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Desertification- a challenge_compressed.pptx

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Desertification- a challenge_compressed.pptx

  1. 1. India’s Vanishing Green Cover Are we already heading towards desertification? - Dr. Chittaranjan Dave
  2. 2. D e s e r t i f i c a t i o n Ananthropo-climatic challenge in21st century 17 June 2021 (2021 Deserts and Draught Day –’ turning degraded land into healthy land)
  3. 3. Before we start.. “Desert v/s Desertification” • There are vast expanses of land have natural desert ecosystem • Most deserts are the result of climate effect of very long time. • The life in such desert have evolved alongside with specialized features to withheld adverse climatic conditions • The desert ecosystems are very fragile and little interference causes devastating and cascading ecological implications • Overenthusiastic approach like “greening the desert” by ignorant have done enough damage to this ecosystem • Desertification is NOT the ecological problem in deserts but it is the problem for rest of all terrestrial ecosystems
  4. 4. What is “Desertification”? • Definition- Degradation of arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas as a result of various factors…… …… such as “climate variations” and “human activities”… Both factors can ultimately be credited to Homo sapiens !! Today’s woodland or forest might turn into dryland and then to desert, so the term desertification has widespread ramifications for the life of on planet..
  5. 5. Why desertification an important concern of today? • Desertification affects the 5 important SDGs #1 (No Poverty), #2 (Zero hunger), #6 (Clean Water & Sanitation), #13 (Climate Action) and most importantly #15 (Life on land) • Restoring degraded land not only helps local biodiversity but it brings economic resilience, food security and supports climate actions • Relevance in current pandemic situation - Reduces close contact betn human & wildlife- guaranteeing long term survival of life on earth - Also investment in land restoration creates jobs and livelihood opportunity at a time when millions of jobs are being lost • A real chance – UN Decade of Ecosystem Restoration (2021-30) – 800 mn ha land restoration pledged by countries
  6. 6. When did we realized this problem? • 1977- UN conference on desertification • 1992 –Earth summit- Rio • 1994- UNFCC enters into force with near-universe membership (196 countries) • 1996- Convention entered into the force • 1997- 1st CoP session at Rome • 2002- Johannesburg – GEF became a financial mechanism of UNCCD • 2006- International year of Desertification • 2007- UNCCD adopted 10yrs strategic plan and framework • 2009- First UNCCD scientific conference at Buenos Aries • 2018- 2018-30 Strategic framework – the most comprehensive global commitment to LDN • 2019- CoP 14- New Delhi – India agrees to 13 mn ha degraded land recovery by 2020
  7. 7. Desertification & Draught • Drought ranks among the most damaging of all natural hazards. • By 2025, 1.8 billion people will experience absolute water scarcity, and 2/3 of the world will be living under water-stressed conditions • over half the population of the planet – already facing severe water stress for at least one month of the year • Climate change will increase the odds of worsening drought and water scarcity in many parts of the world. • Healthy land is a natural storage for fresh water. If it is degraded, it cannot perform that function.
  8. 8. Desertification & Biodiversity • ¾ th land based environment has been significantly altered by human actions. • Land use change is the single largest cause of biodiversity loss at global scale. • Habitat loss resulting from land use change is a primary driver of species extinction • Native species abundance in major terrestrial habitats has fallen by 20% in last 3 decades. • Land degradation has reduced productivity by 23% of the terrestrial ecosystems. • Desertification affects pollination- 577bn $ annual crop production at risk • There is great potential for cost-effective synergies between the Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) targets and post-2020 biodiversity targets.
  9. 9. Desertification & Climate • Restoring the soils of degraded ecosystems has the potential to store up to 3 billion tons of carbon annually. • Land – including soil, water and biodiversity – is increasingly exposed to the impact of climate change, droughts and flash floods. • The land-use sector has great potential to reduce emissions, sequester carbon and increase both human and biophysical resilience. • Addressing desertification, land degradation and drought is key for climate change mitigation and adaptation. • to avoid, reduce and reverse land degradation can provide more than one-third of the climate mitigation needed to keep global warming under 2°C by 2030
  10. 10. Desertification and SDGs 15.3:- “by 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world.” – Strong vehicle to drive UNCCD implementation 15.3.1:- “Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area” – UNCCD is • Land can play an important part in accelerating the achievement of many SDGs • Out of 17 SDGs, at least 12 can be addressed by UNCCD while 5 are directly benefitting from it. • Achieving land degradation neutrality (LDN) can become an accelerator of achieving SDGs across the board. • Two billon hectares of degraded land are available to kick-start green economy and develop opportunities for employment, learning and poverty reduction.
  11. 11. • Overgrazing • It reduces the usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land. • India lost 31% of grasslands between 2005 and 2015. • Deforestation • A forest acts as a carbon sink. • Deforestation releases carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere contributing to the greenhouse effect. • Farming Practices • Slash and burn agriculture exposes state to soil erosion hazards • Heavy tilling and overirrigation disturbs mineral composition of the soil. • Urbanization • As urbanization increases, the demand for resources increases drawing more resources and leaving lands that easily succumb to desertification. • Climate Change • It may exacerbate desertification through alteration of spatial and temporal patterns in temperature, rainfall, solar radiation and winds. • Overexploitation of Resources • Increasing demand for land resources due to issues like overpopulation leaves land vulnerable to desertification. Cause of Desertification: Man-Made Causes
