O. Obisesan1,3,4; Veiga, R. F. A.2,3; Barbosa, W.2,3; Meletti, L. M. M. 2; Lago, A. A.²;
Medina, P. F.2 and Razera, L. F.2
¹ Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
² Instituto Agronômico (IAC), CP 28, 13001-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil
3 Research Grant, CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development)
4 TWAS/UNESCO Visiting Associate
69
Table:18 Seeds moisture contents of seven fruit groups in different environments
before cryopreservation and % germination (bold) at 31 DSP of
cryopreserved seeds
Code for Groups:
P1=Passiflora edulis group yellow; P2=Passiflora edulis group purple
P3=Passiflora nítida group wild; P4=Psidium guaiava group white
P5=Psidium guaiava group red; C1=Carica papaya group mamaozinho and
C2=Carica papaya group formosa
Obisesan et al., 2015
70
Table : 19 Mean % germination of seeds of seven groups of tropical fruit trees
Obisesan et al., 2015
71
%Germination%Germination
%Germination
Group of fruits
Group of fruitsGroup of fruits
Figure : 19 Germination of cryoseeds (Incubator) Figure : 20 Germination of cryoseeds (Desiccator)
Figure : 21 Germination of cryoseeds (Ambient temperature)
Obisesan et al., 2015
72
Table : 20 Characteristic of ungerminated seeds of different groups at 31 DSP
Obisesan et al., 2015
73
Group of fruits
Group of fruits
Group of fruits
%Dormantseeds
%fungusinfectedseeds
%Deadseeds
Figure : 24 % Dormant seeds in fruit groups
Figure : 22 % Dead seeds in fruit groups Figure : 23 % fungus infected seeds
Obisesan et al., 2015
Conclusion
It is an important survival mechanism that favors propagation and
dissemination of seeds to establish plant populations.
It may favor germination and seedling emergence under more favourable
conditions.
Some level of dormancy is desirable to prevent sprouting before harvest to
maintain seed quality.
Seeds from the same genotype may also have different dormancy levels or
intensities depending on the environment under which the seed developed.
Seed dormancy should be removed to get good germination and several
methods are available to remove the dormancy.
74
75
Declining chilling and its impact on temperate
perennial crops
C.J. Atkinsona, R.M. Brennanb, H.G. Jonesc
Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich and East Malling Research, New Road, Kent ME19 6BJ,
UK b James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK c University of Dundee at James Hutton
Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK
Received 8 November 2012; Received in revised form 29 January 2013; Accepted 1 February 2013
Environmental and Experimental Botany 91 (2013) 48– 62
Aim: To outline why winter chill is
important biologically and
how it impacts on the
production of perennial fruit
crops
Comm
odity
Veget
ative
bud
break
Floral
bud
break
Bud
absci
ssion
Flower
absciss
ion
Flower
quality
Reprod
uctive
morpho
logy
Fruit
set
Vegeta
tive
growth
Crop
yield
Product
quality
Apple * * * * * * *
Pear * * *
Cherry * * * *
Plum *
Peach * * * * *
Nectari
ne
* *
Apricot
s
* *
strawb
erry
* * * * *
Table : A summary of the different aspects of perennial fruit crop growth,
development and production impacted by low winter chill.

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Seed dormancy in tropical fruit crops and measure to overcome it

  • 1. 1
  • 2. The light of unconditional love awakens the dormant seed potentials of the soul, helping them ripen, blossom and bear fruit, allowing us to bring forth the unique gifts that are ours to offer in this life. John wehwood 2
  • 4. Seminar outline 4 Introduction What is dormancy ??.. Mechanism of dormancy Types of dormancy Significance and its problems Research reviews Conclusion
  • 5. Introduction The seed, containing the embryo as the new plant in miniature, is structurally and physiologically equipped to sustain the growing seedling until it establish as new plant. Some trait is acquired during evolution for capacity to survive under unfavorable condition. It’s a genetically inherited trait whose intensity is modified by environment during seed development One such trait is DORMANCY, an intrinsic block to germination, exists. 5
  • 6. Dormancy “… A mechanism that prevents germination of a seed at an inappropriate time” (Vivrette, Seed Technologist Training Manual, Chap. 9) “… The absence of germination of an intact, viable seed under germination favoring conditions within a specific time lapse”. (Hilhorst,1995) “… Seed dormancy is a block to the completion of germination of an intact viable seed under favourable conditions”. (Hilhorst, 1995; Bewley, 1997; Li & Foley, 1997). 6
  • 7. What is seed ??? 7
  • 8. Classes of Seed Orthodox seed Recalcitrant seed Intermediate seed 8
  • 9. Orthodox seeds What is Orthodox seed Seeds which can be dried down to a low Moisture Content of around 5% to 10% and successfully stored at low or sub- freezing temperatures for long periods. Orthodox seeds are seeds which will survive drying and/or freezing during ex-situ conservation. Examples- Guava, Sapota, Banana, Apple, Cherry, etc. 9
  • 10. Recalcitrant seed What is recalcitrant seed Seeds which cannot survive drying below a relatively high moisture content (30–50%) and which cannot be successfully stored for long periods. Recalcitrant seeds are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation. Examples- Jamun, Jackfruit, Mango, Litchi, Mangosteen, Durian, Avocado, Citrus, Rambutan, etc. 10
