Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
CHETKANT BHUSAL
MPH 3rd Batch
National Medical College Teaching Hospital
Birgunj, Nepal
 A teenager, or teen, is a young person
whose age falls within the range from thirteen
through nineteen (13–19). They are...
Changes Boys Go Through During Puberty
During puberty, boys will go through the following
changes:
• The growth of hair: U...
Changes Girls Go Through During Puberty
• Menstrual periods will begin during the teenage
years (although they may start b...
Definition
 The legally or formally recognized union of a
man and a woman (or , in some jurisdictions,
two people of the ...
 Teen marriage is
typically defined as the
union of
two adolescents, joined
in marriage from the age
range of 13–19 years...
 Teen marriage, which has existed for centuries, is a
complex issue, rooted deeply in gender inequality,
tradition and po...
 Many factors contribute to teen marriage such
as love, teen pregnancy, religion, security, family
and peer pressure, arr...
 Teen marriage: Still with us
 One third of the world’s girls are married before the
age of 18 and 1 in 9 are married be...
 That’s an average of 14.2 million girls annually
will marry under the age of 18 year.
 That’s around …
1,166,666 a mont...
 In countries like Niger, Chad, Mali,
Bangladesh, Guinea and the Central African
Republic (CAR), the rate of early and fo...
 Nepal is one of the ten countries to have high
child marriage prevalence.
 Nepal holds 8th position among the countries...
 According to the report, African countries are in
the front run to have high child marriage
prevalence where Niger, Chad...
 Nepal census 2011 shows an overwhelming
progress in literacy, the rate of which rose to 65.9
percent from the 57.4 in 20...
 As per the UNICEF report 2011 with 51
percent of Nepali girls marrying before 18,
Nepal stands second among the top 10
c...
The causes of early and forced marriage are
complex, interrelated and dependent on
individual circumstances and context. B...
 Girls living in poor households are almost twice
as likely to marry before 18 than girls in higher
income households.
 ...
Gender inequality –
• women and girls
often occupy a lower
status in societies as a
result of social and
cultural traditio...
Lack of Education-
 Girls with higher levels of schooling are less
likely to marry as children. In Mozambique,
some 60 pe...
Negative traditional or religious practices –
 Dowry system
 in many countries the importance of preserving
family ‘hono...
 Some also fear that if girls receive an
education, they will be less willing to fulfill
their traditional roles as wife ...
Conflicts, disasters and emergencies
 disasters and emergencies increase economic
pressures on households and many famili...
Trafficking: Poor families
are tempted to sell their girls
not just into marriage, but
into prostitution, as the
transacti...
Physical consequences
 Child brides are likely to become pregnant at an
early age and there is a strong correlation betwe...
 Teenage marriage makes girls far more vulnerable
to the profound health risks of early pregnancy and
childbirth – just a...
 Still births and newborn deaths are 50% higher
among mothers under 20 than in women who
get pregnant in their 20s.
 In ...
Effects on Health
Girls ages l0-14 are five times more likely
to die in pregnancy or childbirth than
women aged 20-24 and...
 Child marriage makes girls far more vulnerable
to the profound health risks of early pregnancy
and childbirth – just as ...
 Still births and newborn deaths are 50% higher
among mothers under 20 than in women who
get pregnant in their 20s.
 In ...
Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS
 Child brides may also suffer vulnerability to
HIV/AIDS.
 Being young and female in Africa is ...
Violence
 Girls who marry before 18 are more likely to
experience domestic violence than their peers
who marry later. A s...
Developmental consequences
 Child Marriage also has considerable implications
for the social development of child brides,...
Psychological and social consequences
 It is a huge responsibility for a young girl to
become a wife and mother and becau...
 Women who marry early are more likely to
suffer abuse and violence, with inevitable
psychological as well as physical
co...
 Child marriage marks an abrupt and often
violent introduction to sexual relations.
 The young girls are powerless to re...
Married adolescents are typified by:
 High levels of unprotected sexual relations
 Large age gaps with sexual partners
...
