Loyalty 101


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  • Acquisition and retention focus
    Leveraging both consumer and channel to build loyalty
  • Each week, over 127 million customers walk through a Walmart in the US, versus 68 million people who watch ABC, CBS or NBC Evening News on average
    Studies estimate that 70 percent of purchase decisions are made in-store and 68 percent of in-store purchase are “impulse buys
    It is easy to see why investment in Shopper Marketing is estimated to be growing 21 percent annually when brands need to account for these factors. Canadian growth rate even higher
    Canada is a mature market – 86% of Canadians actively participate in a loyalty program, vs. 52% in the US
    the average Canadian has fewer than 5 loyalty cards in her wallet, compared to over 15 cards in the US
    Canada is a hotbed for marketing services - 5650 advertising & marketing companies
  • The goal with this slide trying to get the point across that there are many, many ways merchants and business get the word out. New ways, combined ways, strengthened ways are key!
  • Key is that loyalty programs work and there is “lift” when redeeming points (buying more than earned).
  • This slide drives the idea that loyalty point programs have impact for merchants and sponsor companies. The study showed that this “pay for performance” strategy helps retailers see immediate results for the investment they make in the program. Consumers receive offers via a medium or source they know and rust, like an association, the creditability of the program communications is much higher than traditional advertising.
  • The goal is to offer the widest, deepest choice of rewards. No black out dates, no terms – just good rewards people and businesses want.
  • Jim Clarke’ Notes/Comments:
    Using this case study, learn how issues of customer ownership, intellectual property, co-branding, and profitability metrics were decided and leveraged.
    Customer ownership—with Citibank Aadvantage (CBAA) the customers are jointly owned, though there is clear demarcation between who owns what touchpoints for the customers. In fact, this ties back to why companies form a strategic alliance in the first place: leveraging what each partner does best. This is just like the economic theory of comparative advantage. Citibank handled everything on the banking side and AA the program administration and fulfillment because it didn’t require developing much in the way of skills and resources outside the current areas of expertise. Only when it was determined that the customer experience needed to be enhanced were these lines crossed. Specifically, Citibank customer service reps can answer basic Aadvantage program questions without forcing the customer to transfer to an Aadvantage rep for handling. Additionally, privacy plays a big part in customer ownership. Customers absolutely need to be comfortable that their banking information is not being shared outside the bank. Finally, part of the agreement is an exit strategy which stipulated that after the CBAA relationship was severed, each party could independently market their own respective new products or relationships to the customers. No one party “owns” the customer since the reality was that no one partner brought the customer to the table independent of the other to begin with. Hand-in-hand on the way up, hand-in-hand on the way out.
    Intellectual property— A company enters into a relationship with another company because each wants to leverage the other’s skills, knowledge, market strategies, etc. Playing one’s cards too close to the vest in this regard invites trouble.
    Co-branding—a very thorny issue. No one partner likes to think of their brand being subservient to the other. In the case of airline cards, however, the primacy of the airline brand was borne out through research. The airline brand represents all the intangible reasons why a consumer would pay $50 for a credit card—the aspiration of travel, feeling savvy, etc. The bank’s brand was very important from a “hygienic” point of view: do I trust this bank, do they post my payments on time, do they do a good job handling disputes with merchants and so forth. Citibank didn’t like this much, however, and worked constantly to elevate the meaning of the brand in the mind of consumers. This led to fights over who’s logo went where on the card, on the ads, in the application, who’s name was mentioned first when referring to the card. It seems petty, but to the marketing people, this was anything but a trivial discussion. Take a look at Citi’s new card art. The CITI logo stretches from top to bottom on the card, and they forced MasterCard’s bug on the back. That’s serious stuff.
    Profitability metrics—the other thorny issue. Consequently, each side really believed the other to be making a bigger pile of cash than the other. This is a very divisive issue because whenever something needs to be negotiated, and if it isn’t spelled out in the contract who will do what, then the discussions inevitably ended up focused on who “stood to gain more” from this promotion, advertisement, mailing, etc. Suffice it to say, with the resources each partner decks against a relationship, neither party should be driven to the poor house with a deal. The structure of who pays whom for what was not perfect coming out of the gate, either. See more notes on this subject later in the “adjustments” section below.
