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  1. 1. Anti-eutrophication Measures for Lakes in Japan 日本湖沼富营养化对策 —Conservation program to prevent the eutrophication of Kasumigaura lake— 霞个浦保全计划中的富营养化对策 National Institute for Environmental Studies 国立环境研究所 Asian Environment Research Group 亚洲环境研究组 Motoyuki Mizuochi 水落元之
  2. 2. History of Water Pollution Control 水污染控制对策过程 水污染控制对策过程 1880 s: 1880’s: First recorded water pollution problem 1950 s 1950’s - Economic growth → H lth D Health Damage cased b water d by t pollution → Damage to Fishery i h 1970 “Environment Pollution Diet” → Water Pollution Control Law reinforcement of control measures
  3. 3. Water quality condition in Tokyo(1967) 东京的水质情况(1967年) ( ) kasai Br.(Arakawa river) DO: 0.6 – 3.7 mg/L BOD: 1.5 – 13.4 mg/L g COD: 11.2 – 58.7 mg/L 2002年 BOD 1.9 mg/L Ryogoku Br.(Sumida river) Taiko Br.(Meguro river) DO: 0.0 – 4.5 mg/L DO: 0.4 – 8.4 mg/L BOD: 9.7 – 26.3 mg/L BOD: 16.8 – 74.4 mg/L COD: 23.3 – 51.6 mg/L COD: 18.4 – 55.6 mg/L 2002年 BOD 2.6 mg/L 2002年 BOD 2.5 mg/L
  4. 4. Eutrophication of closed water bodies 封闭水体的富营养化 (Targets that are hard to attain ) (很难达到的目标)  In 1972, a large-scale outbreak of 1972 plankton occurred in the Seto Inland Sea  In Lake Biwa as well, large-scale outbreaks of freshwater algae have occurred every year since 1977, and the water p , pollution problem is becoming more serious
  5. 5. Control of nutrient salt effluents 控制营养盐类流出 控制营养盐类流出  Eutrophication: Phenomenon in which algae, etc. breed abnormally, and water quality progressively deteriorates (In Tokyo Bay and elsewhere, COD load from internal production is 40-50% of the total)  Substances causing phenomenon: Nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.  Effects: Harm to all types of water, decrease in dissolved oxygen (DO) in bottom layer  Countermeasures: Environmental Quality Standards for N and P (Lakes: 1982, Marine areas: 1993), (from Sanbanze DO Conference Web site) effluent regulations in Water Pollution Law (Lakes: 1985 — for N, 201 lakes and for P, 1,200 lakes; Marine areas: 1993)
  6. 6. State of achievement for the water quality standards (BOD, COD) 水质标准完成率(BOD,COD) 水质标准完成率( O CO ) 100 達成率 (water 80 境基準達 for the(%) ards (%) 60 hievemennt qualit standa 40 ty 環境 State of ach 20 全体 Total 河川 River 湖沼 Lake 海域 Marine 0 974 978 982 986 990 994 998 002 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20
  7. 7. Lake Water Quality Special Measures Law (1984) ( ) 湖沼水质特别措置法(1984年) 湖沼水质特别措置法(1984年)  Basic policy for protecting lake water quality: Basic policy and measures for all lakes and marshes. Cabinet decisions.  Designated lakes: Kasumigaura, Lake Biwa, etc. Cabinet decisions.  Plans for protecting lake water quality: Prefecture Governors draw up plans, and Environment Minister agrees (see next page) ( )  Special measures (see separate page) (from Shiga Prefecture Web site)
  8. 8. Designated Lakes and Reservoirs in Japan 指定湖沼 Lake Nojiri Lake Suwa[Nagano] [Nagano] Lake Biwa[Shiga] Kamafusa Dam [Miyagi] Nakaumi[Shimane] Lake Kasumigaura Lake Shinji[Shimane] [Ibaraki] Lake Inba[Chiba] Lake Tega Lake Kojima [Chiba] [Okayama]
  9. 9. Plans for protecting lake water quality 湖沼水质保全计划 (Drawn up every five years) 1. Policies for water quality protection: Plan period, basic approach to plan, target values for water pp p , g quality 2. Projects relating to water quality protection 3. Regulations and other measures: Including measures against surface- originating loads, and protection i i i l d d i of natural environment 4. Other 4 Oth measures necessary to t protect water quality: Monitoring, investigative research etc research, etc. (from Mapping Kasumigaura Web site)
