The water purification in L.Suwa.
The experiences and the problems of the
 environmental rehabilitation of a lake
     i  ...
The profiles of L. Suwa(1)
                   诹访湖的概要
1.Origin of lake:Tectonic lake
    (about 300 000
    ( b t 300,000 y...
The profiles of L. Suwa(2)
        p                  ( )
               诹访湖的概要(2)

4.Humanistic characteristics:
  Popula...
The
Th past landscape of Lake Suwa. (around 1940)
      tl d         fL k S       (     d
  諏訪湖の今昔 ~かつての風景~
      诹访湖的过去风景...
The water pollution status of Lake Suwa.
( 1970~1973 ) 水污染情况
   諏訪湖の今昔 ~昭和40年代~



       September, 1970       July, 1972...
Comparison of the blooming situation ( transparency of surface lake water)
                  アオコの発生状況
by blue-green algae ...
The present status of the remediation of water front and the
water quality of L. Suwa ( from spring to summer, 2000)
     ...
The recent progress of the environmental changes
               in Lake Suwa(1)
                      近年的环境变化(1)
1st stage...
The recent progress of the environmental changes
                in Lake Suwa(2)
                    近年的环境变化(2)

3rd stage...
An administrative action to L. Suwa purification
                为诹访湖净化的行政性行为
1965 Lake Suwa purification measure Committe...
Inhabitants and the administrative actions
              为诹访湖净化的行政性与居民的行为
1973 The shore cleaning by the students of Kamis...
The main scientific researches about Lake Suwa
                 关于诹访湖的主要科学研究
1965-1968 The study of the purification measu...
New development to purification action
        Revive; Lake Suwa →Swimming in L. Suwa
                     为净化新的开展
       ...
3rd seminer in
Germany
(June, 1993)
第3回 日独環境まちづくりセミナ
      日独環境まちづくりセミナー
(1993年6月:シュタルンベルク湖)
A waterfront maintenance business :
        Master plan of L. Suwa マスタ
       諏訪湖 水辺整備事業( )         1       ープラン
    水边维护商...
Fゾーン ~湖面に浮かぶ自然と共生する湖畔~
Case F zone : The shore that kept nature alive
F地区 与自然共生的湖畔
The recovery situation of the lakefront vegetation
 諏訪湖 水辺整備事業( )
湖边植物的恢复情况
                            2 湖岸植生の回復状況




  ...
Just修復工事直後 construction
    after restoration
恢复施工后的情况




                       修復2年後のマコモ群落内
             Aquatic plants...
Reproduction of the lakefront 1 (
  p                             (The beach where a p
                                   ...
Reproduction of the lakefront 2 (Takahama
 湖岸の再生(高浜なぎさ)
 湖岸 再生(高浜なぎさ)
beach)
湖边的复原2 (高滨岸边)




  Before前
  施
  施工前        ...
湖岸の再生(渋崎なぎさ)
Reproduction of the lakefront 3 (Sibusaki beach)
湖边的复原3 涩崎岸边




      施工前
      Before                      ...
The floating plants (Trapa sp.)zone reconstructed
naturally in the front of the artificial beach
 自然に再生した浮葉植物帯(ヒシ群落)
在人造的岸...
The trees and the bridge of the walking road of
湖畔遊歩道の植栽と遊歩道専用の橋
lake side 湖边步行路的树木与桥梁
Case A zone : The beach where a person can
                                p
Aゾーンwater
touch the  ~賑わいとふれあいの湖畔~
A地区(这座岸边的水...
The reproduction situation of the submerged plant
                   in L. Suwa
                 水生植物的恢复情况

 400
 350
 300...
The change of the total phosphorus
       concentration in L Suwa (Nagano Pref 2007)
                        L.           ...
The change of the total nitrogen concentration in L.
                Suwa (Nagano Pref 2007)
                             ...
The change of COD concentration in L. Suwa
                          (Nagano P f 2007)
                          (N      P...
The problems of Lake Suwa
                   诹访湖所面临的问题
1.The further improvement of the water qualities
 ・None-point sourc...
A problem of the aquatic
                environment improvement
                               p
                       水...
The lesson that Lake Suwa conveys
                 诹访湖所传达的教训

1.Restoration is the next best thing : It is the most
      ...
よみがえれ諏訪湖
  み ; れ諏訪湖
  Revive; Lake Suwa