  12. 12. • Natural Disasters • Natural Disasters like Floods, Droughts, landslides results into • Erosion • Displacement of fertile soil. • Water erosion • It results into Badland Topography which itself is an initial stage of desertification. • Wind Erosion • Sand encroachment by wind reduces fertility of the soil making the land susceptible to desertification. Cause of Desertification: Natural Causes
  13. 13. • Destruction of Vegetation • Soil infertility • Increased soil erosion • Increased vulnerability to natural disasters • Land degradation • Water pollution • Loss of biodiversity & extinction of species Desertification impacts: Environmental
  14. 14. • Increased occurrences of natural hazards like, • Floods • Landslides • Draughts • Threatens agricultural productivity. • Repercussive impacts increase poverty. • Overall productivity of the economy decreases Desertification impacts: Economical
  15. 15. • Social Impacts: • Intensified drought and flood causes poverty and then social conflicts • Forces mass migrations i.e. environmental migration resulting in urbanization and pressure on natural resources. • Food and water security issues • Health issues and pandemics Desertification impacts: Socio-political •Political Impacts: Repercussive impacts also lead to political instability due to mismanagement of natural resources
  16. 16. Status of India’s Drylands  Comprise 18% of land but 1% ‘protected’. Rest denounced as wastelands and mismanaged.  Targeted for afforestation (exotic shrub/tree plantations) and sand stabilization that neither benefits desert biodiversity nor contributes to livelihoods.  Targeted for agricultural intensification and infrastructural development (renewable energy production) that are detrimental to wildlife  Has great potential for sustainable livelihoods –pastoralism, organic farming and tourism
  17. 17. Desertification in India • India supports 18 per cent of the global population on only 2.4% of the world’s land mass. • It is estimated that India’s demand for food will grow at a rate of two to three per cent until 2025, with demand outpacing supply by 2035. • India has witnessed an increase in the level of desertification in 26 of 29 states in last decade. • The extent of degraded land in India is over 105 million hectares or about 32% of India's areas which includes 5.65 mn ha grassland. • More than 80% of the country’s degraded land lies in just nine states. • In 2014-15 land degradation, and the associated reduction in productivity, reduced Indian GDP growth by 2.5%. • The agricultural sector provides employment for 44 per cent of the Indian workforce.
  18. 18. • Arunachal Pradesh the most forested state also faces the desertification.! • Area under desertification is around 2% • Despite all efforts 126 km2 area got degraded in 8 years.
  19. 19. Causes of desertification in Indian dry land • Causes are compounding effects of 1) Unsustainable human exploitation  Indian hot desert – Thar – most densely populated desert in world  Livestock density (42 Animal Units/km2) far exceeds the carrying capacity (10 AU/km2)  Drylands support 50 million livelihoods & 250 million livestock – Dairy revolution  Agricultural intensification – Oilseed revolution 2) Inherent ecological fragility  Poor rainfall (20-150 cm annually)  Stochastic drought periods  Sparse vegetation – seasonal variation  Soil with low organic content & erosion prone  Wildlife populations limited by low primary productivity limits populations
  20. 20. Broader solutions • Sustainable Land Use • Protection of vegetative cover which would prevent soil erosion • Alternative Farming and Industrial Techniques • Establish economic opportunities outside drylands • The practice of Sustainable Agriculture • The practice of Eco Forestry made to be regular • Promotion of recycled resources • Promote technology advancement • Raise awareness about Desertification Avoiding, Slowing and Reversing the loss of natural ecosystems and productive land – Urgent and Important task for mankind
  21. 21. • CAZRI- 1952-1959 with five stations in different parts of India • Desert Development Programme • It was launched in 1995 to minimize the adverse effect of drought and to rejuvenate the natural resource base of the identified desert areas. • It was launched for hot desert areas of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana and cold desert areas of Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. • It is implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development. • National Action Programme to Combat Desertification • It was prepared in 2001 to address issues of increasing desertification and to take appropriate actions. • It is implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. What India has done so far…..
  22. 22. • Integrated Watershed Management Programme-1989-90 {“Haryali Guidelines” in 2003} • It was launched in 1989-90 to restore ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources also provides Rural Employment. • Now it is a part of Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (2015-16 to 2019-20) • Soil Conservation in Catchment of River Valley Projects & Flood Prone Rivers -2000 • The scheme aims at improving the physical conditions and productivity status of alkali soils for restoring optimum crop production. • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. • National Afforestation Programme-2000 • for the afforestation of degraded forest lands. • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change What India has done so far…..
  23. 23. • Fodder and Feed Development Scheme-2010 • It aims to improve degraded grassland and also the vegetation cover of problematic soils like saline, acidic and heavy soil. • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry, and Diaries. • National Mission on Green India • It is a part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). • It was approved in 2014 with the objective of protecting, restoring and enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover with a deadline of 10 years. • It is being implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change • Desertification and Land Degradation Atlas of India • It was released by ISRO in 2016. • Combating desertification and land degradation is one of the thrust areas covered by it. What India has done so far…..
  24. 24. Thank you…….

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