     …working through relationship economics
    Economics are not always openly shared, but the feeling that one partner is gaining more from the relationship than the other needs to be addressed immediately, or the relationship will be a short one. See “adjustments” section below.
    …and politics,
    When two elephants are dancing… This is especially true of branding disputes. In my experience, the relationship is less about politics than it is about the tactics behind the political advantage: the finer points of negotiation—constant negotiation and give-and-take. I would suspect any good checklist for a successful alliance would have “ability to quickly and effectively negotiate” as a key success factor near the top.
    …finalizing contract considerations,
    The CBAA contract process was murderous given the dollars at stake. The evolution of the contract is remarkable as each successive renewal tried to incorporate the learning from the past, plus anticipate the future. We never could clearly anticipate everything though, so the real art of the relationship was managing circumstances beyond the contract. Additionally, after the contract was in place, the more the contract was referred to in discussions between the parties during the course of ongoing business, the worse the atmosphere between the parties. Both sides tried hard to avoid the dialog of, “well the contract says you have to do X and Y, and you’re not doing it.” That causes a negative working environment. The contract cannot become the basis of the relationship.
    …measuring results,
    Since we both contributed heavily in generating the results, we both were equally interested in how things actually turned out. There were only a few key metrics that overlapped for both of us though that we shared: acquisition, attrition, average spend and active account rate. Other than that, since we didn’t have open books, each one of those four variables ended up meaning something different for our respective P&Ls. The only time measuring results became a contentious issue was when we were sure the other guy was benefiting more from an initiative, but we never had solid proof.
    …and structuring automatic consequences and adjustments as programs mature.
    This was one of the bigger bits of wisdom as the CBAA relationship evolved. The first year of the agreement, Citibank was being killed by the transactors—something the initial contract did not anticipate adequately. Knowing that the potential for a great relationship was there if this hurdle could be overcome, the entire contract was scrapped and re-started for year two. Both parties were satisfied, and the relationship grew to become one of the true partnership success stories, and very lucrative for both parties. While questions remained on who really ended up with the better deal, at the end of the day, there’s no chance either would walk away from the other because of this lingering doubt. Perhaps the next evolution to the relationship will be open books, but who knows. Finally, as was stated in the “contract” section above, subsequent contracts tried to incorporate what was learned in the past. The CBAA contract now has automatic pricing adjustments built in based on the movement of six different economic variables. This kind of thing is very helpful because it turns pricing—a potentially volatile issue—into something that is adjusted by an impartial third party, in this case, the market.
  • Loyalty 101

    1. 1. Loyalty 101 1 The Set Up! All Customers Are Not Created Equally “It’s OK To Play Favorites”
    2. 2. Loyalty 101 2 The Set Up! “If you want to change attitudes, start with changing behavior.” Walt Disney “Attitude is the speaker of our present; It is the prophet of our future.” Winston Churchill
    3. 3. Loyalty 101 3 03/16/143 Developments and opportunities: Maritz true loyaltysm lifecycle engagement marketing consumer loyalty sales channel loyalty
    4. 4. Loyalty 101 4 • over 127 million customers choose Walmart vs 68 million who choose to watch the evening news each week • 70% of purchase decisions are made in-store and 68 percent of in-store purchase are “impulse buys” • investment in Shopper Marketing is estimated to be growing 21% annually; Canadian growth rate is even higher • 86% of Canadians actively participate in a loyalty program vs. 52% in the US • 5 loyalty cards in a Canadian wallet vs over 15 cards in the US • 5650 advertising & marketing companies in Canada Market updates
    5. 5. Loyalty 101 “Consumers seem to be moving faster than the retail industry itself. [They] are less brand-connected, more in control, and in all things mobile “ Kiril Tatarinov, Microsoft Corporate Vice President of Business Solutions, Retails BIG Show NYC Jan 11,2011 “There’s clearly something that’s resonating about the fact that you can feed a family in America just by walking into McDonald’s or help an injured animal by the time you’ve ordered your latte at Starbucks.” Follow The Ad Money Opportunities Benefits Features SuccessImpact Research
    6. 6. Loyalty 101 CMG Study 2009 Loyalty Program Impact On Buying: Customers who join loyalty program attached to a credit card will almost immediately spend more on that card by a multiple of 2 or 3 times what they were spending on the same card before they joined the associated loyalty program. The second and far more significant behavior change occurs when the customer makes their first redemption for a reward. At this point their spend on the card increases again by a factor of 3 to 8 times their pre-loyalty program spend. Do Loyalty Programs Work? Do Loyalty Programs Work?
