Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Smart project management - Best Practices to Manage Project effectively


Published on

Best Practices to Manage project effectively.It gives overview of all five groups and ten PM knowledge areas.
Emphasis more important aspects of Project Management

Published in: Leadership & Management
  • Be the first to comment

Smart project management - Best Practices to Manage Project effectively

  1. 1. Best Practices to Manage project effectively and Tool/Techniques Chetan Khanzode
  2. 2. Agenda  Project Management Overview  Project Management five groups  Project Management Knowledge areas  Project Management Framework  Project control cycle  PM Vs Operations  Project Management Challenges  Project Management flow 5 phases  Project Management Characteristics  Project Management Triple constraints  Project Integration management  Scope, Time and Cost Management  Customer focus Quality Management  HR Management  Risk Management  Procurement Management
  3. 3. Project Management  Project Management Definition PMBOK.  A project is temporary in that it has a defined beginning and end in time, and therefore defined scope and resources.  Project management, is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
  4. 4. Project Management five groups  Project management processes fall into five groups:  Initiating  Planning  Executing  Monitoring and Controlling  Closing
  5. 5. Project Management Areas Project management knowledge draws on ten areas:  Integration  Scope  Time  Cost  Quality  Human resources  Communications  Risk management  Procurement
  6. 6. Project Management Framework  The project lifecycle provides guidance on the common stages and steps which apply to all projects. The aim is to establish a common framework for the management of projects.
  7. 7. Project Control Cycle  The project lifecycle describes what needs to be done at each stage and the project control cycle describes how each stage in planned and managed.
  8. 8. Project Management Vs Operations  Projects require project management whereas operations requires business process management or operations management. Project Manager Operational Manager Role ends with project Routine Temporary team Stable organisation Many different skills Specialist skills Work not done before Work repeatable Time, cost and scope constraints Annual planning cycle Difficult to estimate time and budget Budgets set and fixed events
  9. 9. Project Management Challenges  Misalignment between projects and their business objectives: The purpose of a project is to advance one or more business objectives. Most projects start out closely aligned with these objectives, but gaps inevitably appear. Projects drift and business objectives change and evolve. Without redirection, projects and deliverables end up failing to meet expectations.  Late or delayed projects: Late projects wreak havoc, delaying the time at which a company can start reaping business benefits, thwarting precise payback period calculations and disrupting the long term return on investment.  Dependency conflicts: Most projects are interrelated, sharing people, equipment, resources and deliverables. These dependencies mean that a single project delay has a significant ripple effect on related projects, disrupting schedules, causing resource conflicts and even triggering expensive contingencies, in order to minimise risks.
  10. 10. Project Management Challenges (cont..)  Execution difficulties: Problematic execution wastes resources, time and opportunities, diverts management attention and hinders project delivery.  Overlapping and redundant projects: Overlapping projects are responsible for major inefficiencies and wasted budgets, time and resources. At their worst, they undermine each other’s progress and potential benefits. Redundant and duplicative projects are also unprofitable, increasing costs, prolonging schedules and diverting resources from more deserving projects.  Resource conflicts: Companies rarely have sufficient resources to staff all projects concurrently. As such, projects compete against each other for resources, and people are often assigned to several projects at the same time. Those with special expertise of scarce skills may be in high demand, causing bottlenecks.
  11. 11. Project Management Challenges (cont..)  Unrealised business value: A project is a means to an end. Ultimately, every project generates deliverables that the company uses to derive business value. When those deliverables arrive late or are incomplete, the business loses opportunities – whether to earn revenues, acquire customers or perhaps fix a problem.  Diffused decision making: Many executives are unable to obtain the right information at the right time to effectively understand the present position of the business in order to communicate unwelcome surprises and/or communicate potential opportunities before the competition.  Fragmentation: Fragmented planning and resource processes and tolls lead to an inability to systematically communicate and fine tune multiple project scenarios, resulting in regular unforeseen slippages and problems.
  12. 12. Project Management Challenges (cont..)  Inadequate Skills for the Project – A project sometimes requires skills that the project's contributors do not possess. Project manager can help a project leader determine the needed competencies, assess the available team members and recommend training, outsourcing or hiring additional staff.  Lack of Accountability –Failure to continuously monitor and communicate project milestones in real time, and budget performance, dilutes project accountability and responsibility.
  13. 13. Project Management 5 Phases-PMBOK