  10. 10. Outline of Lake Kasumigaura 霞个浦的概要
  11. 11. Outline of the Lake Kasumigaura 霞个浦的概要 Catchment area 2,156.7km2 35% of Ibaraki plef. West lake 172km2,North North Surface are 220km2 lake 36km2,Others 12km2 Average depth 4m Maximum depth 7m Average deposition in 1,282 1 282 mm Average by 1937 to 2003 the catchment are Pondage 80 million m3 Average retention period About 200 days Target environment Lake A, LakeⅢ standard Population in the 960,000 2002 fiscal year catchment area The origin of the lake Sea trace lake
  12. 12. Water environmental standards for the Lake Kasumigaura 霞个浦的水环境标准 Standard Values Parameter Water use Total Class pH BOD SS DO coliform Water supply classes 2 7.5mg 1,000MPN and 3, fishery class 2, 3mg /L 5mg /L A 6.5-8.5 /L / 100mL bathing, and uses listed g, or less or less or more or less in B-C Water supply class 2: Purify water using sedimentation filters and other ordinary means Water supply class 3: Purify water using pre-treatment and other advanced methods pre treatment Fishery class 2: For such alpha-oligosaprobic marine products as the Salmonidae (salmon/trout) species, sweetfish, and marine products for fishery class 3. p , , p y Industrial water class 1: Water purified using sedimentation and other ordinary means Environmental conservation: Limit of not disrupting the day-to-day lives of the population (including things likes walks along the beach).
  13. 13. Water environmental standards for the Lake Kasumigaura 霞个浦的水环境标准 Standard Values Parameter Water use Total Class g Total nitrogen phosphorus Water supply class 3 (special Ⅲ types) and uses listed 0.4mg /L or less 0.03mg /L or less in IV-V i IV V Water supply class 3: Purify P if water using pre-treatment and other advanced methods ( " t i t t t d th d d th d (a "special i l item" is a special purification means capable of removing odor-producing substances). Fishery class 2: For such marine products as smelt and marine products for fishery class 3. Fishery class 3: y Such marine products as koi and crunian carp.4 Conservation of the environment: Limit of not disrupting the day-to-day lives of the population (including day to day things likes walks along the beach).
  14. 14. T-P (mg/L) T-N (mg/L) COD (mg/L L) 0.00 0 00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 0.000 0.020 0.040 0.060 0.080 0.100 0.120 1972 1972 2 1972 1973 1973 1973 3 1974 1974 1974 4 1975 1975 1975 5 1976 1976 1976 6 1977 1977 1977 7 1978 1978 1978 8 1979 1979 1979 9 1980 1980 1980 0 1981 1981 198 1 1982 1982 2 1982 1983 1983 1983 3 1984 1984 1984 4 1985 1985 1985 5 1986 1986 1986 6 1987 1987 1987 7 1988 1988 1988 8 1989 1989 1989 9 1990 1990 1990 0 1991 1991 199 1 1992 1992 1992 2 1993 1993 1993 3 1994 1994 1994 4 1995 1995 1995 5 1996 1996 6 (COD、T N、T P) (COD、T-N、T-P) 1996 1997 1997 1997 7 1998 1998 1998 8 1999 1999 1999 9 霞个浦水质的经年变化 (COD、T-N、T-P) 2000 2000 2000 0 2001 2001 200 1 2002 2002 2002 2 2003 2003 2003 3 T-P T-N COD Change of the water quality in Lake Kasumigaura
  15. 15. Sources of COD, T-N and T-P Discharge in Lake Kasumigaura (2005) 霞个浦的COD,T-N与T-P排出情况(2005年) Industrial wastewater Farmland Stock farming Rainfall Domestic wastewater City area Forest COD 24.4t/day T-N 12.7t/day 12 7t/day T-P TP 0.64t/day Source :
  16. 16. Plan for conservation of lake water quality q y regarding K di Kasumigaura i The 5th program: from 2006 to 2010 p g 霞个浦水质保全计划 第五期:2006-2010年 第五期:2006-2010年 2006 At Kasumigaura, the 1st water quality conservation program started in 1986, and the 5th program’s measures t t d i 1986 d th ’ have been implemented from FY 2006 onward. Colony of floating heart