    7. 7. Loyalty 101 Maritz Top of Wallet Study: - 63 percent of current and prospective debit and credit card rewards program participants said they would choose a card that allowed them to earn more points by shopping with a specific merchant over other cards. Dog Lover SuccessImpact Research
    8. 8. Loyalty 101 • Point based program participants outspend non-participants at an average ratio of 2.5 to 1 • Number of purchasing transaction increase by 53 percent • Value of purchases will increase by 51 percent Loyalty Point Program Research Maritz Loyalty Research Loyalty Point Program Research
    9. 9. Loyalty 101 • Rewards that matter • Easy to redeem • Choice in rewards • Tracking & awareness • Small to big rewards Maritz Loyalty Marketing Almanac Study: Small businesses in loyalty programs redeem points for larger valued rewards and rewards for things they need for their businesses. In addition, business owners redeemed 35% of points for travel. Key To Program Success Key to Program Success
    10. 10. Loyalty 101 10 Lessons From
    11. 11. Loyalty 101 11 A Simple Question Do You Know What Your Best Customer Looks Like? ? ? ?? ? ?
    12. 12. Loyalty 101 12 A Simple Question And If You Do – NOW WHAT? ? ? ? ?
    13. 13. Loyalty 101 13 Customer Is King Not All Customers Are Good Customers Challenged Myth
    14. 14. Loyalty 101 14 "The research shows clearly that the existence of a loyalty card scheme is not associated with a degree of loyalty in shopping habits." -Source: Customer Loyalty Today If I’m In Your Pocket You Must Be Loyal Just Because They Carry Your Card Doesn’t Mean You’ve Captured Their Heart Challenged Myth
    15. 15. Loyalty 101 15 Keeping Customers Is Cheaper Then Getting New Ones Not If You Lose The Bad Ones And Find More Of The Good Ones Challenged Myth
    16. 16. Loyalty 101 16 Loyalty Is… Challenged Myth
    17. 17. Loyalty 101 17 Loyalty Is… Challenged Myth Knowing Who Your Customers Are Understanding Who The Best Are & Why Building A Bond Beyond The Price Tag Finding More Of The Same & Growing What You Keep
    18. 18. Loyalty 101 18 Loyalty Is… Challenged Myth Understanding How Your Best Customers Think Capturing Their Hearts & Devotion Rewarding Their Loyalty & Support
    19. 19. Loyalty 101 19 Long-Term vs. Short-Term “Customers who glide into your arms for a coupon or minimal discount are the same customers who dance away with someone else at the slightest enticement.” -The Loyalty Effect
    20. 20. Loyalty 101 20 Long-Term vs. Short-Term Loyalty Drives Long Term Behavior Discount-driven customers are not loyal customers—they will move to a competitor when attracted by lower temporary pricing Frequency program: “I get this for buying that.” Incentives/Promotional Programs Incentives/Miles Programs Frequent Flier Miles Programs Competitive Scale Incentive Programs short-term customer acquisition Loyalty Programs customer retention Better customers are less sensitive to price and are more concerned with the value proposition of the company Loyalty program: “I am given value for being a loyal customer.” Long term
    21. 21. Loyalty 101 21
    22. 22. Loyalty 101 22 History Of Loyalty A Simple Beginning
    23. 23. Loyalty 101 23
    24. 24. Loyalty 101 24 History Of Loyalty  It Was How Small Business Did Business:  New the best customers  New the worst customers  Was able to offer more services to the best  Owner was involved in all aspects  As Things Changed :  Increased competition weakened the bonds  Increased complexity blurred the relationships  Increased organization size numbed the brain
    25. 25. Loyalty 101 25 History Of Loyalty  By The 1950’s:  Manufacturing Was King = Product Volume  230 Brands Of Refrigerators  Birth Of Mass Marketing  A Customer Is A Consumer  Businesses Lost Sight Of The Customer  By The Late 1970’s :  America Consumers Tired Of Bad Business  Rejection Of Poor Quality & Low Customer Service  No Longer Loyal To A Brand
    26. 26. Loyalty 101 26 History Of Loyalty  The Start Of Modern Loyalty Actions Most Were Unsophisticated Offerings:  Merchandise & Coupon Based  S&H Greenstamps  Raleigh Cigarette Coupons  Mainly Consumer Frequency Programs Market Conditions Created A Shift Towards Longer Term Relationships