  • 11. Intermediate seeds Which exhibit the drying tolerance characteristic of the orthodox seeds but are sensitive to low temperature storage like the recalcitrant seeds. Examples- Papaya, Macadamia nut 11
  • 12. Mechanism of seed dormancy There are three mechanism for imposing dormancy 1. Seed covering which restrict the water uptake, embryo expansion, gas permeability, leaching of inhibitors . 2. Chemical inhibitors include growth regulator, etc. 3. Morphological aspects such as small and underdeveloped embryos. 12 Baskin and Baskin, 2004
  • 13. Factors affecting seed dormancy 1. Internal chemical inhibitors which may need to degrade or need to be leached out. 2. Hard impermeable seed coats disallowing imbibition of H20. 3. Hydrophobic hairs or tissue covering seed. 4. Immature embryos needing an "after-ripening" period for internal chemical changes. 5. Light or darkness requirements involving light intensity levels or wavelengths, particularly in the red and far red wavelengths which influence the chemistry of phytochrome molecules. 6. Oxygen content reaching the embryo. Many aquatic and wetland plants germinate under water where 02 levels are low and may not germinate when exposed to air. 13Baskin and Baskin, 2004
  • 14. Types of dormancy  Primary dormancy Baskin and Baskin, 2004 14 1. Exogenous i. Physical ii. Mechanical iii. Chemical 2. Endogenous i. Morphological a. Rudimentary b. Linear c. Undifferentiated ii. Physiological a. Non- deep b. Intermediate c. Deep 3. Intermediate i. Morpho- physiological a. Epicotyl b. Double dormancy ii. Exo- endodormancy  Secondary dormancy 1. Thermodormancy 2. Photodormancy 3. Skotodormancy
  • 15. Classification and explaination of dormancy  Primary dormancy 1. Exogenous dormancy i. Physical dormancy Seeds coats are impermeable in water due to macrosclereid cells, mucilaginous outer cell layer or hardened endocarp. Depth of the puncture to the seed coat increased, so did the permeability of seed coat to water. Eg: Olive, Peach, Plum, Apricot, Cherry etc. (hardened endocarp), Walnut and Pecan nut (surrounding shell). 15
  • 16. ii. Mechanical dormancy Seed coats are too hard to allow the embryo to expand during germination. In nature coats are softened by environmental agents such as acids in guts, microorganism in warm, moist, forest fire, environment, etc. To overcome horticultural – scarify with sandpaper, hot water, acid, moist environment, fire and immature embryo. Eg. Stones of olive, Pits of stone fruits, Shells of walnut. 16
  • 17. iii. Chemical dormancy Presence of chemical inhibitors in the outer covering of the seeds and fruits. In nature overcome by heavy rains, some soil inhibits the toxins such as ammonia given off. In horticultural leach with running water, change the water daily, excising embyro, chilling for a few days, use of hormone gibberellic acid . Eg. Citrus, Grapes, Apple, etc. 17
  • 18. 2. Endogenous dormancy i. Morphological dormancy – Embryo is not fully developed at the time of ripening. Need additional embryo growth after the seed is separated from the plant. Eg. Datepalm a. Rudimentary – about pro-embryo stage. May be inhibitors present . b. Linear – at torpedo stage. Takes up about ½ of the seed cavity. May be inhibitors present. c. Undifferentiated – rare at fruit crops. 18
  • 19.  To overcome horticultural : Alternate warm and cool temperature. Hormone such as GA3. Exposure to cool temperature. Some tropical spp. required extended period at high temperature for full development of embryo. Eg. Date palm. 19
  • 20. i. Non- deep Short term and disappear with storage last up to 1-6 months To overcome – dry storage, pre- chilling, light alternating , KNO3 and GA3. ii. Intermediate The embryo itself is quiescent, not dormant and germinate if excised. To overcome – stratification and GA3 treatment response. iii. Deep Control are within the embryo itself. To overcome stratification which required temperature, light, aeration, moisture, time, hormone interaction. 20 ii. Physiological dormancy
  • 21. 3. Combinition (Intermediate) dormancy i. Epicotyl dormancy Separate after ripening required for epicotyl, radicle and hypocotyl. Seeds initially germinate during warm period, produce root and hypocotyl growth. Require 1-3 months chilling to released epicotyl from dormancy. 21
  • 22. ii. Double dormancy Combination of two or more types of dormancy is known as double dormancy. It can be morpho-physiological or exo- endodormancy. Require chilling period for embryo, followed by warm period for root, then followed by cold period for shoot growth. 22
  • 23.  Secondary dormancy Imposition of new dormancy mechanism under unfavourable condition. The critical point is that this dormancy occurs AFTER the seeds has been separated from the plant. It is of three types: i. Thermodormancy: high temperature induced dormancy. ii. Photodormancy: prolonged exposure of seeds to an excess light iii. Skotodormancy: required light for germination when they are imbibed in dark for extended period of time. To overcome this dormancy it requires chilling, light or GA, etc. 23
  • 24. Significance Baskin and Baskin, 2004  Permitting germination only when environmental conditions favour seedling.  Survival as in fruit plants of temperate region.  Helpful in creation of a “seed bank”.  Dormancy can also synchronize germination to a particular time of the year.  Seed disposal can be facilitated by specialized dormancy conditions. For example modification of seed covering through digestive tract of a bird or other animals.
