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Food Sanitation Chapter 9 Food services

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Food Sanitation Chapter 9 Food services

  1. 1. CHAPTER 9
  2. 2.  TRACE THE HISTORY OF THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRY.  ENUMERATE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESTAURANTS.  EXPLAIN THE IMPORTANCE OF FRANCHISING TO THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY.  DISCUSS RESTAURANT PROFITABILITY AND CALCULATE FOOD COST PERCENTAGE, GROSS PROFIT AND AVERAGE GUEST CHECK.  CALCULATE THE RESTAURANT’S BREAK-EVEN POINT.  EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF THE MENU IN A RESTAURANT’S SUCCESS
  3. 3.  DIFFERENTIATE AIRLINE CATERING FROM RESTAURANT CATERING  DESCRIBE RESTAURANT PROMOTION
  4. 4. Early History Certain groups of people cooked together in big groups and that the inns provided a crude menu. Roman Era There were some establishments which offered sausage or roast meat, bread and a cup of wine. After the fall of the Roman Empire The manors and castle’s provided food to large numbers of people. In 1200’s Public cook shops were open in London which offered precooked take-out food. The Royal Families of Europe Introduced cutlery, table linen, crystal glasses, new foods such asTurkey and potato, and road side tavern.
  5. 5. 16th Century British inns and taverns began to serve one meal a day at a fixed time and price and at a common table. The meal was known as ORDINARY and the dinning rooms were called ORDINARIES. the most famous ordinary in London was the castle and Lloyd's which was meeting place for merchants and ship owners 17th Century The Ordinaries became fashionable Clubs and Gambling places as well as centers for political activities. 19th century the word RESTAURANTS was used in Paris for dining room serving dishes. 1834 The famous Delmonico's was opened in NewYork. Early 19th’s Several events were significant to the food industry occurred.
  6. 6. 1904 First hamburger was served, at the St.LouiseWorld’s Fair. Roy Allen & Frank Wright Founded the first stand of root beer Second WorldWar Brought many changes to the American Public. 1960’s Fast food establishments merged. At present Modern popular cuisine including French, Chinese, Mexican and Japanese have become common inmost cities. The role of food plays in tourism may not a Direct an Indirect attraction.
  7. 7.  FAMILY OR COMMERCIAL RESTAURANTS FAMILY-STYLE OR COMMERCIAL RESTAURANTS, OFFER A WIDE MENU OF “MEAT AND POTATO” SELECTIONS WITH A PRICE RANGETHAT APPEALSTO AN AVERAGE FAMILY INCOME.  COFFEE SHOPS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY: FAST FOOD SERVICE . CAFETERIAS ARE USSUALLY LOCATED IN A SHOPPING CENTERS, OFFICE BUILDINGS.
  8. 8.  GOURMENT RESTAURANTS GENERALLY REQUIRE A HIGHER INITIAL INVESTMENT THAN OTHERTYPES OF RESTAURANTS, BECAUSETHEY REQUIRE AN EXPENSIVE AMBENCE AND DÉCOR.  ETHNIC RESTAURANTS FEATURETHE FOOD OF SPECIFIC REGION OR COUNTRY.  FAST-FOOD RESTAURANTS HAVE INCREASED INTHE PAST 20YEARS AS PEOPLE HAVE BECOME MORE MOBILE.
  9. 9.  DELI-SHOPS PROVIDE DELICATESSEN FOOD SERVICE, COMBINING TRADITIONAL DELICATESSEN COLD MEATS AND CHEESESWITHTAKE-OUT SANDWICHES, SALADS AND SIMILAR ITEMS.  BUFFET RESTAURANTS ESTABLISHED ON A COMPLETELY SELF-SERVED BASIS.  TRANSPORTATION RESTAURANTS THERE IS NATURAL LINK BETWEENTRANSPORTATION AND FOOD SERVICE.