        春 夏
        秋 冬

泳げる諏訪湖から飲める諏訪湖
泳げる諏訪湖から飲める諏訪湖へ
    諏訪湖を飲もう
             ...
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
Tokio Okino
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Tokio Okino

  1. 1. The water purification in L.Suwa. The experiences and the problems of the environmental rehabilitation of a lake i t l h bilit ti f l k 诹访湖的水质净化 环境复原的实践与问题 Tokio Okino 冲野外辉夫 (Professor emeritus, Shinshu University) 信州大学名誉教授
  2. 2. The profiles of L. Suwa(1) 诹访湖的概要 1.Origin of lake:Tectonic lake (about 300 000 ( b t 300,000 years ago bi th) birth) The depth of the sedimentation:200m< 2.Type lake Eutrophic 2 Type of lake:Eutrophic type 3. The specifications of lake: Surface area:13 3 ㎞2 area:13.3 Lakefront line extension distance :16㎞ Water depth:max. depth 6.5 m mean depth about 4 m Catchment area: 532 ㎞2 ( About 40 times of the surface area of lake ) Retention time:about 40 days ( annual mean ) Characteristics of sediment : diatom Gyttja
  3. 3. The profiles of L. Suwa(2) p ( ) 诹访湖的概要(2) 4.Humanistic characteristics: Population :about 200 000 capitals 200,000 Paddy and vegetable fields : 31% of catchment area Urban area : 6 2% of catchment area 6.2% Industry : Silk, clock, high technical and fermentation industries ( high economic p power region in the inland of Japan) g p )
  4. 4. The Th past landscape of Lake Suwa. (around 1940) tl d fL k S ( d 諏訪湖の今昔 ~かつての風景~ 诹访湖的过去风景(大概1940年) 諏訪湖で水泳 Swimming in L Suwa L. The landscape of water front p 諏訪湖の湖畔 of L. Suwa ( ( 19416 昭和1 ) 年) (昭和初期) (Around 1940) 2
  5. 5. The water pollution status of Lake Suwa. ( 1970~1973 ) 水污染情况 諏訪湖の今昔 ~昭和40年代~ September, 1970 July, 1972 昭和4 年7 7 月 昭和4 年9 5 月 昭和4 1973 月 August, 年8 August8 昭和4 年98 月 September, September 1973 3
  6. 6. Comparison of the blooming situation ( transparency of surface lake water) アオコの発生状況 by blue-green algae between 1971 and 1999 1971年与1999年之间的水华情况(水面的透明性)的比较 August, 1971 月 昭和4 年8 6 平成11999 月 August,1年8 5
  7. 7. The present status of the remediation of water front and the water quality of L. Suwa ( from spring to summer, 2000) 諏訪湖の今昔 ~現在~ 诹访湖的现状 remediation of beach remediation of water front なぎさ整備 なぎさ整備 平成1 年7 2 月 July, 2000 平成1 2000 月 August, 年8 A t2 4
  8. 8. The recent progress of the environmental changes in Lake Suwa(1) 近年的环境变化(1) 1st stage : A silk thread industry seedtime ( around 1900 ) No processing industry and domestic water flow into the lake A large quantity of earth and sand flow into the lake from the mountain region by felling of the forest There was not the change of the appearance-like lake 2nd stage : A highly economic period of growth (1960~) Complicated water pollution occurred by the various pollutants (industry, urban, agriculture, etc.) Eutrophication of lake water by inflowing of a large amount of nutrients ( nitrogen and phosphorus) f i i d h h ) from the watershed of h h d f L. Suwa Rapid R id water pollution was generated, and a amount of th t ll ti t d d t f the blue-green algae occurred.
  9. 9. The recent progress of the environmental changes in Lake Suwa(2) 近年的环境变化(2) 3rd stage : The start of the purification measures (the 1970's d beginning ) 1) The setting of th environmental standard (l Th tti f the i t l t d d (legal l maintenance) Industrial drainage regulation (heavy metals and organics ) 2) The construction of the sewerage system Industrial drainage and urban waste water regulation 3) Dredging of the polluted mud of lake bottom start ( littoral zone, zone 2m >) 4th stage : A new trial to purification ( mitigation ) (1990~ ) The development of the soft action by the inhabitants participation