  • 25. …but, in horticulture ----- mostly a problem It is a problem for plant establishment  Deep dormancy is difficult to remove.  May still be a problem in less domesticated genotypes.  Also a problem for seed evaluation.  Seeds will not germinate at correct time.  Cost of storage is more.  Additional cost in breaking dormancy. Baskin and Baskin, 2004
  • 26. 26 Aim: To determine the water uptake pattern of fresh and dry seed with or without scarification and to relate this with the anatomical and morphological features of testa and other associated stuctures in selected banana ecotypes. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10 (65), pp. 14373- 14379, 24 0ctober, 2011 ISSN 1684- 5315 © Academic Journals Seed anatomy, moisture content and scarification influence on imbibition in wild banana (Musa acuminata colla) ecotypes Adam. B. puteh, Elliah M. Aris, Uma R. Sinniah, Md. M. Rahman, Rosli B. Mohamad and Nur. A.P. Abdullah Department Of Crop Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Department Of Agronomy, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh- 2202, Bangladesh. Accepted 11 August, 2011
  • 27. Table : 1 Seed moisture content (%) of freshly harvested and air dried seeds of three wild banana ecotypes 27 Seed type Ecotypes Krau White Serdang Red Serdang Yellow Freshly harvested 58 ± 3 38 ± 3 47 ± 5 Air dried 24 ± 3 15 ± 2 21 ± 3 ± indicates standard error of the means; seed moisture content (%): g H2O/100 g dry seed mass Puteh et al., 2011
  • 28. Table : 2 Fruit and seed morphological characteristic of three wild banana (Musa acuminata) ecotypes 28 Morphological character Ecotypes Krau White Serdang Red Serdang Yellow Fruit length (cm) 9.28 ± 0.27 9.21 ± 0.26 7.68 ± 0.43 Fruit width (mm) 7.62 ± 0.21 7.08 ± 0.13 5.36 ± 0.11 No. of seed per fruit 55.20 ± 5.65 107.3 ± 3.90 28.6 ± 2.99 100 seed wt (g) 4.64 ± 0.02 3.68 ± 0.02 4.01 ± 0.05 Seed length (mm) 6.42 ± 0.17 2.16 ± 0.03 3.05 ± 0.19 Embryo length (mm) 1.10 ± 0.04 0.72 ± 0.16 0.92 ± 0.03 Testa thickness (mm) 0.24 ± 0.01 0.36 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.01 Hilum gap width (mm) 0.88 ± 0.05 0.70 ± 0.02 0.78 ± 0.05 ± Indicates standard error of the means. Puteh et al., 2011
  • 29. Puteh et al., 2011 Figure : 1 SEM photomicrographs showing transverse sections of seed coat anatomy of Krau White (A), Serdang Red (B) and Serdang Yellow (C) ecotypes. AL: indicates aleurone layer; EN: indicates endosperm; ET: indicates endotesta; MT: indicates mesotesta and TG: indicates tegmen. A) Krau White B) Serdang Red C) Serdang Yellow
  • 30. 30 Figure : 2 SEM photomicrographs showing transverse sections of seed compounds of wild banana ecotypes. Arrow indicates the water channel formation between TE and OP. Scale bar = 100 micrometre for A,B,C and D and 200 micrometre for E and F. EM; embryo EN; endosperm OP; operculum TE; testa Fresh seeds Dry seeds Serdang Red Serdang Yellow Krau White Puteh et al., 2011
  • 31. Source df Increase in seed mass Ecotype (E) 2 0.0035866*** Seed moisture content (SMC) 1 0.0094861*** Scarification (S) 1 0.0043513*** Imbibition interval (I) 9 0.0003606*** E × SMC 2 0.0004971*** E × S 2 0.0032021*** E × I 18 0.0000802*** SMC × S 1 0.0000032 ns SMC × I 9 0.00005519*** S × I 9 0.0000109 ns E × SMC × I 2 0.0000425*** E × S × I 18 0.0000316*** SMC × S × I 9 0.0000136 ns E × SMC × S × I 36 0.0000144*** Error 240 *** significant at alpha 0.01 and non significant denoted as ns at alpha = 0.05 Table : 3 Mean squares from the analysis of variance of ecotypes, scarification, seed moisture content and imbibition intervals on increase in seed mass 31 Puteh et al., 2011
  • 32. 32 Figure : 3 Increase of seed mass of cut and uncut fresh and air dried seeds of three wild banana ecotypes during imbibition period Puteh et al., 2011
  • 33. Aim: To examined the suitable storage temperature and seed moisture content for maintaining the high germination and viability rate of papaya seed cv. Sekaki after three months storage. 33 Journal Of Sustainability Science and Management volume 8(1), June 2013: 87- 92 ISSN: 1823-8556© Penerbit UMT Effect of storage temperature and seed moisture contents on papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed viability and germination Zulhisyam A. K. , Chuah Tse Seng, Ahmad Anwar Ismail, N.N. Azwanida , Shazani, S. and Jamaludin, M. H. Faculty Of Agro Based Industry, University Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Locked Bag No. 100, 17600, Kelantan Department Of Agrotechnology, Faculty Of Agrotechnology And Food Science, University Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu
  • 34. C) Stored at 28⁰C B) Stored at 4⁰CA) Stored at 0 ⁰C Figure : 4 Changes in the percentage of germination of papaya seeds with moisture contents at 6%, 8%, 10% stored at 0⁰C, 4⁰C and 28 ⁰C 6% 8% 10% 34 Zulhisyam et al., 2013
