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  1. 1. Censorship
  2. 2. What is censorship?• Examining media texts such as books, films and TV shows and suppressing or removing the unacceptable parts.
  3. 3. The history of censorship• In 1909 ‘The New York Board of Motion Picture Censorship’ was made.• This board quickly began to influence not only New York but other film productions world wide.• Eventually, all major picture producers agreed to submit their films to the board and would not release a film unless it had been approved.
  4. 4. The history of censorship• The board then created a ‘seal of approval’ which was the first formal attempt to stop illegal censorship through self regulation.• In 1922, the major Hollywood studios and distributors formed a trade association called ‘The Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America’ (MPPDA)• In 1927 ‘The Studio Relations Committee’ (SRC), part of the MPPDA produced a list of ‘Dont’s and be carefuls’ to govern production.
  5. 5. The history of censorship• On March 31 1930, a code called ‘The Motion Picture Production Code’ (The Hays Code) was published. This was a set of guidelines as to what was seen as appropriate for films, especially since ‘talking pictures’ had been introduced.
  6. 6. The history of censorship• In June 1934 the SRC was renamed ‘The Production Code Administration’ (PCA).• The members of the MPPDA agreed that each film passed by the OCA would recieve a certificate number. This number would have the MPPDA seal of approval.• Even short films and cartoons had to be monitored
  7. 7. The history of censorship
  8. 8. The history of censorship – A story• In 1943, Howard Hughes produced his movie ‘The outlaw’ starring Jane Russell. Howard Hughes was instructed to reshoot or eliminate 37 specific shots of Jane Russell as they were said to be too revealing of her breasts. Hughes refused to comply and appealed the OCA’s decision to the MPPDA’s board of directors. They then agreed to grant the seal if he made a few minor cuts. Hughes made the cuts but decided to cut the movie anyway.• However in 1946, Hughes decided to defy the PCA and other censorship boards by distributing the movie as it was originally filmed. The movie violated the PCA’s advertising code and the PCA revoked the movie’s seal of approval. Several theatres also refused to show the movie. Despite this, the movie was still a box office success wherever it was shown.
  9. 9. Who are the BBFC?• B – British• B – Board• Of• F – Film• C - Classification
  10. 10. The BBFC• The BBFC, originally British Board of Film Censors, is a non-governmental organisation, funded by the film industry and responsible for the national classification and censorship of films within the United Kingdom. It classifies videos, DVDs and some video games under the Video Recordings Act 2010.
  11. 11. The BBFC• The BBFC was established in 1912 and is the British version of the MPPDA.• It creates the ratings on all films, games and TV shows.• The ratings are put in place to protect people and children from seeing content that is not appropriate for their age.
  12. 12. The BBFC - Ratings
  13. 13. My Film• I think that my film would be a certificate 15. The content of my film includes violence and threat which would not be appropriate for younger audiences. My film also has reference to gang/thug culture which is not a theme that children should be witnessing as it encourages violence and gangs.• The certificate is important to the success of my film because it will appeal to the right people and they can appreciate and enjoy the film. It is important that no one under the age of the certificate sees the film as it could disturb them and then therefore make the film unpopular and therefore unsuccessful. It is important for the right audience to see the film so that they can evaluate and then tell others their opinion on the film and them hopefully recommend it too.