• Two in number.
• The ovary is a small, oval-shaped endocrine gland
located on either side of the uterus.
• The ovary produces ovum (egg) and hormones
like estrogen and progesterone.
• Each month, one of the ovaries releases a mature
egg, known as an oocyte.
• Ovarian follicle is the basic unit of female
reproductive biology and is made up of roughly
spherical collection of cells found in the ovary.
They contain a single oocyte or egg.
• A baby girl is born with about 10,00,000
• By the time a girl reaches puberty and her
menstrual cycle begins, only about 4,00,000
ovarian follicles are left to develop into
• During childhood, approximately half of the
ovarian follicles are absorbed by the body.
• Also known as Oviducts or Uterine Tubes.
• The fallopian tubes stretch from the uterus to the ovaries
and measure about 8 to 10 cm (4 to 6 inches) in length.
• The ends of the fallopian tubes lying next to the ovaries
feather into ends called fimbria (Latin for "fringes" or
• Millions of tiny hair-like cilia line the fimbria and interior of
the fallopian tubes. The cilia beat in waves hundreds of
times a second catching the egg at ovulation and moving it
through the tube to the uterine cavity.
• Cells in the tube's inner lining or endothelium nourish
the egg and lubricate it's path during its stay inside the
• The egg and sperm meet and the egg is fertilized inside
the fallopian tube.
• If an egg doesn't become fertilized within 24 to 36
hours after ovulation, it will deteriorate and be
removed by the body's immune system like any other
dead cell in the body.
• The Uterus is a hollow, pear-shaped organ that is the
home to a developing fetus.
• The reproductive function of the uterus is to accept a
fertilized ovum which passes through the utero-tubal
junction from the fallopian tube.
• It then becomes implanted into the endometrium,
and derives nourishment from blood vessels which
develop exclusively for this purpose.
• The fertilized ovum becomes an embryo, attaches to
a wall of the uterus, creates a placenta, and develops
into a fetus until childbirth.
• The Uterus is divided into two parts:
- Cervix (Neck of the Uterus)
- Corpus (Body of the Uterus)
• The Cervix (or neck of the uterus) is the lower, narrow portion
of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina.
• Cervix serves 2 major functions:
- First, it maintains its firmness (physical integrity) during
pregnancy as the uterus dramatically enlarges.
- Second, in preparation for labor and delivery, the cervix
softens and becomes more distensible, a process called
• Corpus of Uterus is composed of 3 layers:
• The outer layer of the uterine wall is called Perimetrium.
• The Myometrium is the middle layer of the uterine wall
consisting of smooth muscle cells and supporting stromal and
• The inner layer of the uterine wall is called Endometrium or
Uterine lining. Shedding of the functional endometrial lining is
responsible for menstrual bleeding.
• The vagina is a canal that joins the cervix (the lower
part of uterus) to the outside of the body.
• During childbirth, the vagina provides the channel to
deliver the infant from the uterus to its independent
life outside the body of the mother. So, it is also
known as the birth canal.
• The vagina provides a path for menstrual blood and
tissue to leave the body.