  10. 10.  ARE MAJOR COMPONENT OFTHE FOOD SRVICE INDUSTRY, PARTICULARLY IN FAST FOOD SECTOR.  FRANCHISE ARE BENEFICIAL TOTHE FRANCHISEES BECAUSETHEY PROVIED OPERATIONAL, TRAINING, LAYOUT AND DESIGN ASSISTANCE, LOCATION ASSISTANCE, MANAGERIAL EXPERTISE, GROUP PURCHASING POWER, AND MOST IMPORTANTLY, THE IDENTIFICATION OF A WELL KNOWN BRAND SUPPORTED BY REGIONAL, NATIONAL, AND INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION.
  11. 11.  FRANCHISED RESTAURANTS CAN EASILY GET FINANCING FROM LENDING INSTITUTIONSTHAN INDEPENDENTS.
  12. 12.  FOOD COST PERCENTAGE FOOD COST PERCENTAGE IS OFTENTO USE TO MEASURE A RESTAURANTS MARKETING SUCCESS. FORMULA: DIVIDE, FOOD COST FOR A PERIOD (A DAY, A WEEK , A MONTH) BY SALES FORTHE SAME PERIODTHEN MULTIPLY IT BY 100 .
  13. 13. IFTHE COST OF FOOD FOR 1MONTH IS $40,000 AND SALES IS $100,000THE FOOD COST WOULD BE: $40,000 $100,000 IS EQUALTO =0.4 0.4 x 100= 40%
  14. 14. ITEM COST PRICE SELLING PRICE COST PERCENTAGE GROSS PROFIT 1 2 $4.00 $1.00 $8.00 $4.00 50 25% $4.00 $3.00 INTHIS ILLUSTRATIN, ITWOULD BE BETTERTO SELL ITEM 1 RATHERTHAN ITEM 2 SINCE ITEM 1 HASA HIGHER COST PERCENTAGE,A HIGHER GROSS PROFIT AND HENCE, A CONTRIBUTIONTO NET PROFITTHAN ITEM 2. FOR EACH OF ITEM 1 SOLD 50 PERCENT FOOD COST,THERE IS A $4.00 GROSS PROFIT COMPAREDWITH $3.00WITH ITEM 2.
  15. 15.  LABOR COSTS ARE CONTROLLED BY EXPRESSINGTHEM AS A PERCENTAGE OF SALES ON A DAILY, WEEKLY OR MONTHLY BASIS ANG COMPARINGTHE ACTUAL COST WITHTHE STANDARD DESIRED.  INSTEAD PFTREATING LABOR COSTS AS SEPARATE FROM FOOD COSTS, MANY SUCCESSFUL RESTAURANT LOOK AT THESETWO AS A COMBINED COST. FOR INSTANCE,THEY SET A STANDARD OF 75 PERCENT ABOVE IN WHICH FOOD COST PLUS LABOR COSTS MUST NOT INCREASE. AS LONG ASTHE OPERATION MAINTAIN THE COMBINED COST BELOWTHIS LEVELTHE RESTAURANT WILL BE PROFITABLE.  IN A LARGE RESTAURANT,THE ORGANIZATION OFTHE LABOR FORCE IS IMPORTANT TO LABOR COST CONTROL.THE FOOD SERVICE STRUCTURE IS ILLUSTRATED IN FIGURE 7.
  16. 16.  ANOTHER PROFITABILITY MEASURE USED IN RESTAURANT ISTHE AVERAGE GUEST SPENDING OR AVERAGE CHECK. AVERAGE GUEST SPENDING IS CALCULATED BY DIVIDINGTHETOTAL REVENUE RECEIVED FOR A PARTICULAR PERIOD(A DAY, A WEEK, A MONTH OR AYEAR) BYTHETOTAL NUMBER OF GUEST SERVED DURINGTHAT PERIOD.
