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- 1. Digital Electronics Basics: Combinational Logic for Basic Electronics http://cktse.eie.polyu.edu.hk/eie209 by Prof. Michael Tse January 2005
- 2. Digital versus analog So far, our discussion about electronics has been predominantly “analog”, which is concerned with continuously changing signals—signals whose values at different times are useful information. There is another form of signals which is nowadays very important and is being used in an overwhelming number of applications—DIGITAL. A digital signal assumes just a few analog values. For example, binary signals have two values, e.g., 0V and 5V. They transmit information in the form of a sequence of 0V and 5V segments. 5V 0V 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 2 Combinational Logic
- 3. Digital signals Of course, in practical generation and detection of digital signals, exact values of the assumed voltage levels are not possible. Noise Margins: 5V VOH VIH VOL 0V VIL 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Generation: Any voltage higher than VOH is HIGH. (VOH = 2.4V*) Any voltage lower than VOL is LOW. (VOL = 0.4V) Detection: Any voltage higher than VIH is HIGH. (VIH = 2.0V) Any voltage lower than VIL is LOW. (VIL = 0.8V) * for TTL logic which is a particular kind of logic circuit family. C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 3 Combinational Logic
- 4. Logic What can a digital circuit do? The simplest task we can think of is a combinational type of logic decision. For example, we can design a digital electronic circuit to make an instant decision based on some information. Here we emphasize “instant” in the decision making process. That means, the process has no time delay. X = today’s weather is good Y = today is a holiday decision Z = go to picnic Suppose our rule is Z = X and Y X Z The circuit is a simple AND gate. Y This kind of logic, involving no time delay, is combinational logic. C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 4 Combinational Logic
- 5. Truth tables A easy way to represent a combinational logic result is to tabulate all possible inputs. X Y Z X Y Z X Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Truth table of AND Truth table of OR Truth table of NOT X X Z Z X Z Y Y X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 Truth table of NAND Truth table of NOR Truth table of XOR (Exclusive OR) X X X Z Z Z Y Y Y C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 5 Combinational Logic
- 6. Boolean algebra Logic can also be expressed in algebraic form. X Y Z 0 0 0 X 0 1 0 Z = X.Y Y Z 1 0 0 AND gate 1 1 1 Truth table of AND X Y Z X 0 0 1 Y Z 0 1 1 Z = X.Y 1 0 1 X Z Y 1 1 0 Truth table of NAND NAND gate C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 6 Combinational Logic
- 7. Boolean algebra Logic can also be expressed in algebraic form. X Y Z 0 0 0 X 0 1 1 Z = X+Y Y Z 1 0 1 OR gate 1 1 1 Truth table of OR X Y Z X 0 0 1 Y Z 0 1 0 Z = X+Y 1 0 0 X Z Y 1 1 0 Truth table of NOR NOR gate C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 7 Combinational Logic
- 8. Finding expression from truth table Once we have the truth table, we can ﬁnd the output expression by adding up all min-terms. Min-term corresponds to the product term that give a 1 in the output. For example, here the min-terms are X .Y , X.Y , and X.Y X Y Z The expression for Z is 0 0 0 0 1 1 Z = X .Y + X.Y + X.Y 1 0 1 1 1 1 Question: This is an OR gate! Can it be simpliﬁed down to Z = X + Y ? How can we do it? C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 8 Combinational Logic
- 9. More examples X Y Z The expression for Z is 0 0 1 0 1 1 Z = X .Y + X .Y + X.Y 1 0 1 1 1 0 X Y Z The expression for Z is 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Z = X .Y 1 1 0 Truth table of NOR Question: These are NAND and NOR gates! Can they be simpliﬁed or converted back to the originally derived forms? How can we do it? C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 9 Combinational Logic