    27. 27. Loyalty 101 27 Birth Of Frequent Flier Miles 1981 Regulatory And Market Changes Give Birth To FFP
    28. 28. Loyalty 101 28 History Of Frequent Flier Miles  1981 American Airlines Invents Frequent Flyer Miles  Others Quickly Follow Loyalty Becomes Impossible Without A Planned Program
    29. 29. Loyalty 101 29 FFPs: Network Expansion  Car Rentals  Hertz joins and subsequently drops, citing the high costs. Later rejoins after dramatically losing market share without a FFP  Today Hertz belongs to 20 FFPs  Hotels  After in-house Frequent-Stay Programs, hotels conclude that the greatest marketing benefits still come from the FFPs
    30. 30. Loyalty 101 30 Insight "We didn't want an FFP. But it came to my attention that FFPs were siphoning business travel away from us. We did it defensively, and I think if we had not done that we would have been terribly disadvantaged." Herb Kelleher, President, Southwest Airlines First 20 Years Of FFP 9.77 Trillion Miles Accumulated - Source: InsideFlyer Magazine 2001
    31. 31. Loyalty 101 31 FFPs: Expansion Continues Banks Team Up With Airlines Activation Spend Acquisition SPEND ACTIVATION ACQUISITION
    32. 32. Loyalty 101 32 FFPs: Expansion Continues  Co-branded Cards Wildly Successful  Average spend up to 10x higher  Active account rate up to 80 percent or higher  Attrition and acquisition costs decline
    33. 33. Loyalty 101 33 FFP Membership Takes Off  Worldwide Frequent Flier Membership Growth continues  From 150,000 members in 1981 to 200,000,000 members in 2001 Proven cardholder addiction to miles by the fact that more miles earned via a card than by actually flying
    34. 34. Loyalty 101 34 Why Miles Were So Successful?  Rewarding the Behavior You Seek:  Highly Appealing  Aspirational Value - People love to envision themselves in their dream destinations that air travel can take them to.  Trophy Value -Traveling is something to be proud of.  Perceived Value- More valuable than t-shirts or CDs.  It’s the Law - Gravity, Direction, Universal Principle
    35. 35. Loyalty 101 35 Problems Begin  By 1991: All major airlines and banks established exclusive relationships Hundreds of credit card issuers locked out
    36. 36. Loyalty 101 36 Solution Found – Generic Points  1994: “Virtual Airline” is Born  The Idea  Run the world’s largest airline partnership and outsource the jets, pilots, flight attendants, airport operations  Miles by a different name  Single Branded Miles vs. Co-branded Miles  Generic vs. Branded Points  Non-Restrictive Points – Any Airline In The World  Improved rate of attainability
    37. 37. Loyalty 101 37 Solution Found – Generic Points  How Generic Points Work:  Sold to Over 125 of the largest US Banks  Consumer Acceptance: fees $25 to $75  Spend Ranges: $8,000 to $22,500 a year  Officially Sponsored by MasterCard  Amex plays “Follow the Leader”  $200 Billion + Spent on Enrolled Cards  No need to Co-brand with an airline partner
    38. 38. Loyalty 101 38 Solution Found – Generic Points Unrestricted Points Are Simple & Powerful:  Compelling Offer:  Free travel – high perceived value  No complicated conversions  Singular reward  Customers join for free or fee, i.e.,  Fee for Classic and Gold cardholders  Free for Platinum cardholders  Fee for Small Business cardholders
    39. 39. Loyalty 101 39 Learning’s Gathered Data Begins To Chug In
    40. 40. Loyalty 101 40* Source: Carlson Marketing Group Loyalty Learning's Consumer Reaction to a Loyalty Program* . . . can attract new business . . . 80% 52% 70% 16% 40% 24% 8% 6% 4% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Credit Card Retail Airlines More business than before Already giving company as much business as possible Would have given them more business even w/o program 73% 18% 24% 18% 43% 47% 8% 39% 27% 1% 0% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Credit Card Retail Airlines Use just that company Shop around/spread purchases less than before Shop around/spread purchases same as before Shop around/spread purchases more than before “Companies can boost profits by almost 100% by retaining just 5% more of their customers.” - Harvard Business Review 45% started doing business with a company because of their loyalty program . . . and ultimately drive profitability