  17. 17. The target of water quality in Lake Kasumigaura in the 5th program 第五期的水质目标 Present Target (2010) Item Region Ave. in 3 Without With 2005 year countermeasurescountermeasures T-N T-P Present Target
  18. 18. Long-term vision 长期展望 Long-term vision 长期展望 L t i i To make river basin residents feel affection towards Kasumigaura and make individual residents pay attention to their neighborhood river so that they accept that water cleanup is their role, so creating a Kasumigaura that you can swim in and rivers you can play in. Long-term vision: implementation timing and specific water quality goals 长期展望:实现时期及具体的水质目标 q yg Aim to return to the state of the lake in 1966–1970 (COD: 5.0 to 5.5 mg/L) when the shores of Kasumigaura were crowded with people by 2020, 15 years later later. The required load reduction rate is approximately a 20% reduction of the current COD status and about a 30% reduction for total nitrogen and phosphorus content content.
  19. 19. Policy for measures to realize the long-term vision (1) 为实现长期展望而采取措施的方针 Implementation of pollution load reduction measures without exceptions 毫无例外,实施污染负荷削减对策 (1)Elimination of untreated domestic wastewater discharge = “No untreated wastewater discharge” (2)Elimination of untreated factory and business wastewater discharge = “No untreated wastewater discharge” (3)Proper treatment and use of all livestock manure (3)P t t t d f ll li t k (4)Intensive implementation of measures for farms and towns (des g at o o e ue t ate easu es areas) (designation of effluent water measures a eas) (5)Increase of the consumption of fishery products, the collection and utilization of foreign fish, etc.
  20. 20. Policy for measures to realize the long-term vision (2) 为实现长期展望而采取措施的方针 (6)Restoration of natural water purification functions by the conservation of forests, the creation of rivers with rich natural environments, construction of water plant vegetation zones and sandy beaches, etc. t ti f t l t t ti d d b h t (7)Promotion of inflow river measures and in-lake measures, such as the maintenance of direct river purification facilities the maintenance of facilities, wetlands, measures for the elution of lake bottom sludge, and the introduction of water subjected to purification (8)Promotion of survey research with Kasumigaura Environmental Science Center as a base (9)Construction of a system in which residents business owners groups residents, owners, groups, and administrative agencies can collaborate and cooperate with each other
  21. 21. Strengthening of factory/business-related regulations through additional rules and other measures 通过加上一些规定,加强工厂、事业有关规则 Ordinance concerning the Prevention of the Eutrophication of Kasumigaura, Ibaraki Prefecture 有关霞个浦的富营养化防止条例 有 浦 例  Reduction of discharge volume subject to wastewater standards (20 m3/day  10 m3/day)  The performance of wastewater treatment for small-scale establishments with a discharge volume less than 10 m3 made obligatory  Catering establishments with a floor area above a certain limit must notify the authorities; this limit has been lowered
  22. 22. Major project for water quality conservation (1) 水质保全的主要工程(1) Domestic wastewater measures 生活污水对策 策 1)Maintenance of sewage system: increase penetration rate 46% (438.4 thousand people) to 53% (541.9 thousand people). 2)Maintenance of agricultural village sewage system: maintenance at 18 villages (i i ill (increase population with access to l i ih maintained systems from 49.5 thousand people to 69.2 thousand people). 3)Maintenance of integrated clarification tanks: maintenance by g granted p j project 6,000 tanks (p p , (population with access to treated water 23.6 thousand people) — total 16,719 tanks.