59.8
43.6
71.9
16.9 12.6
20.5
0
20
40
60
80
South and East
Africa
West and Central
Africa
Latin America and
Caribbean
Perc...
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25
Age at Marriage
MeanSpouse/PartnerAge
Difference
South America Cent...
42
2
14
4
20
9
0
20
40
60
80
100
Condom Use Among Girls Wishing to Avoid Pregnancy
Unmarried, Burkina Faso
Married, Burkin...
Education of 15-19-year-old-girls, by marital
and parenting status
0
20
40
60
80
100
Brazil Kenya Nigeria
Percentenrolledi...
 As per the Country Code 2010 (Marriage
Chapter), the legal age of marriage is 20 for
both man and woman and 18 for woman...
 Child marriage and MDG are inter-linked to
each other.
 The one reason that country may miss the
gender-linked Millenni...
 Educating and empowering girls
 Supporting young people to become activists for
change
 Mobilizing and educating commu...
 Raising awareness in the media
 Providing Youth Friendly Health Services.
 Ending teen marriage requires the consolida...
 http://relationships.blurtit.com
 http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teenager
 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teen_marriag...
 NEPAL: The hidden costs of early marriage,
humanitarian news and analysis, a service of the UN
Office for the Coordinati...
 Child marriages on decline in Nepal: UN
reportSunday, 14 October 2012 11:47
 Early marriage affecting girl's education,...
THANK YOU
Suggestions and Feedbacks
a
Teenage marriage
Teenage marriage
Teenage marriage
Teenage marriage
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Teenage marriage

2,910 views

Published on

Teenage marriage is challenging issues in Developing countries

Published in: Health & Medicine

Teenage marriage

  1. 1. CHETKANT BHUSAL MPH 3rd Batch National Medical College Teaching Hospital Birgunj, Nepal
  2. 2.  A teenager, or teen, is a young person whose age falls within the range from thirteen through nineteen (13–19). They are called teenagers because their age number ends in "teen".  Someone aged 18 or 19 is also considered a young adult.  A teenager is any person who is between the ages of 13 and 19; during this important stage of human development, boys and girls reach puberty, although this may happen at different ages, depending on a boy or girl's specific hereditary factors.
  3. 3. Changes Boys Go Through During Puberty During puberty, boys will go through the following changes: • The growth of hair: Under the arms, in the pubic region, and sometimes on the chest or face (beard and moustache) • Deepening voice; the voice will "break" and become more like a man's voice • Sexual feelings and erections, "wet dreams", etc
  4. 4. Changes Girls Go Through During Puberty • Menstrual periods will begin during the teenage years (although they may start before and after the teens, in very rare cases) • Hair grows under the arms, on the legs, and in the pubic region • Sexual feelings will develop; these may manifest themselves as intense "crushes"
  5. 5. Definition  The legally or formally recognized union of a man and a woman (or , in some jurisdictions, two people of the same sex) as partners in a relationship.  A union between persons that is recognized by customs or religious traditions as a marriage.  A forced marriage is defined as a marriage "conducted without the valid consent of one or both parties and is a marriage in which duress - whether physical or emotional - is a factor"
  6. 6.  Teen marriage is typically defined as the union of two adolescents, joined in marriage from the age range of 13–19 years old.
  7. 7.  Teen marriage, which has existed for centuries, is a complex issue, rooted deeply in gender inequality, tradition and poverty.  The practice is most common in rural and impoverished areas, where prospects for girls can be limited.  In many cases, parents arrange these marriages and young girls have no choice.
  8. 8.  Many factors contribute to teen marriage such as love, teen pregnancy, religion, security, family and peer pressure, arranged marriage, economic and political reasons, and cultural reasons.  Studies have shown that teenage married couples are often less advantageous, may come from broken homes, may have little education and work low status jobs in comparison to those that marry after adolescence
  9. 9.  Teen marriage: Still with us  One third of the world’s girls are married before the age of 18 and 1 in 9 are married before the age of 15.  In 2010, 67 million women 20-24 around the world had been married before the age of 18.  Between 2011 and 2020, more than 140 million girls will become child brides, according to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).  If present trends continue, 142 million girls will be married before their 18th birthday over the next decade.