  10. 10. An administrative action to L. Suwa purification 为诹访湖净化的行政性行为 1965 Lake Suwa purification measure Committee start The water pollution investigation of L Suwa start L. 1969 The dredging of the litoral zone (2.5 m>) start 1971 Environmental standard setting about water pollution 1972 The sewerage system construction start 1979 The part service of the sewerage system start 1987 The application of the Law Concerning Special Measures for Conservation of Lake Water Quality ( Nitrogen and Phosphorus standard ) 2002 The targeted value of the fourth plan : COD 4.7ppm,TP 0.05 mg/l, TN 0.75 mg/l 2007 Revive; Lake Suwa →Lake Suwa coexisting with aquatic g q creature (change of the aim )
  11. 11. Inhabitants and the administrative actions 为诹访湖净化的行政性与居民的行为 1973 The shore cleaning by the students of Kamisuwa Middle School start (spring and summer) 1975Public hall activity in the watershed area (A general theme :The environmental problems) 1985 The shore cleaning action by the inhabitants of 2 cities and 1town around the lake 1989 The 1st environmental urban designing with Japan and Germany in Suwa ( 1991 2nd, 1993 3rd i G d d in Germany, 2002 4th ) 1994 A waterside maintenance examination committee depending on i h bit t participation d di inhabitants ti i ti 1995 Making the master plan for lakeside mitigation, Start the reconstruction of the waterfront
  12. 12. The main scientific researches about Lake Suwa 关于诹访湖的主要科学研究 1965-1968 The study of the purification measure of L. Suwa (Nagano pref and Shinshu university) pref. 1967-1973 International Biological Programs (Monbusyo) 1971-1975 UNESCO Man and Biosphere (Monbusyo) UNESCO, 1977-1985 Special Program of Environmental Sciences (Monbusyo) 1985-1988 Ecosysetm Studies of Littoral Zone of L. Suwa ( (Monbusyo)y ) 1990-1998 The studies on the matter cycles of lake littoral (The studies on the reproduction of aquatic organisms) (Ministry of Agriculture, Nagano Pref., Shinshu Univ.) 1996-present Long-term monitoring of L. Suwa ( p g g (Ministry of y Environment, Shinshu University)
  13. 13. New development to purification action Revive; Lake Suwa →Swimming in L. Suwa 为净化新的开展 从‘恢复诹访湖’到‘在诹访湖游泳’ The Th switch of the aim : lake water purification it h f th i l k t ifi ti → conservation of lake ecosystem *The restoration of the bank becomes the key to Suwa lake quality p q y purification (Development of mitigation action ) The holding of the joint seminars of Japan and Germany(1989~2002) by the sponsorship of inhabitants was a chance chance. *Inhabitants, an expert, administrative cooperation and appropriate role allotment d i t l ll t t
  14. 14. 3rd seminer in Germany (June, 1993)
  15. 15. 第3回 日独環境まちづくりセミナ 日独環境まちづくりセミナー (1993年6月:シュタルンベルク湖)
  16. 16. A waterfront maintenance business : Master plan of L. Suwa マスタ 諏訪湖 水辺整備事業( ) 1 ープラン 水边维护商业 诹访湖的总体设计 <水辺整備のテ マ> <水辺整備のテーマ> The scenery of the new L.Suwa ・Shore reconstraction to bring up nature and culture 新たな諏訪湖の風景・自然そして文化を育む湖畔づくり Reconstruction and creation of the shore environment that assumed Lake Suwa at the time ―― 昭和30年当時の諏訪湖を原風景とした湖畔環境の再生と創造 ―― of 1950 original scenery g y 水上ス ーツ 楽し ポ を む湖畔 H G 湖面に浮かぶ自然と共生する湖畔 湖の風景を む湖畔 楽し F E 水辺の生物と の交流を 湖畔 人と する D 釜口水門・ 大噴水を ン シ ボルと た憩いの湖畔 し A 賑わい ふれあい と の湖畔 C B 広々と た湖の風景を し 満喫する湖畔 水辺の生物豊かな湖畔 水辺整備ゾーニング図 17
  17. 17. Fゾーン ~湖面に浮かぶ自然と共生する湖畔~ Case F zone : The shore that kept nature alive F地区 与自然共生的湖畔
  18. 18. The recovery situation of the lakefront vegetation 諏訪湖 水辺整備事業( ) 湖边植物的恢复情况 2 湖岸植生の回復状況 施行前( 平成5 年) Before reconstruction (1993) 施行後( 平成7 年) After completion (1995) 18
  19. 19. Just修復工事直後 construction after restoration 恢复施工后的情况 修復2年後のマコモ群落内 Aquatic plants community two years later
  20. 20. Reproduction of the lakefront 1 ( p (The beach where a p person 湖岸の再生(ふれあいなぎさ) can touch the water) 湖边的复原1 (这座岸边的水能触到) Before前 施 施工前 After 後 施 施工後