  • 35. Figure : 5 Changes in the percentage of dormancy of papaya seeds with moisture contents at 6%, 8%, 10% stored at 0⁰C, 4⁰C and 28⁰C A) Stored at 0⁰C B) Stored at 4⁰C C) Stored at 28⁰C 6% 8% 10% 35 Zulhisyam et al., 2013
  • 36. * Means with the same letter within the same column are not different at the 5% of significant level after determined by Tukey test Table : 4 Changes in the presence of germination, dormancy, death and mean time germination (mtg) of papaya seeds with moisture contents at 6%, 8% and 10% stored at 0 ⁰C, 4 ⁰C and 28 ⁰C after three months storage. 36 Temperatu re (⁰C) Moisture contents (%) Germination (%) Dormancy (%) Seed death (%) Mgt (Day) 0 6 54± 7a* 46± 7c 18± 7c 22.83± 0.47a 8 33± 7b 67± 7b 50± 8c 21.85± 0.59a 10 62± 11a 38± 11c 63± 4ab 21.96± 0.51a 4 6 36± 4b 64± 4b 41± 8cd 22.28± 0.74a 8 34± 1b 66± 1b 50± 7bc 21.69± 0.34a 10 5± 8c 95± 8a 57± 4abc 7.44± 12.89a 28 6 32± 9b 68± 9b 30± 6c 21.76± 0.77a 8 3± 5c 97± 5a 60± 3ab 6.98± 12.10a 10 0.00± 0.00d 100± 0a 69± 5a 0.00± 0.00b Zulhisyam et al., 2013
  • 37. EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON SEED GERMINATION IN GUAVA *M. Kalyani, S.G. Bharad, Polu, Parameshwar Department of Horticulture , Dr. Panjabrao Desmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth AkolAa – 444104, Maharashtra, India International Journal on Biological Sciences, Vol. 5 (Issue II), pp. 81-91, 2014 ISSN No. 0976- 4518 Aim: To find out the effect of pre sowing treatments like water soaking, GA3, thiourea, hot water and acid treatments on germination percentage in guava cv. Sardar 37
  • 38. Treatment Days required for germination Germination (%) T1 = GA3 500 ppm 19.68 80.30 (63.65) T2 = GA3 1000 ppm 19.20 83.79 (66.26) T3 = Thiourea 2000 ppm 21.83 68.45 (55.82) T4 = thiourea 4000 ppm 21.48 70.50 (57.10) T5 = HCl 3 min. 23.54 66.47 (54.61) T6 = HCl 5 min. 24.40 65.03 (53.75) T7 = conc. H2SO4 3 min. 24.90 67.74 (55.39) T8 = conc. H2SO4 5 min. 25.83 58.57 (49.93) T9 = Hot water 25.33 67.52 (55.25) T10 = Tap water 19.31 75.97 (60.65) ‘F’ test Sig. Sig. SE (m) ± 0.17 1.27 CD at 5 % 0.52 3.76 Table : 5 Effect of different seed treatments on days required for germination and germination percentage. 38Kalyani et al., 2014
  • 39. Aim: To know the effect of Pre- soaking of sapota cv. Kalipatti seeds in growth regulators in seed germination. 39 Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 14(4): (1030- 1036) 2001 Effect Of Growth Regulators On Seed Germination And Seedlings Growth Of Sapota Y. Pampanna and G.S. Sulikeri Division of Horticulture University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad- 580 005 (Received: July, 2000)
  • 40. Treatment Germination Percentage Weeks after sowing 3 6 9 12 GA 200 ppm 16.00 (23.50) 31.00 (33.80) 50.00 (45.15) 56.00 (48.53) GA 300 ppm 17.00 (24.19) 49.00 (44.57) 73.00 (58.70) 80.00 (63.49) GA 400 ppm 22.00 (27.94) 43.00 (40.97) 60.00 (50.78) 68.00 (55.57) Ethrel 200 ppm 7.00 (15.16) 19.00 (25.18) 33.00 (35.05) 50.00 (45.00) Ethrel 300 ppm 5.00 (12.63) 18.00 (25.07) 29.00 (32.54) 46.00 (42.51) Ethrel 400 ppm 8.00 (16.12) 18.00 (25.01) 33.00 (35.05) 46.00 (42.70) GA 200 ppm + Ethrel 200 ppm 21.00 (27.25) 32.00 (34.43) 67.00 (49.11) 73.00 (59.36) GA 300 ppm + Ethrel 300 ppm 19.00 (25.18) 35.00 (36.25) 58.00 (49.70) 72.00 (58.08) GA 400 PPM + Ethrel 400 ppm 35.00 (36.25) 59.00 (50.20) 77.00 (62.05) 90.00 (72.04) Control- water soaked 0.00 (0.57) 9.00 (17.99) 19.00 (25.81) 32.00 (33.20) Control- unsoaked 0.00 (0.57) 4.00 (11.37) 13.00 (21.10) 26.00 (30.61) S.E.M. ± (1.16) (0.94) (0.91) (1.23) C.D. at 1% (4.47) (3.62) (3.53) (4.77) Table : 6 Effect of growth regulators on seed germination of Sapota under Laboratory condition 1. The value in paranthesis indicates arc- sin transformed value and the values without paranthesis indicates the original value 2. Seed coat was cracked and then soaked in growth regulators/ water for 24 hrs as per the treatment. 40Pampanna and Sulikeri, 2001
  • 41. Treatment Shoot length of seedling (cm) Root length of seedling (cm) No. of leaves per seedlings Seedling vigour index (SVI) GA 200 ppm 9.35 5.12 5.50 809.68 GA 300 ppm 9.88 6.05 5.94 1274.15 GA 400 ppm 10.65 6.73 6.63 1182.54 Ethrel 200 ppm 8.80 4.33 4.19 657.90 Ethrel 300 ppm 8.58 4.39 4.56 629.45 Ethrel 400 ppm 8.70 4.73 4.38 617.67 GA 200 ppm + Ethrel 200 ppm 9.33 4.69 5.31 1036.84 GA 300 ppm + Ethrel 300 ppm 9.65 5.14 6.31 1064.41 GA 400 PPM + Ethrel 400 ppm 10.28 5.48 6.75 1416.30 Control- water soaked 6.35 3.79 3.06 304.08 Control- unsoaked 4.90 3.13 2.69 208.76 S.E.M. ± 0.16 0.17 0.19 30.37 C.D. at 1% 0.63 0.66 0.73 121.21 Table : 7 Effect of pre- soaking of sapota seeds in growth regulators on growth of seedlings under laboratory conditions 41Pampanna and Sulikeri, 2001