  23. 23. Progress of the advanced treatment in the sewer 下水道的发展:高度处理(氮、磷的除去)的推广 下水道的发展:高度处理(氮 磷的除去)的推广 Treatment condition of WWTP discharged to the Lake Kasumigaura (2003) Effluent water quality WWTP Capacity BOD SS T.N T-P (m3/day) [mg/L] [mg/L] [mg/L] [mg/L] Tamatsukuri 589 0.9 2 3.1 0.30 Furuwatari seibu 788 1.1 3 7.6 0.77 Azuma 1,080 0.6 1 2.2 0.20 Tabuse 464 2.0 4 5.5 0.49 Yasato 607 1.0 1 9.2 0.50 Kasumigaura 68,913 <0.5 <1 5.9 0.12 Itako It k 6201 <0.5 <0 5 <1 6.8 68 0.06 0 06 We can get satisfactory effluent water q g y quality from WWPT located y around the Lake Kasumigaura.
  24. 24. Spread of the advanced on site domestic wastewater treatment facility 高度处理净化槽的普及 (BOD・T-N・T-P removal) Physico- Physico-chemical phosphorous removal Biological nitrogen removal
  25. 25. Major project for water quality conservation (2) 水质保全的主要工程(2) Measures for farms etc. 农地等的对策 farms, 1)Reduction of used volume of chemical fertilizer (4,720 t/year  4,000 t/year). 2)Eco-farmer certification (3,628 people  5,000 people). 3)Introduction of fertilizing and rice planting machines (3,720  4,520). 4)Town measures (the cleaning of roads and gutters; with the participation of residents). 5)Designation of effluent measures districts and the intensive implementation of measures.
  26. 26. Simplified side view of prototype two-stage fertilizing and rice two stage planting machine 原形施肥插秧机  Fertilizer hopper for deep layer fertilizing  Fertilizer hopper for side furrow fertilizing  Trench digger for deep layer fertilizing TTrench digger for side f h di f id furrow fertilizing f tili i  Balancing weight
  27. 27. Major project for water quality conservation (3) 水质保全的主要工程(3) In-lake purification measures, etc. 湖沼内净化对策等 1) Dredging of lake bottom sludge (dredging of 2.65 million m3 at Nishiura) — total 8 million m3. 2) Maintenance of water plant vegetation zones including reed and Indian rice by the construction of foreshores (in about 20 locations.) 3) Maintenance of wetlands (Daienjigawa, Sonobegawa, etc.) 4) Wetland restoration project (Tamura district in Tsuchiura City.) 5) Optimization of carp production (reduce the current 5 000 t to 4 700 t ) 5,000 4,700 t.) 6) Measures for the maintenance and increase of fishery resources (construction of seed release vegetation zones for crucian carp, eels, pond smelts, etc.) lt t ) 7) Promotion of the Kasumigaura raw water introduction project.
  28. 28. Example of lake bottom sludge dredging at Tsuchiura-oki 土浦冲的底泥疏浚个案 [Outline of construction work in FY 2005] Dredging volume: about 150 thousand m3 Lake bottom sludge Construction work period: from October 2005 to May 2006 Dredging-related work (channel, soil covering, etc.) dredging for water clarification started in 1975, and large-scale Amada and Nishinosu dredging work has been Transport of sludge carried out from 1992 Color Legend onward, which will d hi h ill Up to 2003 2004 remove about 8 million 2005 From 2006 onward m3 of sludge (including Oil discharge about 7.11 million m3 at 7 11 Tsuchiura-oki), which represents one-fifth of the total amount The transported dredged soil is used sedimentary soil, approx. for the raising of reclaimed land. 40 million m3, by the end Surplus of 2010. The total water volume of soil that had been dredged by the end of 2004 is about 6.72 million m3 (including Surplus water transported together with the dredged soil is discharged into Kasumigaura after suspended about 6.3 million m3 at Dredger (Kasumizaurus) Sludge transport relay ship (Asuka) solids within it are precipitated. Tsuchiura-oki).