    41. 41. Loyalty 101 41 Consumers were asked, “For what type of product do you prefer to redeem your loyalty balances?” Consumer Reaction to a Loyalty Program 26% 14% 12% 10% 4% 0% 0% 1% 18% 12% 18% 34% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% Under $30K $30K - $49.9K $50K - $74.9K > $75K AverageAnnualIncome Source: Jupiter Communications/NFO (2/00); N=1,478 • Across all income levels, travel is a strong loyalty incentive • The power of travel becomes more pronounced as income levels increase CashGift CertificatesCharityTravel Loyalty Learning's
    42. 42. Loyalty 101 42 Consumers were asked, “What type of reward would you prefer?” Consumer Reaction to a Loyalty Program Airline Miles Gift Certificates Merchandise from a Catalog % Off Coupons None 52% 16% 12% 11% 9% Source: The Loyalty Effect, Frederick Reichheld. Loyalty Learning's
    43. 43. Loyalty 101 43 Loyalty Learning’s  71% of consumers if FFP said they wouldn’t trade their frequent flyer benefits for lower airfares. Source: Frequent Flier Magazine  The proven addition of miles can drive repeat purchases and maximize customer lifetime value. Source: Hambrecht & Quist  Consumers charge about $3,200 a year on a typical credit card – add miles and they spend more than $18,000 a year. Source: Bank Rate Monitor
    44. 44. Loyalty 101 44 FFP Learning’s  How “Free Travel” Can Profitably & Quickly Increase Revenue Channels:  Number of cardholders, activation rate, charge volume, frequency and average purchase of existing base  Profitability and loyalty of key customer segments – moving existing customers up the spending ladder  Drive conscious choice in cardholders’ minds to be loyal to your bank – particularly your “best” customers FREE TICKET
    45. 45. Loyalty 101 45 FFP Learning’s  How “Free Travel” Can Profitably & Quickly Increase Revenue Channels:  Develop distinct differentiation over your competitors  Provide a low-cost, comparison program to “Rewards Program” pilot tests in selected product or segments  Create stickiness to annual fees  Charge enrollment fees FREE TICKET
    46. 46. Loyalty 101 46 The Market Never Stops Changing The Next Wave Takes Shape
    47. 47. Loyalty 101 47 The Evolution Continues  2000 Next Generation Of Mile Program Miles + Network + Card + Travel Shift From Frequency To Loyalty
    48. 48. Loyalty 101 48  The Vision Of WebMiles  Change The FFP Landscape  Offer One Of The Most Valued Rewards – Unrestricted Airline Points – To Drive Profitable Cardholder Behavior  Any Airline. Any Flight. Any Time. sm  Unlike Carrier Mile Programs – No Restrictions, No Blackout Dates, No Limited Seating  Gain Member Value Through “Dollars Off”  Build A True Loyalty Network  Earnings Velocity Through Attainability – More Than Web, Every Day Shopping The Power Of The Universal Mile
    49. 49. Loyalty 101 49 Availability: 11 out of 134 seats or 8% Availability: 123 out of 134 seats or 92% Availability drastically enhanced. Rather than being limited to an estimated 8% of seats, WebMiles has 92% of seats available. Flexibility drastically enhanced. Rather than one airline, WebMiles can book on any major carrier. Travel-based loyalty solution with one airline The Power Of The Universal Mile . . . Or any other airline
    50. 50. Loyalty 101 50 300 Miles 800 Miles250 Miles100 Miles 375 Miles300 Miles $ 300 $ 300$250$ 100 $ 75$ 300 Gas & OilGrocery Electronics Trip TeleCom Retail (online & offline) + + ++ + The Network as a Catalyst for Increased Spend and Activation Miles Earned Through Partners: 2,125 Miles from Card: 1,325 + Total Earning that Month: 3,450 + PLUS all other card purchases outside the partner network $ Purchases on card at partner retail locations Universal Mile + Network + Card XYZ BANK $1,325