  • 42. Germination Capacity of Annonaceae Seeds (Annona muricata L., A. squamosa L. and A. senegalensis Pers.) Cultivated Under Axenic Conditions Oumar BA, Maurice SAGNA, Mame Oureye SY Aim: To evaluate the in vitro germination capacity of Annonaceae seeds and to defined the optimal conditions favourable to their germination process 42 International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology (ISSN 2221- 8386) Volume 2 No. 6 June 2012
  • 43. Scale Description Viability 1 Uniform red colour of the embryo and radicle Very high probability of germination 2 Pale pink colour of the embryo and radicle High probability of germination 3 Half of the cotyledon unstained Low probability of germination 4 Radicle unstained or damaged No germination 5 No colour No germination Table : 8 Colour scale of the different parts of the seed (Moore, 1985) 43 Oumar et al., 2012
  • 44. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5 44 Viability(%) Group of Moore’s scale Figure : 6 Distribution of Annona squamosa L. seed lots tested with TTC (1%) according to the protocol Moore (1985) Oumar et al., 2012
  • 45. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5 45 Group of Moore’s scale Viability(%) Figure : 7 Distribution of Annona muricata L. seed lots tested with TTC (1%) according to the protocol Moore (1985) Oumar et al., 2012
  • 46. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5 46 Viability(%) Group of Moore’s scale Figure : 8 Distribution of Annona senegalensis L. seed lots tested with TTC (1%) according to the protocol Moore (1985) Oumar et al., 2012
  • 47. Species Annona squamosa L. Annona muricata L. Annona senegalensis L. Treatments Infection (%) Germination (%) Infection (%) Germination (%) Infection (%) Germination (%) Control seeds 100c 25a 100c 13a 100c 6a Whole seeds 19b 29a 21b 21b 22b 16b Shelled seeds 6a 73b 3a 60c 2a 60c Table : 9 Infection and germination rates of disinfected or not and shelled or not (control groups) of Annonaceae seeds after 30 days of culture on sterile sand at 30 C In column, for the same species and for the same parameter, values followed by the same letter are not significant different according to the Newman Keuls test (P≤ 0.05) 47Oumar et al., 2012
  • 48. Species Treatments Mean value of b CV (%) A. muricata T1 3.25a 51.53 A. muricata T2 5.20a 52.36 A. muricata T3 15.34b 50.44 A. squamosa T1 4.97a 67.44 A. squamosa T2 7.47b 49.02 A. squamosa T3 33.12c 18.45 A. senegalensis T1 2.08a 30.28 A. senegalensis T2 5.05b 36.47 A. senegalensis T3 18.07a 38.15 Table : 10 “b” Parameter expressing the germination speed following different disinfection and mechanical scarification treatments of Annona seeds. T1: None disinfected and unshelled seeds; T2: Unshelled and disinfected seeds; T3: Shelled and disinfected seeds; CV: Coefficient of variation 48Oumar et al., 2012
  • 49. Combinations of treatments Mean value of b ASE T1 2.082a AM T1 3.245ab AS T1 4.96bc ASE T2 5.052bc AM T2 5.196bc AS T2 7.465c ASE T3 15.342d AM T3 18.066e AS T3 33.124f Table : 11 Comparison of “b” value between disinfection and mechanical scarification treatments applied to Annona species ASE: Annona senegalensis; AM: Annona muricata; AS: Annona squamosa; T1: None disinfected and unshelled seeds; T2: Unshelled and disinfected seeds; T3: Shelled and disinfected seeds; 49 Oumar et al., 2012
  • 50. 50 Table : 12 Infection and germination rates of scarified seeds or not with sulfuric acid (95%) after 30 days of culture on sterile sand at 30 ⁰C Species Annona squamosa L. Annona muricata L. Annona senegalensis Pers. Treatments (min) Infection (%) Germination (%) Infection (%) Germination (%) Infection (%) Germination (%) T0 100h 9a 100g 2a 100h 1a T5 94h 11a 93g 4a 90g 5a T10 95h 11a 95g 9b 92g 7a T15 87g 13a 93g 13b 82f 16b T20 78f 15a 76f 15b 80f 15b T25 78f 23b 60e 23c 74f 12b T30 69e 25b 52d 22c 57e 16b T35 52d 26b 33c 39d 52e 30c T40 38c 48c 29c 35d 37d 33c T45 18b 52c 16b 45e 19c 35c T50 14b 69d 6a 59f 9b 59d T55 3a 67d 1a 65f 1a 57d T60 2a 70d 0a 65f 2a 58d Oumar et al., 2012
  • 51. 51 Table : 13 Parameters expressing the germination speed following different pre- treatment time with concentrated sulfuric acid (95%) of Annona seeds. Treatments (min) Mean value of “b” Cv (%) A. muricata A. squamosa A. senegalensis A. muricata A. squamosa A. senegalensis T0 1.30a 2.64a 0.61a 29.28 38.06 33.26 T5 1.75a 2.94a 1.90a 37.10 43.70 28.19 T10 2.64ab 2.97a 2.24a 29.79 43.34 31.92 T15 4.42bc 4.42a 4.25b 32.95 29.79 41.37 T20 4.75c 4.75a 4.75b 26.80 32.95 32.95 T25 7.59d 8.14b 4.97b 28.19 26.80 35.54 T30 8.14d 8.59b 5.24b 40.25 27.74 16.89 T35 10.63e 8.84b 9.34c 31.06 30.26 35.43 T40 11.10e 13.59c 10.42c 39.24 38.48 27.88 T45 13.03f 14.38c 10.90c 25.85 42.42 32.68 T50 19.05g 18.52d 19.16d 28.28 43.70 28.58 T55 20.59g 21.03e 19.17d 33.82 34.10 30.18 T60 23.75h 24.13f 22.01e 24.23 25.45 23.04 Oumar et al., 2012
