DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS NAME MATRIC CARD NO.MOHAMAD ZARIF MUAZ BIN D2010137494 ROSLANRIDWAN BIN SHAMSUDIN D20101037472
A doctor has ordered a series of lab testsincluding:1. Blood sugar level.2. Ketone level.3. Blood acidity.4. Additional tests 1. Blood electrolyte tests 2. Urinalysis 3. Chest X-ray 4. A recording of the electrical activity of the heart (electrocardiogram)…..in order to confirmed Diabetic ketoacidosisWhat would the tests revealed? What isDiabetic ketoacidosis?
Without insulin from the pancreas, glucose from food DKA is unable to be processed by the body. Without glucose for energy, the body The liver produces more breakdown fat. Ketones are the by glucose to feed the body , butproduct of fat metabolism and build up in without insulin, the glucose the bloodstream. This can be fatal that accumulates in the causing heart rhythm abnormalities. bloodstream. The kidney utilize water toKetones and glucose are transferred into empty the bloodstream of urine excess glucose and ketones. Water is lost along with excess glucose and ketones. The lose of water leads to dehydration, which worsens the ketoacidosis in a vicious cycle and causes low blood pressure and shocks.
When our When we have body breaks excess ketones in down fat and our blood, our protein for blood will become Blood sugar level will acidic (acidosis). energy, toxic rise (hyperglycemia). This canacids known as As your body breaks damage organs ketones will throughout your down fat and protein for enter our body. energy, your blood sugar bloodstream. level will continue to rise.
FIND INSULIN FATTY ACIDS ANOTHERPROBLEMS USED SOURCE KETONES GET DKA PRODUCED
• Insulin – Not enough of them – Insulin from body cannot be synthesized• Another sources – Body will used amino acids, fats and lipid as sources• Fatty acid used – Ketone will produce from oxidation process – Increase blood acidity in our body – known as ketonemia
What is ketones??• Three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver.• acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta- hydroxybutyric acid.• Smell of acetone in breath is a common feature in ketosis.• Ketosis is a state of elevated levels of ketone bodies in the body.
The resulting increase in bloodThe body shifts sugarfrom its normal occurs, because This will leadfed metabolism insulin is the person toby using fat for unavailable to get diabetes. fuel transport sugar into cells for future use.
• receive fluids either orally or through a vein (intravenously) until youre rehydrated. The fluids will replace those youve lost through excessive Fluid urination, as well as help dilute the excess sugar in your blood.replacement • Electrolytes are minerals in your blood that carry an electric charge, such as sodium, potassium and chloride. The absence of insulin can lower the level of several electrolytes in your blood. Youll receive Electrolyte electrolytes through your veins to help keep your heart, muscles andreplacement nerve cells functioning normally. • Insulin reverses the processes that cause diabetic ketoacidosis. Along with fluids and electrolytes, youll receive insulin therapy usually through a vein. When your blood sugar level falls below 240 mg/dL and Insulin your blood is no longer acidic, you may be able to stop intravenous therapy insulin therapy and resume your normal insulin therapy.