  10. 10.  That’s an average of 14.2 million girls annually will marry under the age of 18 year.  That’s around … 1,166,666 a month 269230 a week 38,461 a day 27 every minute Or, around one girl every two seconds  Furthermore, of the 142 million girls who will marry before they are 18, 50 million will be under the age of 15.
  11. 11.  In countries like Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea and the Central African Republic (CAR), the rate of early and forced marriage is 60 per cent and over.  Child brides are particularly prevalent in South Asia (46 per cent) and in sub-Saharan Africa (38 per cent).  While countries with the highest prevalence of child marriage are concentrated in Western and Sub-Saharan Africa, due to population size, the largest number of child brides reside in South Asia.
  12. 12.  Nepal is one of the ten countries to have high child marriage prevalence.  Nepal holds 8th position among the countries worldwide to have high prevalence of child marriage, as reported by 'The Status of the World's Children-2011, UNICEF
  13. 13.  According to the report, African countries are in the front run to have high child marriage prevalence where Niger, Chad, Mali, Bangladesh, Guinea, Central African Republic, Mozambique and Nepal runs from first position to the eight spontaneously.  Similarly, excerpting the findings from Nepal Health Demographic Survey (NDHS-2011), the event highlighted that 55 percent women aged 25- 49 were married by the age of 18 in 2011 making the country second highest after Bangladesh where it is 66 per cent.
  14. 14.  Nepal census 2011 shows an overwhelming progress in literacy, the rate of which rose to 65.9 percent from the 57.4 in 2001.  However, the marriage status still paints a gloomy picture.  Among women age 25-49, 55 percent were married by age 18, and 74 percent were married by age 20.  Median age at marriage for women and men are 17.5 and 21.6 respectively. Source : NDHS 2011
  15. 15.  As per the UNICEF report 2011 with 51 percent of Nepali girls marrying before 18, Nepal stands second among the top 10 countries in the world in terms of child marriage prevalence, a report says.
  16. 16. The causes of early and forced marriage are complex, interrelated and dependent on individual circumstances and context. But the practice is driven by these main factors: Poverty-  In families on a low income, girls may be viewed as an economic burden.  The perception of girls’ potential to earn an income as comparatively poor pushes girls out of their homes and into marriage.
  17. 17.  Girls living in poor households are almost twice as likely to marry before 18 than girls in higher income households.  More than half of the girls in Bangladesh, Mali, Mozambique and Niger are married before age 18. In these same countries, more than 75 percent of people live on less than $2 a day.
  18. 18. Gender inequality – • women and girls often occupy a lower status in societies as a result of social and cultural traditions, attitudes, beliefs that deny them their rights and stifle their ability to play an equal role in their homes and communities
  19. 19. Lack of Education-  Girls with higher levels of schooling are less likely to marry as children. In Mozambique, some 60 percent of girls with no education are married by 18, compared to 10 percent of girls with secondary schooling and less than one percent of girls with higher education.  Educating adolescent girls has been a critical factor in increasing the age of marriage in a number of developing countries, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Thailand.
  20. 20. Negative traditional or religious practices –  Dowry system  in many countries the importance of preserving family ‘honour’ and girls’ virginity is such that parents push their daughters into marriage well before they are ready.  There is a belief that marriage safeguards against ‘immoral’ or ‘inappropriate behavior.’  Some people in Ethiopia’s Amhara region believe that menstruation is induced by intercourse.
  21. 21.  Some also fear that if girls receive an education, they will be less willing to fulfill their traditional roles as wife and mother.  In some cultures, child marriage is encouraged to increase the number of pregnancies and ensure enough children survive into adulthood to work on family land and support elderly relatives. Failure to enforce laws  sometimes families are not even aware they are breaking the law.  In some countries early marriage is so prevalent, prosecutions are seldom brought.
  22. 22. Conflicts, disasters and emergencies  disasters and emergencies increase economic pressures on households and many families that wouldn’t previously have considered early marriage turn to it as a last resort.