- 10. Circuit realization X Z = X .Y + X .Y + X.Y Y Z Note: This is same as a NAND gate (see the truth table), and hence should be the same as X Z Y The question is HOW TO SIMPLIFY A MIN-TERM EXPRESSION! C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 10 Combinational Logic
- 11. Example: binary code to Gray code conversion Binary Gray code What are the expressions for x, y a b c x y z and z? Then, can we design a 0 0 0 0 0 0 circuit to converter binary code 0 0 1 0 0 1 to Gray code? 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 x = ab c + ab c + abc + abc 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 y = a bc + a bc + ab c + ab c 1 1 0 1 0 1 z = a b c + a bc + ab c + abc 1 1 1 1 0 0 So, for each of x, y and z, we need a number of inverters, plus 4 AND gates and a multi-input OR gates. C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 11 Combinational Logic
- 12. Boolean algebra simpliﬁcation Basic Laws: Commutative: X+Y = Y+X X.Y = Y.X Associative: X+Y+Z = (X+Y)+Z = X+(Y+Z) X.Y.Z = (X.Y).Z = X.(Y.Z) Distributive: X.(Y+Z) = X.Y + X.Z De Morgan’s: X+Y = X . Y X.Y = X + Y C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 12 Combinational Logic
- 13. Example: Z = X .Y + X .Y + X.Y = X .(Y + Y ) + X.Y = X .1+ X.Y Y +Y =1 = X + X.Y X .1 = X = (X.(X + Y )) De Morgan’ law = (X.X + X.Y ) Distributive = X.Y X .X = 0 That’s right! It’s a NAND gate! C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 13 Combinational Logic
- 14. Example: Z = X .Y + X.Y + X.Y = (X + X).Y + X.Y = Y + X.Y = Y .(X.Y ) De Morgan’ law = Y .(X + Y ) De Morgan’ law = X .Y + 0 Y .Y = 0 = X .Y = X +Y De Morgan’ law That’s right! It’s a OR gate! C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 14 Combinational Logic
- 15. Boolean algebra can be tedious. Is there any easier method to simplify the min-term expression? C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 15 Combinational Logic
- 16. Karnaugh Maps A very useful design tool for simplifying combinational logic. X Y Z The expression for Z is 0 0 1 0 1 1 Z = X .Y + X .Y + X.Y 1 0 1 1 1 0 Y Y Y Y Y 0 1 0 1 1 X 1 1 X X 1 1 X 1 1 0 X 1 0 X 1 0 X.Y Y Therefore Z = X + Y or Z = X.Y C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 16 Combinational Logic
- 17. Karnaugh map (with 3 inputs) Suppose we have three inputs a, b and c. Output x is Procedure: x = a.b.c + a.b .c + a .b.c + a.b.c 1. Circle clusters of “1”. 2. Determine the logic b 110 b expressions for each cluster. } 011 } bc 3. Add them up. a 00 01 11 10 111 a{ 0 0 0 1 1 ab a{ 1 1 0 1 0 } } } 100 c c c Hence, we get x = a.b.c + b.c + a .b bc abc C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 17 Combinational Logic
- 18. Example: Gray code b b } } bc Binary Gray code a 00 01 11 10 a b c x y z 0 0 0 0 0 0 a{ 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 y 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 a{ 1 1 1 0 0 } } } 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 c c c 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 y = ab + a b b b b b } } } } bc bc a a 00 01 11 10 00 01 11 10 a{ 0 0 0 0 0 a{ 0 0 1 0 1 x z a{ 1 1 1 1 1 a{ 1 0 1 0 1 } } } } } } c c c c c c x=a z = b c + bc C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 18 Combinational Logic
- 19. Example: Gray code a Binary b c Gray code x y z x=a 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 y = ab + a b 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 z = b c + bc 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 a x y b c z C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 19 Combinational Logic
- 20. Karnaugh map (with 4 inputs) c c { { cd ab 00 01 11 10 00 }b a { 01 11 } b a { 10 { } }b { d d d C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 20 Combinational Logic
- 21. c c Example { { cd Procedure: ab 00 01 11 10 1. Circle clusters of “1”. 00 1 1 0 0 }b 2. 3. Determine the logic expressions for each cluster. Add them up. a { 01 1 1 1 1 ac 11 1 1 1 1 } b a { 10 0 0 1 1 }b } { { d d d b ac x = a c + b + ac C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 21 Combinational Logic
- 22. Example Derive the circuit for this combinational logic. x = a c + b + ac a c b x C.K. Tse: Digital Electronics: 22 Combinational Logic

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