  29. 29. Maintenance of water plant vegetation zones M i t f t l t t ti 水生植物的维护 Pine stakes are driven throughout the surfaces of concrete dikes and reed roots are planted. Th main purpose of these measures i the d l d The i f h is h improvement of the view of the river channel and the creation of spawning and habitat sites for fish, etc.
  30. 30. Polluted small river purified system using principle of sedimentation (”Wetland”) 摸样沉池的净化手法(湿地) Kasumigaura
  31. 31. Major project for water quality conservation (4) 水质保全的主要工程(4) Direct purification measures at rivers and other channels 河流与水路的直接净化对策 1) Direct purification at inflow rivers ( Seimeigawa, Sakuragawa, ) p (at g , g , and Koisegawa). 2) Direct purification at dike bottom channels (channels installed around Kasumigaura to receive rain water and agricultural effluent around dikes) (at Sakuragawamura, Mihomura, and Kasumigauramachi). g ) 3) Direct purification at agricultural channels, etc. (Shintonemachi and Iwasemachi). 4) Direct purification at domestic wastewater channels (Itako City and another location).
  32. 32. Actual case using wetland system for purify connected river to the eutrified lake (Seimei River facility Lake Kasumigaura) facility, 到营养化湖泊流入的河流直接净化(清明川净化设施)
  33. 33. Outline of Seimei River Treatment Plant 清明川处理设施的概要 Influent CODMn: 8mg/L g SS : 20mg/L T-N : 3mg/L T-P : 0.2mg/L Plant Area 38,000m2 50m×40m×19Lane Surface Loading 0.48m3/m2/day Water Depth 0.1m Plant Reed Removal Rate T-N、T-P: 50%
  34. 34. Operational condition of Seimei River facility 清明川净化设施的运作情况
  35. 35. Water quality renovation system for polluted small channel (Agricultural channel) 被污染水路(农业用水路)的净化手法
  36. 36. River improvements to promote rich natural environments (Some example in Japan) p Japan) p 多自然型河流修复事例 引地川 二ヶ領本川 遠賀川
  37. 37. Summary of anti-eutrophication measures at Kasumigaura 霞个浦富营养化对策的概略 Proper treatment of manure Promotion of composting Farm Village Stockbreeding Build of small-scale sewage systems g y Installation of enhanced purification tanks Inflow river and channel Fertilizer management g Strengthening of wastewater standards Wetland planting Inflow river and channel Purification Industry y River improvements to promote rich natural environments i h t l i t Planting Fish farming Dredging D d i Urban sewage system Urban Feeding management Reduction in N and P due to increased fish catches Restoration and creation of Promotion of advanced eco-tone sewage treatment
  38. 38. Expenses for major water quality conservation projects (the 4th 5 year period: from 2001 to 2005) 主要水质保全工程的费用(第四期五年间:2001-2005) ( ) Total project cost: 286 billion yen 总计:2860亿日元 Project costs Project name Project scale (millions of yen) Increase the population with access Sewage system 137,557 to treated water by 100,000 Build of agricultural village sewage Increase the population with access 22,400 systems to maintained systems by 20,000 Increase the population with access Installation of purification tanks to treated water by 24 000 24,000 3,107 3 107 (an increase of 6000 tanks) Maintenance of Renewal of existing three plants 11,722 human-waste treatment plants Build of countermeasure facilities for stockbreeding waste and 227 facilities 2,276 wastewater Wetlands Construction of two new locations 900 Purification of wastewater channels 87 Lake bottom sludge dredging Dredging volume: 2.66 million tons 69,000 Construction of vegetation zone 18 places 4,600 with reeds and Indian rice
  39. 39. Thank you for your attention 谢谢您的关注