  23. 23. Trafficking: Poor families are tempted to sell their girls not just into marriage, but into prostitution, as the transaction enables large sums of money to change hands.  Some families use marriage to build and strengthen alliances, to seal property deals, settle disputes or pay off debts.
  24. 24. Physical consequences  Child brides are likely to become pregnant at an early age and there is a strong correlation between the age of a mother and maternal mortality.  Fertility among women ages 15 to 19 years is 81 per 1000.  Girls ages l0-14 are five times more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth than women aged 20-24 and girls aged 15-19 are twice as likely to die.
  25. 25.  Teenage marriage makes girls far more vulnerable to the profound health risks of early pregnancy and childbirth – just as their babies are more vulnerable to complications associated with premature labor.  According to the UN, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15-19 years in developing countries.  Of the 16 million adolescent girls who give birth every year, about 90% are already married. UNICEF estimates some 50 000 die, almost all in low and middle-income countries.
  26. 26.  Still births and newborn deaths are 50% higher among mothers under 20 than in women who get pregnant in their 20s.  In many poor countries, most young girls, regardless of age, are forced to demonstrate their fertility once they are married.  These children, because that’s what they are, are discouraged from using contraceptives or might have to ask their husbands’ permission, or they have no knowledge of or access to what they need.
  27. 27. Effects on Health Girls ages l0-14 are five times more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth than women aged 20-24 and girls aged 15-19 are twice as likely to die. Child brides face a higher risk of contracting HIV because they often marry an older man with more sexual experience. Girls ages 15 – 19 are 2 to 6 times more likely to contract HIV than boys of the same age in sub-Saharan Africa.
  28. 28.  Child marriage makes girls far more vulnerable to the profound health risks of early pregnancy and childbirth – just as their babies are more vulnerable to complications associated with premature labor.  According to the UN, complications from pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death for girls aged 15-19 years in developing countries.  Of the 16 million adolescent girls who give birth every year, about 90% are already married. UNICEF estimates some 50 000 die, almost all in low and middle-income countries.
  29. 29.  Still births and newborn deaths are 50% higher among mothers under 20 than in women who get pregnant in their 20s.  In many poor countries, most young girls, regardless of age, are forced to demonstrate their fertility once they are married.  These children, because that’s what they are, are discouraged from using contraceptives or might have to ask their husbands’ permission, or they have no knowledge of or access to what they need.
  30. 30. Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS  Child brides may also suffer vulnerability to HIV/AIDS.  Being young and female in Africa is a major risk factor for infection and young girls are being infected at a considerably disproportional rate to that of boys.  According to Bongaarts (2007), girls who marry as virgins under age 18 face a distinctly elevated HIV risk because these marriages tend to shift girls directly from a protected state of virginity into an unprotected (and often unwilling) state of frequent sexual relations.
  31. 31. Violence  Girls who marry before 18 are more likely to experience domestic violence than their peers who marry later. A study conducted by ICRW in two states in India found that girls who were married before 18 were twice as likely to report being beaten, slapped or threatened by their husbands than girls who married later.  Child brides often show signs symptomatic of sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress such as feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and severe depression.
  32. 32. Developmental consequences  Child Marriage also has considerable implications for the social development of child brides, in terms of low levels of education, poor health and lack of agency and personal autonomy.  The cyclical nature of early marriage results in a likely low level of education and life skills, increased vulnerability to abuse and poor health, and therefore acute poverty.
  33. 33. Psychological and social consequences  It is a huge responsibility for a young girl to become a wife and mother and because girls are not adequately prepared for these roles.  This heavy burden has a serious impact on their psychological welfare, their perceptions of themselves and also their relationship.
  34. 34.  Women who marry early are more likely to suffer abuse and violence, with inevitable psychological as well as physical consequences.  Young girls who marry before the age of 18 have a greater risk of becoming victims of intimate partner violence than those who marry at an older age. This is especially true when the age gap between the child bride and spouse is large.
  35. 35.  Child marriage marks an abrupt and often violent introduction to sexual relations.  The young girls are powerless to refuse sex and lack the resources or legal and social support to leave an abusive marriage.