  17. 17.  IF 350 GUESTS ARE SERVED DINNER AND THETOTAL REVENUE RECEIVED IS $3,610, THE AVERAGE SPENDINGWILL BE: $3,610 350 = $10.31
  18. 18.  BREAK EVEN ISTHE POINT ATWHICH BUSINESS WILL MAKE NEITHER PROFIT NOR A LOSS.THE OPERATION FOR DETERMININGTHE BREAK-EVEN POINT IS FIXED COSTS CONTRIBUTION MARGIN
  19. 19.  FIXED COST ARETHOSE COSTSTHAT REMAINTHE SAME REGARDLESS OFTHEVOLUME OF BUSINESS. FOR EXAMPLES ARE SALARIES, INTEREST, DEPRECITION, INSURANCE RENT, ANDTHE LIKE.THE CONTRIBUTION MARGIN IS AVERAGE CHECK LESSVARIABLE COSTS. FOR EXAMPLE, IF A RESTAURANT HAS AN ANNUAL FIXED COST OF $125,000 AND AN AVERAGE GUEST SPENDING OF $10.00 AND ITSVARIABLE COST SUCH AS FOOD, LABOR AND OTHER IS 75 PERCENT OF REVENUE OR $7.50 PERCENT GUEST SERVED, ITS BREAK-EVEN POINT IS $125,00 $2.50 =50,000
  20. 20.  THE CONTRIBUTION MARGIN IS AVERAGE CHECK LESSVARIABLE COSTS OR $2.50 LESS $7.50.THE BREAK-EVEN NUMBER OF CUSTOMERS IS 50,000. THE PROOF OFTHIS IS TOTAL REVENUE: 50,000 x $10.00 = $500,000 VARIABLE COST :50,000 x $7.50 = 375,000 FIXED COSTS: 125,000 PROFIT OR LOSS: O
  21. 21. FOOD SERVICE ---------------------------------------------------- FAST FOOD RESTAURANT CAFETERIAS TRADITIONAL RESTAURANT CHAININDEPENDENT SPECIALTY BROAD MENU SPECIALTY ETHNIC LOCAL
  22. 22.  THE MENU ISTHE BASIC PLANNING DOCUMENT FOR A SUCCESSFUL RESTAURANT.  THE MENU ALSO DETERMINESTHE EQUIPMENT NEEDED ANDTHE INVESTMENT REQUIRED.  THE MENU CAN ALSO DETERMINETHE LABOR COST OF A RESTAURANT.  THE MENU CAN ALSO DETERMINETHE COST FOR UNIFORMS,THE CHASES, STORAGE AND SPACE AND ACTUAL FOOD COSTS.
  23. 23.  AIRLINES SPEND BILLIONS OF DOLLAR EVERYYEAR FOR FOOD PURCHASES.THE AVERGAE COST PER AIRLINE PASSENGER IS BETWEEN $1.00 AND $7.00 DEPENDING ONTHE LENGTH OFTHE JOURNEY. THE AMOUNT IS LESS FOR SHORTERTRIPS, SINCE PASSENGERS MAY BE OFFERED ONLY A NON- ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE AND A LIGHT SNACK. FOR LONGERTRIPS, INWHICHTWO ORTHREE MEALS MAY BE OFFERED INCLUDING FREE ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES,THE AMOUNT IS HIGHER. AROUND 3 TO 4 PERCENT OF AN AIRLINE’STOTAL COSTS IS SPENT ON FOOD.
  24. 24.  THE MAIN PROBLEM OF AN AIRLINE ISTO COOKTHE MEAL ONTHE GROUND AND SERVE IT SEVERAL HOURS LATER IN AN EXTRAORDINARY DRY CABIN ATMOSPHERE, SEVEN MILES HIGHTO DIFFERENCES ANDWHOSE MAIN MOTIVATION ISTOTRAVEL RATHERTHAN TO EAT.
  25. 25.  TO PRODUCE HOT MEAL,THE AIRLINES HAVETO PREPARE SPECIFICATIONS FOR RECIPE, INGREDIENTS, COOKING METHODS ANDTEMPERATURES AND LABOR FOR EACH FLIGHT. ALLTHIS REQUIRES A FORECAST USINGTHE ACTUAL PASSENGER RESERVATION FOR EACH FLIGHT INCLUDING AN ALLOWANCE FOR STANDBYS AND LAST-MINUTE RESERVATIONS IN ORDERTO HAVETHE CORRECT RAW MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND FOOD PRODUCTION STAFF FOR EACH SHIFT.
