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Atoms,matter and molecules


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Atoms,matter and molecules

  1. 1. Atoms & Molecules
  2. 2. ATOM The smallest particle into which an element may be divided and still be the same substance.
  3. 3. Matter Anything that occupies space and have mass . Energy is NOT matter
  4. 4. Matter is divided into 4 components:  Elements  Compounds  Mixtures  Solutions
  5. 5. ELEMENT All elements are on the Periodic Table All matter is made of an element or a combination of elements Hydrogen, Oxygen, Gold  A substance that consists of only one kind of atom and that cannot be chemically separated into other substances.
  6. 6. Elements: Elements cannot be changed into simpler substances by any chemical process . Elements are made up of atoms .
  7. 7. Elements: Simplest kind of matter  Cannot be broken down into simpler  All one kind of atom.  There are 109 of these known to man
  8. 8. Compounds: Substances that can be broken down by chemical methods When they are broken down, the pieces have completely different properties than the compound. Made of molecules- two or more atoms .
  9. 9. Compounds: They are pure substances put together by chemically combining elements Not all combinations of elements are compounds though– some can be mixtures!
  10. 10. So remember… ELEMENTS contain only one kind of atom   There are 109 different kinds of elements  1-109 = atomic # of the elements.
  11. 11. Solutions:  Solutions - A special mixture formed when one substance dissolves in another .
  12. 12. Solutions:  Solvent  Solute - The most abundant substance in the solution . - The least abundant substance in the solution .
  13. 13.  All solutions are not liquids :   Air is a solution of gases . Steel is a solution of metals .
  14. 14. MIXTURE :    Homogeneous mixture Mixed molecule by molecule Solutions Can occur between any state of matter.      Solid in liquid- Cool-aid Liquid in liquid- anti freeze Gas in gas- air Solid in solid - brass Liquid in gas- water vapour
  15. 15. Solutions     Like all mixtures, they keep the properties of the components. Can be separated by physical means Do not scatter light! Not easily separated But can be separated.
  16. 16. Two techniques for separating solutions: #1. Evaporation: changing from a liquid to vapor state– leaves behind the other component.
  17. 17. #2. Distillation:  Process used to drive vapor from liquid by heating  Great for separating two or more liquids which have different boiling points.
  18. 18. MIXTURE  Matter that can be physically separated into component parts  It is two or more kinds of matter that have separate identities because of their different properties.
  19. 19. When different parts of a mixture can no longer be separated into simpler substances, we call each component a PURE SUBSTANCE
  20. 20. There are two types of mixtures:  Heterogeneousmixture is not the same from place to place.  Chocolate chip cookie, gravel, soil.  Homogeneoussame composition throughout.  Cool-aid, air.
  21. 21.  Mixtures: Matter that consists of two or more substances mixed together: but not chemically combined or bonded.  Examples: concrete, Sea Water, a bag full of different colored marbles.. 
  22. 22. Types of matter  Properties of Mixtures :  Each substance retains its own properties.  Substances  Substances can be present in any amount . can be separated by simplem physical means.
  23. 23. Which is it? Element
  24. 24. Which is it? COMPOUND Water is a compound formed from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom chemically combined. H20
  25. 25. Which is it? MIXTURE
  26. 26. Decide if the substance is an Element , compound , mixture or solution? 1. Water 2. Salt 1. Compound 2. Compound 3. Oxygen 3. Element 4. Dirt 4. Mixture 5. Air 5. Solution Click Mouse button to see answers!
  27. 27. What about MOLECULES? These are MULTI-ATOM particles They are the smallest particle of a substance that still retains the properties of that substance and is composed of 2 or more atoms.
  28. 28. MOLECULE Particle of matter that is made up of two or more atoms.
  29. 29. Particle Charge Location Mass Proton + nucleus heavy Neutron 0 nucleus heavy Electron - energy levels very light
  30. 30. Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus 17 Cl Chlorine 35.453
  31. 31. 17 Cl Chlorine 35.453 Atomic Number: 17 Number of Protons: 17 Number of Electrons: 17 Atomic Mass: 35 Number of Neutrons: 18