  • 52. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 17 23 27 30 38 42 52 Temperature ⁰C Germination(%) Annona muricata Annona senegalensis Annona squamosa Figure : 9 Effect of different thermal levels on germination rates of Annonaceous seeds Oumar et al., 2012
  • 53. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Annona squamosa Annona muricata Annona senegalensis 53 Darkness Light Alternating Light and Dark Germination(%) Species Figure : 10 Germination rates of Annonaceous seeds according to light conditions after 30 days of culture at 30 ⁰C Oumar et al., 2012
  • 54. Objective: To know the effects of temperature regime and acid scarification on seed germination of Spondias mombin 54 Studies On The Dormancy and Germination of Stony Fruits of Hog Plum (Spondias Mombin) In Response to Different Pre- soaking Seed Treatments Fadima O.Y., Idown O.T.H. and Ipinlaye S.J. Department Of Biological Sciences, Federal University Dutsin- Ma Katsina State, NIGERIA Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources And Agricultural Research, Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta, P.M.B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, NIGERIA Received 24th December 2013, Revised 16th February 2014, Accepted 15th March 2014 International research journal of biological sciences vol. 3(6), 57-62, June (2014) ISSN 2278- 3202
  • 55. Figure : 11 Ripe fruits of Spondias mombin plant before extraction of seed 55 Fadima et al., 2014
  • 56. Period of soaking Hot water treatment 80 ⁰C 90 ⁰C 100 ⁰C Control 1 mins. 35a 20a 15c 0d 2 mins. 15a 10b 10b 0c 3 mins 5a 5a 1b 0c Table : 14 Effect of hot water treatments on seed germination of S. mombin at 22 days after sowing Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different according to DMRT at P < 0.05 56 Fadima et al., 2014
  • 57. Figure : 12 Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected to hot water treatments 57Fadima et al., 2014
  • 58. Period of soaking Oven drying heat treatment 80 ⁰C 90 ⁰C 100 ⁰C Control 1 mins. 25a 20b 15c 0d 2 mins. 20a 8b 2c 0c 3 mins 5a 1b 1b 0c Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different according to DMRT at P < 0.05 Table : 15 Effect of oven drying heat treatments on seed germination of S. mombin at 22 days after sowing 58 Fadima et al., 2014
  • 59. Figure : 13 Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected oven drying heat treatments 59Fadima et al., 2014
  • 60. Period of soaking Pre- soaking treatment methods 60% H2SO4 60% HNO3 60% HCl Control 15 mins. 50a 30b 20c 0d 20 mins. 55a 35b 30c 0c 25 mins 60a 40b 30c 0c Table : 16 Effect of acid pre-soaking treatments on seed germination of S. mombin at 22 days after sowing Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different according to DMRT at P < 0.05 60 Fadima et al., 2014
  • 61. Figure : 14 Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected to acid pre-soaking treatments 61 15 20 25 Fadima et al., 2014
  • 62. Aim: To evaluate different treatments for improving purple passion fruit seeds germination and determine the mycorrhizal dependency of this species on the AMF (Glomus fasciculatum) 62 Germination and growth of purple passion fruit seedlings under pre- germination treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation Joaquin Guillermo Ramiraz Gil, Melissa Munoz Agudelo, Laura Osorno Bedoya, Nelson Walter Osorio, Juan Gonzalo Morales Osorio ISSN 1983-4063- www.agro.ufg.br/pat – Pesq. Agropec. Trop., Goiania, V. 45, N.3, P. 257-265, Jul/Sep. 2015
  • 63. Table : 17 Effect of pre-germination treatments on purple passion fruit seeds (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013) Treatment Germination (%) AGT (days) AGS (days) Viability (%) T0 72.0a 28.3a 1.2a 85.3a T1 50.0b 14.2b 1.3a 55.8c T2 71.0a 25.2a 1.3a 81.2a T3 69.2a 27.9a 1.5a 86.9a T4 68.2a 24.5a 1.5a 78.9ab T5 66.2a 21.3ab 1.4a 84.3a T6 67.9a 15.2b 1.6a 86.1a T7 68.3a 16.3b 1.8b 75.3b T8 67.9a 10.3c 2.8c 79.1ab AGT: average germination time; AGS: average germination speed. Averages followed by different letters indicate that they are significantly different, according to the Turkey test (P≤ 0.01) T0: control; T1: 2mm cut of the apical and basal seed ends; T2: cold/ warm stratification (12 hrs at 4 ⁰C and 12 hrs at 28 ⁰C; T3: light (12 hrs of darkness and 12 hrs of light, using blue LED lights and red LED lights; T4: GA3 (400 mg/l); T5: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for I min.; T6: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 5 min.; T7: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 10 min.; T8: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 20 min. 63Joaquin et al., 2015
