NREGA

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NREGA

  1. 1. NREGA National Rural Employment Guarantee Act Group 10 Ravi Shanker 280/45 Srikanth Kolli 208/45 Rahul Meena 276/45 Krishnenthu Raja 222/45
  2. 2. Wage Employment Programs Historical Perspective • Maharashtra Model • Bureaucracy • Shortage of funds • Lack of right planning • Lack of local focus
  3. 3. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) “Act of the people, by the people, and for the people”
  4. 4. NREGA - Overview Salient Features Employment to all those who are willing to work (100 days) Free registration with a job guarantee within 15 days of application At least 1/3rd of the employees must be women Fixed minimum wage rate and no upper limit Weekly disbursement of wages and delays not beyond a fortnight Unlimited supply of funds for this project
  5. 5. Objective of NREGA Unemployment • Enhancement of livelihood security of households • Arrest rural migration Sustained Development • Create rural assets • Create livelihood resource base • Restore environment
  6. 6. Expectations from Expectations from NREGA NREGA Primary Supplement employment opportunities Auxiliary  Regenerate natural resource base of rural livelihood for sustainable development Process Outcomes Strengthen grass root processes of democracy  Infuse transparency and accountability in governance
  7. 7. NREGA COVERAGE (1st Nationwide employment scheme )
  8. 8. State and Local Govt. Roles and Responsibilities
  9. 9. State and Local Government State Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (REGS) • 25 per cent of the cost of material and wages for semiskilled/ skilled workers • Unemployment allowance if the state is unable to provide employment within 15 days • Administrative expenses of the State Employment Guarantee Council
  10. 10. Other Institutions
  11. 11. Funds
  12. 12. Funds NREGA ‘09 Budget Allocation -39,000 Cr. Central Govt. provides only 75% of the material costs, promoting labour intensive works in NREGA
  13. 13. Components of Expenditure • Material Cost • Tamilnadu and Mizoram have achieved almost Zero expense on material • Orissa has high Material expenses owing to “royalties” • Expenditure on Wages • Administrative expenses • Nagaland and Gujarat have high administrative expenses
  14. 14. A Snapshot for 07-08
  15. 15. Progress Report
  16. 16. Implementation & Effectiveness of NREGA 144 Crore person-days of employment 34 Mn Households benefited • Improved – ‘employment per rural household’, share of women in workforce, expenditure per district, share of wages in total expenditure •Decreased % of ST’s benefiting from NREGA •Increase in daily wages by whopping 15% •Improved utilization of funds from 73% to 80%
  17. 17. State wise performance
  18. 18. State wise performance Leaders • Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh • Account for more than half of the total employment • Haryana and Uttarakhand • Improved Women workforce Laggards • Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Maharashtra, Punjab and West Bengal • Perform worse than previous years • Punjab, Bihar and HP • Less than 33% women workforce
  19. 19. Participation of Women WOMEN 43% •Tamil Nadu (82%) •Rajasthan (69%) •Kerala (67%) •Andhra Pradesh (56%) •Karnataka (52%) •Gujarat (49%) •UP (15%) •J&K(1%) At least 1/3rd of the beneficiaries shall be women who have registered and requested for work under the Scheme (NREGA ACT, Schedule II, Section 6) Year-2007-08
  20. 20. Regenerating Natural Resource Base of Rural Livelihood
  21. 21. Community Building Building Rural India
  22. 22. Field Visit To Block Office Facts • Observations • 3000 beneficiaries in 2009 out of 30,000 bpl households • 10% women < state average of 17% • All projects are on rural connectivity • Rs 80 a day as base • Central role of Gram Panchayat • Unlimited funds, yet Delays in wage checks and Job cards • No record of measuring asset creation
  23. 23. Case : NREGA in Kerala
  24. 24. NREGA in Kerala • Highest literacy rate (90.86) • Very high rate of unemployment • Tendency to link literacy to employment (myth) • First implemented on 5th Feb 2006 • Only in 4 districts (Palakkad, Waynad, Idukki and Kasargod) • These districts had very low unemployment rate
  25. 25. Major features • Popularity of Trade Unions • Village Panchayats played the pivotal role with the help of technical staffs • Effectiveness of ‘Kudumbasree’ – Organized into Neighborhood group (NHG)  Area Development Society (ADS)  Community Development Society (CDS) – ADS played a pivotal part in NREGA
  26. 26. Major features • Focus on eco-restoration works • Wages are paid directly to individual bank accounts
  27. 27. Problems • Lag in the implementation (only 4/14 districts)
  28. 28. Problems • Minimal participation from SC’s and ST’s • One of the lowest
  29. 29. Achievements • Major progresses after 2007 • Total corruption free implementation – Panchayats took the responsibility seriously – Implemented the programme very fast • Effectiveness of Kudumbasree system – Community of poor people – Created a feeling of unity among them – Doing work for their localities created an urgency
  30. 30. Achievements • Participation of women – Helped to empower women – Participated in important decisions of her family and society – Equal wage for men and women
  31. 31. Achievements Participation of women in NREGA
  32. 32. Achievements • Public works done by local peoples – Reduced corruption – Increased urgency • Importance given to natural resource management and environment protection • Setup of Labour Banks – Develop skills of the workers – Panchayats to teach Panchayats
  33. 33. Way Ahead
  34. 34. Way Ahead • NREGA is here to stay  Monitor the programme effectively  Village level resource planning and development  Other development programs like Bharat Nirman should sync with NREGA  From quantitative employment generation to sustainable development through asset building • Representatives  Proper election and training  More power to Panchayat Raj
  35. 35. Thank You

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