DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
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Ingenious means ‘Clever person’ in Latin
Engineer cleverly uses the available natural resources for the benefit of mankind
Provides comfort to mankind and makes life comfortable.
Application of scientific and mathematical knowledge and rational thinking to
improve living standards
Definition:- “Civil Engineering is the art of directing the great sources of
power in nature for the use and convenience of man”.
The main scope of civil engineering or the task of civil engineering is planning,
designing, estimating, supervising construction, managing construction, execution,
and maintenance of structures like building, roads, bridges, dams, etc.
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Discipline – Civil Engineering
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BRANCHES & SCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
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BRANCHES & SCOPE OF CIVIL
• Civil engineering may be divided into the following
• Surveying & leveling
• Building, Planning and construction
• Advanced Construction
• Structural Engineering
• Geotechnical Engineering
• Water Resources Engineering
• Transportation Engineering
• Environmental Engineering
• Town Planning & etc.,6/16/2014 5PREPARED BY CHIRAG BHANGALE
SURVEYING & LEVELLING
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SURVEYING & LEVELLING
• Surveying includes measurements of distances and
angles in horizontal & vertical planes, while leveling
is the measurement of heights in vertical plane.
Chain, compass, level and theodolite are the
instruments used for surveying.
• Surveying fixes the relative positions of different
points on the basis of surface of earth. It also
includes measurements of areas and volumes. Basic
aim of surveying is to prepare a map of the area to
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SURVEYING & LEVELLING
• Surveying is carried out to fix the alignment of
road, railway canal. It is also useful in selecting
the site for the construction of structures.
Modern surveying instruments like Electronic
total station and Geographical Positioning
System(GPS) are the modern electronic digital
instruments for survey works.
• Remote sensing and Geographical Information
system(GIS) are adopted for surveying and
planning of many civil engineering projects.
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BUILDING PLANNING &
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BUILDING PLANNING & CONSTRUCTION
• Civil engineers are concerned with many
types of structures of which buildings are of
prime importance. Buildings are planned
according to the fundamental principles of
planning & bylaws of local municipal bodies.
• Building planning requires basic knowledge of
principles of architecture. Buildings may be
residential or public building like school,
colleges, government office, Hospitals, etc.
They are designed according to need of
specific occupants and purposes.6/16/2014 10PREPARED BY CHIRAG BHANGALE
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• Construction of dams, bridges, tunnels, ports,
requires several advanced construction
techniques of construction. Under water
construction requires specific type of
• Pile foundations or well foundations are
generally provided for foundation of bridges
across rivers in alluvial soil.
• Large scale earthworks in excavation requires
equipment's like power shovel, dragline,
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• This Branch of civil engineering deals with
structural analysis and design of structures.
• Structural analysis is done to calculate stresses
in structural components, on the basis of
loads, acting on structures.
• Sections of structural elements like beams,
columns, slabs, etc. are designed. Structural
analysis requires much calculation, hence
advanced computing software‘s are used to
carry out structural analysis and design.
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• Geotechnical engineering is that field of civil
engineering which deals with soil investigation and
design of proper foundations of structures.
• Soil investigation includes collection and testing of
• Geotechnical engineering includes measurement of
soil Parameters and safe bearing capacity.
• It also includes construction and design of simple
foundations, pile foundations, well foundations,
caissons, coffer dams, construction of foundation of
dams, construction of tunnels, sub base of road,
earthen dams, earth related constructions.
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WATER RESOURCES ENGIEERING
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• Water resource engineering means
measurements, utilization and development of
water resources for agriculture, municipal
and power generation purpose. It mainly
includes irrigation engineering, design of
hydraulic structures like dams, canals etc.
• Water resource engineering deals with
planning designing and developing water
resources by constructing several hydraulic
structures like dams, barrages, hydropower
stations, canal and pipe networks etc.
WATER RESOURCES ENGIEERING
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• Transportation means movement of
Passengers and goods by means of vehicles on
land, ship on water and aircrafts in air.
• Transportation Engineering is that branch of
Civil engineering which deals with planning,
designing and construction of roads, bridges,
railways, tunnels, harbours, ports, docks,
runways and airports.
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• Environmental Engineering deals with
pollution control and public health
engineering. Different types of pollutions are
water, air, noise and other pollution.
• Environmental engineering includes design,
construction and maintenance of water
treatment plant, waste water treatment plant,
water distribution network and sewerage
system, it also deals with solid waste
management in towns and cities.
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• Town planning means planned & controlled
growth of town by dividing town in to different
land use zones and regulating building
construction to provide better environment for
the people of the town.
• In the town planning areas oftown are divided
into residential, commercial, recreational and
industrial zones, which is called zoning.
• Floor space index, and other byelaws are fixed to
guide and regulate the building construction.
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FUNCTIONS OF CIVIL ENGINEER
• Civil engineering functions performed can
broadly be classified in three categories.
• Before construction
• During construction
• After Construction
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• Feasibility study
• Site investigation
• Design and drawing
• Planning & Scheduling
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• Dealing with clients, Consulting engineer and
• Execution and supervision
• Quality control
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• Maintenance and repairs
• After the construction regular maintenance of
structures is to be carried out. Valuation is
carried out forthe purpose of sale, purchase
and many others purposes.
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1. What is Civil Engineering? What are the main functions of a civil engineer?
2. List the main disciplines of civil engineering and mention the purpose and
application of each discipline.
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