  • 64. 64 Figure : 15 Visual appearance of the pre- germination treatments in the purple passion fruit seeds at 25 days after treatment application (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013). Jaoquin et al., 2015
  • 65. Figure:16 Effect of inoculum with G. fasciculatum, under three levels of P in the soil solution, on the biometric variables of purple passion fruit seedlings (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013). Error bars represent the standard deviation indicate significant differences, according to the Turkey test (p ≤ 0.01) 65 Stem diameter (mm) Height (cm) Biomass (g) Leaf area (cm2) Joaquin et al., 2015
  • 66. Figure : 17 Effect of seedling inoculation with G. fasciculatum, together with three levels of P in the soil solution, on the variables mycorrhizal colonisation, mycorrhizzal dependency and foliar P content (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013). Error bars represent standard deviation. Different letters indicate significantly different averages, according to the Turkey test (p≤ 0.01) 66 Joaquin et al., 2015
  • 67. Figure : 18 Purple passion fruit seedlings at 90 days after inoculation with G. fasciculatum and three P levels in the soil solution (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013) 67 Joaquin et al., 2015
  • 68. 68 AIM : To determine the effect of seed moisture contents and germination ability on cryoconservation of tropical fruits from the Passiflora, Psidium and Carica species SEED CRYOCONSERVATION OF PASSION FRUIT, PAPAYAAND GUAVA GERMPLASM *I. O. Obisesan1,3,4; Veiga, R. F. A.2,3; Barbosa, W.2,3; Meletti, L. M. M. 2; Lago, A. A.²; Medina, P. F.2 and Razera, L. F.2 ¹ Department of Crop Production and Protection, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria ² Instituto Agronômico (IAC), CP 28, 13001-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil 3 Research Grant, CNPq (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development) 4 TWAS/UNESCO Visiting Associate
  • 69. 69 Table:18 Seeds moisture contents of seven fruit groups in different environments before cryopreservation and % germination (bold) at 31 DSP of cryopreserved seeds Code for Groups: P1=Passiflora edulis group yellow; P2=Passiflora edulis group purple P3=Passiflora nítida group wild; P4=Psidium guaiava group white P5=Psidium guaiava group red; C1=Carica papaya group mamaozinho and C2=Carica papaya group formosa Obisesan et al., 2015
  • 70. 70 Table : 19 Mean % germination of seeds of seven groups of tropical fruit trees Obisesan et al., 2015
  • 71. 71 %Germination%Germination %Germination Group of fruits Group of fruitsGroup of fruits Figure : 19 Germination of cryoseeds (Incubator) Figure : 20 Germination of cryoseeds (Desiccator) Figure : 21 Germination of cryoseeds (Ambient temperature) Obisesan et al., 2015
  • 72. 72 Table : 20 Characteristic of ungerminated seeds of different groups at 31 DSP Obisesan et al., 2015
  • 73. 73 Group of fruits Group of fruits Group of fruits %Dormantseeds %fungusinfectedseeds %Deadseeds Figure : 24 % Dormant seeds in fruit groups Figure : 22 % Dead seeds in fruit groups Figure : 23 % fungus infected seeds Obisesan et al., 2015
  • 74. Conclusion It is an important survival mechanism that favors propagation and dissemination of seeds to establish plant populations. It may favor germination and seedling emergence under more favourable conditions. Some level of dormancy is desirable to prevent sprouting before harvest to maintain seed quality. Seeds from the same genotype may also have different dormancy levels or intensities depending on the environment under which the seed developed. Seed dormancy should be removed to get good germination and several methods are available to remove the dormancy. 74
  • 75. 75
  • 76. Declining chilling and its impact on temperate perennial crops C.J. Atkinsona, R.M. Brennanb, H.G. Jonesc Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich and East Malling Research, New Road, Kent ME19 6BJ, UK b James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK c University of Dundee at James Hutton Institute, Invergowrie, Dundee DD2 5DA, UK Received 8 November 2012; Received in revised form 29 January 2013; Accepted 1 February 2013 Environmental and Experimental Botany 91 (2013) 48– 62 Aim: To outline why winter chill is important biologically and how it impacts on the production of perennial fruit crops
  • 77. Comm odity Veget ative bud break Floral bud break Bud absci ssion Flower absciss ion Flower quality Reprod uctive morpho logy Fruit set Vegeta tive growth Crop yield Product quality Apple * * * * * * * Pear * * * Cherry * * * * Plum * Peach * * * * * Nectari ne * * Apricot s * * strawb erry * * * * * Table : A summary of the different aspects of perennial fruit crop growth, development and production impacted by low winter chill.