  21. 21. Reproduction of the lakefront 2 (Takahama 湖岸の再生(高浜なぎさ) 湖岸 再生(高浜なぎさ) beach) 湖边的复原2 (高滨岸边) Before前 施 施工前 After 後 施 施工後
  22. 22. 湖岸の再生(渋崎なぎさ) Reproduction of the lakefront 3 (Sibusaki beach) 湖边的复原3 涩崎岸边 施工前 Before 施工後 After
  23. 23. The floating plants (Trapa sp.)zone reconstructed naturally in the front of the artificial beach 自然に再生した浮葉植物帯(ヒシ群落) 在人造的岸边的前面,漂浮性植物自然地恢复了
  24. 24. The trees and the bridge of the walking road of 湖畔遊歩道の植栽と遊歩道専用の橋 lake side 湖边步行路的树木与桥梁
  25. 25. Case A zone : The beach where a person can p Aゾーンwater touch the ~賑わいとふれあいの湖畔~ A地区(这座岸边的水能触到) 施工前 Before B f After 施工後
  26. 26. The reproduction situation of the submerged plant in L. Suwa 水生植物的恢复情况 400 350 300 250 200 分布面積 クロモ現存量 150 100 50 0 1911 1966 1972 2006
  27. 27. The change of the total phosphorus concentration in L Suwa (Nagano Pref 2007) L. Pref.,2007) 总磷浓度的变化(长野县,2007) P mg/l 0.35 0.3 03 0.25 The part service start of the sewer(1979) 0.2 0.15 0 15 Standard TP:0.05mg/l 0.1 0.05 0S48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17
  28. 28. The change of the total nitrogen concentration in L. Suwa (Nagano Pref 2007) Pref.,2007) 总氮浓度的变化(长野县,2007) N mg/l 2.5 2 The part service start of the sewer(1979) 1.5 1 0.5 05 Standard TN0 6 /l St d d TN0.6mg/l 0 S48 51 1 54 57 60 0 63 3 6 9 12 1 15 1 18 1
  29. 29. The change of COD concentration in L. Suwa (Nagano P f 2007) (N Pref.,2007) COD浓度的变化(长野县,2007) COD mg/l 10 The part service start of the sewer(1979) 8 6 4 2 Standard COD:3 mg/l 0 1 2 4 6 8 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 10 12 14 16 18 S4
  30. 30. The problems of Lake Suwa 诹访湖所面临的问题 1.The further improvement of the water qualities ・None-point sources measure of the pollutants ・Recovery of the self-purification power (river and soil) 2. 2 Promotion of the area along the shore ・ Hydrophilic creation and maintenance by the reconstruction of the natural landscape ・ Th aquatic floral zone reconstruction of the area along the The ti fl l t ti f th l th shore 3. Local inhabitants and user promote adequacy of a lake use under the agreement d th t ・ Careful to the use in the coast landside (We need sight, the evaluation for the five senses including the hearing) 4. Ecosystem maintenance (coexistence with the other creatures in nature) as the Lake Suwa ・ Careful to the introduction of the creature from other region
  31. 31. A problem of the aquatic environment improvement p 水环境改善活动中的问题 Inhabitants The information di t h Th i f ti dispatch Information disclosure from inhabitants by the administration Understanding Information disclosure and a of nature commentary by the expert Government Expert An exhibition and joint ownership of the information The coexistence of a person and the creature Conservation Know ridge Aquatic organisms Protetion Understanding Creation f the t C ti of th water culture as new culture lt lt
  32. 32. The lesson that Lake Suwa conveys 诹访湖所传达的教训 1.Restoration is the next best thing : It is the most g important not to break a certain nature * There are few expenses and finishes it * There are little both time and labor and can achieve a purpose surely 2.「 2 「 Coexistence with the other creatures in nature 」is the most important idea * It is human arrogance to think that we can do it g by human power everything 3. There is not the creature living under the most suitable environment it bl i t * Earth is not nature only in human sake *Patience and hesitation are necessary so that we survives
  33. 33. よみがえれ諏訪湖 み ; れ諏訪湖 Revive; Lake Suwa 春 夏 秋 冬 泳げる諏訪湖から飲める諏訪湖 泳げる諏訪湖から飲める諏訪湖へ 諏訪湖を飲もう Fn i 50

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