• Large and various group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms ranging from unicellular to multi-cellular form.• Eukaryotic organism, have a nucleus enclose within a membrane and plastids bound in one or more membrane.• Many are photoautotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon.
CONCLUSION:An algae is a photoautotrophic organismthat derive energy both from photosynthesisand uptake of organic carbon.
What are theadvantages of bio fuels when compared to ethanol?
• Renewability and biodegradability• Lower carbon emission: when bio fuels are burned, they produce significantly less carbon output and fewer toxins, making them a safer alternative to preserve atmosphere quality and lower pollution.• Economic stimulation: bio fuels are produced locally, bio fuels production will also increase the demand for suitable bio fuels crops, providing economic stimulation to the agriculture industry
CONCLUSION:• Renewability: much more easily renewable.• Biodegradability: easily biodegradability and far safer to handle, less hazardous, less expensive to clean up
• Algae need water, sunlight and carbon dioxide to grow. The oil they produce can then be harvested and converted into biodiesel; the algaes.• Carbohydrate content can be fermented into ethanol. Both are much cleaner-burning fuels than petroleum-based diesel or gas.• During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. Up to 99% of the carbon dioxide in solution can be converted in large-scale open pond systems.
• There are more than 100,000 strains of algae, with differing ratios of three main types of molecule: oils, carbohydrates and protein. Strains of algae high in carbohydrates as well as oils produce starches that can be separated and fermented into ethanol; the remaining proteins can be turned into animal grains. Green Fuel hopes its pilot plant will see initial yields of 8000 gallons of biodiesel and 5000 gallons of ethanol per acre of algae.
CONCLUSION:• During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. Up to 99% of the carbon dioxide in solution can be converted in large-scale open pond system.• Photons + CO2 + H2O > Biomass + O2
What are the challenges toproduce fuel from algae?
• Overall challenge is to develop low‐cost high‐productivity.• Production systems at scale (e.g. 1000 hectares). To produce algae fuel, it require around 15000 square mile.• Technical challenges are mostly upstream ‐ related to algae.
CONCLUSION:• Production systems at scale (e.g. 1000 hectares). To produce algae fuel, it require around 15000 square mile.
How to maximizingenergy efficiency of algalphotosynthesis?
• Better protection from outside and better control of gas transfer during the process.• Better control of parameters influencing the algae culture such as temperature, pH and salinity.
CONCLUSION:• Better control of parameters influencing the algae culture such as temperature, pH and salinity.
REFERENCES:• http://en.wikpedia.org/wiki/Algae-fuel• Michael Anissimov (2010, September08) “What is algae” taken on October06,2010 from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-algae.htm• Melissa Mayntz “Advantages and disadvantages of bio fuels” taken on October07, 2010 from Advantages and Disadvantages of Bio fuels - Love To Know Green Living.htm• Prabhakar Pillai “Advantages and disadvantages of bio fuels” taken on October07,2010 from Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels.htm• Amanda Leigh Haag “Powered bio fuels: turning algae into americals new energy taken on October07, 2010 from http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/biofuel/4213775
• Dr. Luc Haspeslagh “Aquatic phototrophs for the production of fuels and green chemicals” taken October06, 2010 from http://www.biofuelstp.eu/spm3/pdf/TOTAL_Microalgae.pdf• John Addison (2010, March, 03) “Visit greenhome.com - buy solar lights to shower curtains – the walk in cleantech” taken on October06,2010 from http://www.cleantechblog.com/2010/03/fuelfromalgae-challenge- do-not-stop.html• Bohemian (2010, July02) “Next generation bio fuels: five challenges and five positive notes’ taken on October07, 2010 from http:www.//thhouraction.com/blogs/bohemian/next- generation- bio fuels-Five Challenges and Five-positive notes.• Sebastian Olenyi (2009, May) “ Algae – the energy solution? ” taken on October07, 2010 from www.scribd.com/doc/15717635/Algae-the- energy-solution