  36. 36. Married adolescents are typified by:  High levels of unprotected sexual relations  Large age gaps with sexual partners  Intense pressure to become pregnant  Highly limited or absent peer networks  Restricted social mobility/freedom of movement  Little access to modern media (TV, radio, newspapers)  Limited education attainment and no schooling options Source: Haberland, Chong, Bracken, 2003.
  37. 37. 59.8 43.6 71.9 16.9 12.6 20.5 0 20 40 60 80 South and East Africa West and Central Africa Latin America and Caribbean Percent Married Unmarried Source: Bruce and Clark, 2004. Percent of sexually active girls aged 15-19 who had unprotected sex last week
  38. 38. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 Age at Marriage MeanSpouse/PartnerAge Difference South America Central America/Caribbean Middle East South Central/South East Asia Former Soviet Asia West/Middle Africa East/Southern Africa Mean Spouse/Partner Age Difference, by Woman’s Age at First Marriage Source: Mensch, 2003
  39. 39. 42 2 14 4 20 9 0 20 40 60 80 100 Condom Use Among Girls Wishing to Avoid Pregnancy Unmarried, Burkina Faso Married, Burkina Faso Unmarried, Kenya Married, Kenya Unarried, Zambia Married, Zambia Percent Sources: Clark, 2004; Bruce and Clark, 2003.
  40. 40. Education of 15-19-year-old-girls, by marital and parenting status 0 20 40 60 80 100 Brazil Kenya Nigeria Percentenrolledin school Married - Without children Unmarried - Without children Married - With children Unmarried - With children
  41. 41.  As per the Country Code 2010 (Marriage Chapter), the legal age of marriage is 20 for both man and woman and 18 for woman where marriage is solemnized (formalize) with the consent of the woman’s parents or guardians.  The government has not bothered to stop child marriage despite these legal provisions.  A law banning child marriages is not enough, it has to be coupled with efforts to make sure girls go to school and implementation of laws are done strictly.
  42. 42.  Child marriage and MDG are inter-linked to each other.  The one reason that country may miss the gender-linked Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of the United Nations is the persistence of child marriage.  While MDG 2 pushes for universal primary education, MDG3 seeks to promote gender equality and empower women, MDG 4, that is concerned with reducing child mortality, MDG 5 that aims to improve maternal health.
  43. 43.  Educating and empowering girls  Supporting young people to become activists for change  Mobilizing and educating communities  Bringing men and traditional leaders on board  Enacting and enforcing laws that set a legal minimum age for marriage
  44. 44.  Raising awareness in the media  Providing Youth Friendly Health Services.  Ending teen marriage requires the consolidated efforts of all organizations.  Government should take a strong initiative to implement the legal provisions and ensure a safe environment for every woman.
  45. 45.  http://relationships.blurtit.com  http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teenager  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teen_marriage  http://www.icrw.org/publications/child- marriage-factsheets  http://marriage.about.com/cs/teenmarriage/a/ teenmarriage.htm  http://www.lawcommission.gov.np  Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, unite for children, UNICEF  Child Marriage: Facts, Causes and Consequences, Discrimination, Sexual Abuse, Trafficking and Repression
  46. 46.  NEPAL: The hidden costs of early marriage, humanitarian news and analysis, a service of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs  Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse, unite for children, UNICEF  Child Marriage: Facts, Causes and Consequences, Discrimination, Sexual Abuse, Trafficking and Repression  file:///F:/mph1/child%20marriage/Child%20marriage% 20%20%20Children's%20Rights%20Portal.htm  Child Marriage: Causes & Impacts, Alex Whiting – WNN MDG Stories
  47. 47.  Child marriages on decline in Nepal: UN reportSunday, 14 October 2012 11:47  Early marriage affecting girl's education, healthSunday, 18 November 2012 10:01  Early and forced marriage - facts, figures and what you can do, PLAN  Child marriage in Nepal: A religiously promoted practice, Laxmi Tamang  WHO Report  Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011, Report, MoHP, New Era, Measure, DHS, USAID  The Muluki Ain (General Code)
  48. 48. THANK YOU Suggestions and Feedbacks a

×