Editor's Notes

  1. Welcome
  2. Secondary dormancy i. Thermodormancy ii. Conditional dormancy
  3. Physiological
  4. Secondary dormancy
  5. Seed anatomy, moisture content and scarification influence on imbibition in wild banana (Musa acuminata colla) ecotypes
  6. Puteh et al., 2011
  7. ± Indicates standard error of the mean
  8. Figure 1: SEM photomicrographs showing transverse sections of seed coat anatomy of Krau White (A), Serdang Red (B) and Serdang Yellow (C) ecotypes. AL indicates aleurone layer, EN indicates endotesta, MT indicates mesotesta and TG indicates tegmen.
  9. Serdang Red
  10. Table 3: mean squares from the analysis of variance of ecotypes, scarification, seed moisture content and imbibition intervals on increase in seed mass *** significant at alpha 0.01 and non significant denoted as ns at alpha = 0.05
  11. Figure 3: Increase of seed mass of cut and uncut fresh and air dried seeds of three wild banana ecotypes during imbibition period
  12. Effect of storage temperature and seed moisture contents on papaya (Carica papaya L.) seed viability and germination Zulhisyam et al., 2013
  13. 8% 10%
  14. Table: Changes in the presence of germination, dormancy, death and mean time germination (mtg) of papaya seeds with moisture contents at 6%, 8% and 10% stored at 0 ⁰C, 4 ⁰C and 28 ⁰C after three months storage.
  15. Kalyani et al., 2014
  16. Table 4: effect of different seed treatments on days required for germination and germination percentage.
  17. Pampanna and Sulikeri, 2001
  18. The value in paranthesis indicates arc- sin transformed value and the values without paranthesis indicates the original value
  19. Table: effect of growth regulators on earliness in sapota seed germination under laboratory conditions
  20. Oumar et al., 2012
  21. Table : Colour scale of the different parts of the seed (Moore, 1985)
  22. Figure : Distribution of Annona squamosa L. seed lots tested with TTC (1%) according to the protocol Moore (1985)
  23. In column for the same species and for the same parameter, values followed by the same letter are not significant different according to the Newman Keuls test (P<= 0.05)
  24. T1: None disinfected and unshelled seeds; T2: Unshelled and disinfected seeds; T3: Shelled and disinfected seeds; CV: Coefficient of variation
  25. ASE: Annona senegalensis; AM: Annona muricata; AS: Annona squamosa;
  26. Table : infection and germination rates of scarified seeds or not with H2S04 (95%) after 30 days of culture on sterile sand at 30 ⁰C
  27. Table : parameters expressing the germination speed following different pre- treatment time with concentrated sulfuric acid (95%) of Annona seeds.
  28. Figure : Effect of different thermal level s on germination rates of Annonaceous seeds
  29. Germination rates of Annonaceous seeds according to light conditions after 30 days of culture at 30 ⁰C
  30. Fadima et al., 2014
  31. Figure : Ripe fruits of Spondias mombin plant before extraction of seed
  32. Mean in the same row followed by the different letters are significantly different according to DMRT at P < 0.05
  33. Percentage germination of S. mombin seeds subjected to hot water treatments
  34. Jaolin et al., 2015
  35. T0: control; T1: 2mm cut of the apical and basal seed ends; T2: cold/ warm stratification (12 hrs at 4 C and 12 hrs at 28 C; T3: light (12 hrs of darkness and 12 hrs of light, using blue LED lights and red LED lights; T4: GA3 (400 mg/l); T5: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for I min.; T6: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 5 min.; T7: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 10 min.; T8: H2SO4 (96% v/v) for 20 min.
  36. Figure: visual appearance of the pre- germination treatments in the purple passion fruit seeds at 25 days after treatment application (Medellin, Colombia, 2012/2013).
  37. Obisesan et al., 2015
  38. Seeds moisture contents of seven fruit groups in different environments before cryopreservation and % germination (bold) at 31 DSP of cryopreserved seeds
  39. Mean % germination of seeds of seven groups of tropical fruit trees
  40. % Germination Group of fruits Germination of cryoseeds (Incubator)
  41. Aim: To outline why winter chill is important biologically and how it impacts on the production of perennial fruit crops
  42. A summary of the different aspects of perennial fruit crop growth, development and production impacted by low winter chill.