  26. 26. IN 1936 BY DOUGLAS FOR ITS DC-3 THE FIRST AIRPLANE GALLEYWAS DESIGNED MEALS PREPARED ONTHE GROUND WERE KEPT HOT OR COLD IN INSULATED CONTAINERS ON THE AIRCRAFT. WORLDWAR II THE INTRODUCTION OF LARGER AIRPLANES ENABLEDTHEMTO HAVE OVENS AND REFRIGERATORS ON BOARDS INTHEIR GALLEYS.
  27. 27. INTHE LATE 1930’S THE FIRST AIRLINE FLIGHT KITCHEN WAS OPENED NEARTHE WASHINGTON D.C. HOOVER FIELD AIRPORT BY A GENTLEMAN NAMED MARRIOTT. HE HAD A RESTAURANT NEARTHE AIRPORT. SOME AIRLINES HAVETHEIR OWN FLIGHT KITCHENSWHICH PREPARE MEALS FORTHEIR OWN PASSENGER. OTHER AIRLINESCONTRACTWITH AIRLINES THAT HAVETHEIR OWN KITCHENS. STILL OTHERS CONTRACTWITH AN OUTSIDE CATERING COMPANYTHAT SPECIALIZES IN AIRLINE FOOD PREPARATION.
  28. 28.  AIRLINE CATERING IS DIFFERENT FROM RESTAURANT CATERING BECAUSE INTHE LATTERTHE COOKS CAN MAKE LAST MINUTE ADJUSTMENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, A STEAK MIGHT BE PREPARED INTHE FLIGHT KITCHENTO BE ACCOMPANIED BY A SAUCE ANDVEGETABLESTO BE SERVEDTWO HOURS LATER. DURINGTHISTIME IT MUST BE KEPT HOT. IFTHERE IS FLIGHT DELAY OF ONE HOUR,THE STEAKWILL BE STRINGY,
  29. 29.  THE SAUCEWILL BE CONGEALEDANDTHE VEGETABLESWILL BE MUSHY.  IN AN ORDINARY RESTAURANT, A MEAL LIKE THISWILL NOT BE SERVED BUT ON AN AIRLINE,THE SERVING CREW USUALLY HAS NO OTHER CHOICE BUTTO SERVE IT.  IN AIRLINE CATERING,THE LOGISTICSARE VERY COMPLEX BUT AIRLINES EXERT GREAT EFFORTSTO SERVE GOOD MEALSTOTHE PASSENGERS.THEY EVEN RESPONDTOTHE NEEDS OF PASSENGERS ON SPECIAL DIETS IF GIVEN ENOUGH NOTICE.
  30. 30.  MANY RESTAURANTS ADVERTISE THEIRMENU OR PARTS OF IT IN NEWSPAPER. LOCAL NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENTS ARE USED BY MOST RESTAURANTS ASTHE MAJOR FORM OF EXTERNAL PROMOTIO SEVERAL RESTAURANTS ADVERTISE INTHEYELLOW PAGES OFTHE LOCALTELEPHONE DIRECTORY. SOME USE LOCAL RADIO OR TELEVISION STATIONS. THE MORE POPULAR RESTAURANTS AND NATIONAL RESTAURANT CHAINS ADVERTISE IN AIRLINE IN-FLIGHT MAGAZINES, COMSUMERTRAVEL MAGAZINES ANDTRAVEL TRADE PUBLICATIONS. MANY RESTAURANT TRYTO FOSTER GOOD RELATION WITH NEARBY HOTEL EMPLOYEES SUCH AS FRONT OFFICE STAFF, BE DESK PERSONNEL AND DOORMEN BECAUSETHEY ARE OFTEN ASKED BY HOTEL GUESTSTO RECOMMEND GOOD NEARBY RESTAURANTS. GOOD PUBLIC RELATIONS ANDWORD-OF-MOUTH ADVERTISING GENERATE A LOT OF BUSINESS

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