    51. 51. Loyalty 101 51 $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 $2,000 $2,200 $2,400 IncreaseinMonthlyChargeVolume(in$Millions) * Revenue figure based on 2.9% of gross charge volume in interchange and miscellaneous fees, plus 60% revolving balances at 13.9% annual interest. Average Monthly Spend Incremental monthly revenue charge volume increases over 400% & revenues increase $100Million + a year. Sample Card Issuer with 200,000 cards Increased Spend Increased Activation Increased Acquisition TOTAL $ 4.0 M $ 2.7 M $ 1.9 M $ 8.6M $ 48.0 M $ 32.8 M $22.3 M $ 103.1M Monthly Revenue Increase Annual Revenue Increase EXAMPLE* Incremental monthly charge volume goes from $72M to $314.2M —an increase of 430% Universal Mile + Network + Card
    52. 52. Loyalty 101 52 Applied History + Learning’s How To Ride The Wave
    53. 53. Loyalty 101 53 Reichheld Loyalty Effect Model Six factors that allow companies to form a clear view of a customer's life-time value: The Yard Stick To Judge By Cost of customer acquisition Base profit Increased profit from additional sales Reduced operating costs of a loyal customer base Profits from loyal customer referrals Price premiums charged to loyal customers who are less price sensitive
    54. 54. Loyalty 101 54  When Forging New Alliances  Leveraging What Each Partner Does Best  Customer Ownership Clear demarcation between who owns “touch points” Privacy plays a big part in customer ownership No one partner brings the customer to the table  Exit Strategy From The Start  Intellectual Property – Don’t Play It Too Close To The Vest  Co-Branding – No One Partner Likes To Think Of Their Brand Being Subservient To The Other Considerations
    55. 55. Loyalty 101 55  When Forging New Alliances  Profitability Metrics Partner economics Tough without “open books” Be careful of “who stands to gain more” thinking Address immediately “the feeling the other partner is gaining more” – otherwise a short-term relationship  Brand Reputations  Partner Customer Base  Partner Business Philosophy  Partner Product & Services Considerations
    56. 56. Loyalty 101 56  When Forging New Alliances  Metrics Which Overlap Partners Include: Acquisition Attrition Average Spend Active Account Rate  Apply Learning’s From The Past Into Future Contract Developments Pricing adjustments built in based on movement of economic variables Allows the impartial third party – the market – to impact pricing, reducing partner volatility Considerations
    57. 57. Loyalty 101 57  When Forging New Alliances  Partner Financial Contributions: New Account Acquisition Share Vale Proposition Funding On-going Activation/Retention Marketing Efforts Human Resource Commitments  Contract Development: Requires Dedicated Team Time Factor Multiple Contract Templates Regular Scheduled Meetings Considerations
    58. 58. Loyalty 101 58  When Forging New Alliances  Key Profit Drivers: Annual Fees % Of Active Accounts Average Number Of Transactions Average Transaction Size Average Total Spend/Account Average % Of Revolvers Average Revolving Balance Average % Interest Rate Attrition Rate Considerations
    59. 59. Loyalty 101 59  When Forging New Alliances Keep Two Simple Thoughts In Mind: Considerations 1. The Real Art Of The Relationship Will Be Managing Circumstances Beyond The Contract - A Contract Doesn’t Make A Relationship 2. The Whole Is Greater Then The Parts – Each Party Brings Value, Ideas And Strength
    60. 60. Loyalty 101 60  As An Industry We Need To Keep In Mind: Industry Wide Focus Attainability Of The Program Member Limited Earnings Capability = Short-Term Loyalty & Interest Single Partner, Stand Alone Programs Even Top Customers Can’t Make For A Successful Program – It Requires A Network Mind Set – “But I Don’t Travel” Getting More Than The Top 8% Of A Base To Realize They Can Travel
    61. 61. Loyalty 101 61 The Close! “All things are created twice: first mentally; then physically. The key to creativity is to begin with the end in mind, with a vision and a blueprint of desired results.” Stephen Covey “If you can keep your head while those all about you are losing theirs, you probably haven’t check your voice mail.” Jack Hennies
    62. 62. Loyalty 101 62 Conclusion Card Partners + Networks + Miles + Travel Makes For A World Of Difference
    63. 63. Loyalty 101 63 Conclusion  The best way to keep your customers coming back is to send them away.  Oddly enough, the ticket to cardholder loyalty really is a ticket.