  14. 14. Project Management 5 Phases-PMBOK 1. Project Initiation  Goal of this phase is to define the project at a broad level  This phase usually begins with a business case, If feasibility testing needs to be done, this is the stage of the project in which that will be completed  Project charter or a project initiation document (PID) that outlines the purpose and requirements of the project. It include business needs, stakeholders, and the business case
  15. 15. Project Management 5 Phases-PMBOK 2. Project Planning  This phase typically begins with setting goals  SMART Goals  Specific – To set specific goals, answer the following questions: who, what, where, when, which, and why.  Measurable – Create criteria that you can use to measure the success of a goal.  Attainable – Identify the most important goals and what it will take to achieve them.  Realistic – You should be willing and able to work toward a particular goal.  Timely – Create a timeframe to achieve the goal.  During this phase, the scope of the project is defined and a project management plan is developed. It involves identifying the cost, quality, available resources, and a realistic timetable. The project plans also includes establishing baselines or performance measures. These are generated using the scope, schedule and cost of a project. A baseline is essential to determine if a project is on track.
  16. 16. Project Management 5 Phases-PMBOK 3. Project Execution • A “kick-off” meeting usually marks the start of the Project Execution phase where the teams involved are informed of their responsibilities.  Tasks completed during the Execution Phase include: • While the project monitoring phase has a different set of requirements, these two phases often occur simultaneously • Develop team • Assign resources • Execute project management plans • Procurement management if needed • PM directs and manages project execution • Set up tracking systems • Task assignments are executed • Status meetings • Update project schedule • Modify project plans as needed • While the project monitoring phase has a different set of requirements, these two phases often occur simultaneously
  17. 17. Project Management 5 Phases-PMBOK 4. Project Performance/Monitoring • This Phase is for measuring project progression and performance and ensuring that everything happening aligns with the project management plan. • Project managers will use key performance indicators (KPIs) to determine if the project is on track. • A PM will typically pick two to five of these KPIs to measure project performance: • Project Objectives: Measuring if a project is on schedule and budget is an indication if the project will meet stakeholder objectives. • Quality Deliverables: This determines if specific task deliverables are being met. • Effort and Cost Tracking: PMs will account for the effort and cost of resources to see if the budget is on track. This type of tracking informs if a project will meet its completion date based on current performance. • Project Performance: This monitors changes in the project. It takes into consideration the amount and types of issues that arise and how quickly they are addressed. These can occur from unforeseen hurdles and scope changes • During this time, PMs may need to adjust schedules and resources to ensure the project is on track.
  18. 18. Project Management 5 Phases-PMBOK  Project Closure This phase represents the completed project. All stockholder meeting is held and announcement of project closure is made. Once a project is complete, a PM will often hold a meeting – sometimes referred to as a “post mortem” – to evaluate what went well in a project and identify project failures. This is especially helpful to understand lessons learned so that improvements can be made for future projects. PM will perform a final project budget and prepare a final project report for Knowledge Management for future similar type projects is done. Finally, PMO Team will need to collect all project documents and deliverables and store them in a single place.  Close Project or Phase finalizes all activities across all process groups to formally close-out the project or project phase.  A project manager must get a formal acceptance of the project. He should issue a final report that shows the project is successful. Issue the final lessons learned. Finally, index and archive all the project records.  A few steps to be done by project manager while he is confirming to closing the project include:  Confirming that the work is completed as per the baseline  Completing closure formalities  Gaining final acceptance on the product
  19. 19. Project Lifecycle characteristics Project Life Cycle divides the project into phases that provide better management control and the appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the organization and defines the beginning and end of the project. Some important characteristics of Project Life Cycle are:  Defines the beginning and end of the project.  Deliverables usually approved before work starts on the next phase.  Sometimes a subsequent phase is begun prior to approval of the previous phase. This is called fast tracking.  Defines technical work and implementers.  Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, higher towards the end, and drop as project closes.  Probability of project success is low at the start of the project and gets progressively higher as the project continues.  Cost of changes and of error correction generally increases as the project continues.
  20. 20. Project Management Triple Constraints • Cost, time and scope, These three factors (commonly called 'the triple constraint') are represented as a triangle. • Projects must be delivered within cost • Projects must be delivered on time • Projects must meet the agreed scope – no more, no less • Projects must also meet customer quality requirements
  21. 21. Project Integration Management
  22. 22. Integrated Change Control • In the Perform Integrated Change Control, changes accepted or rejected basis their evaluation and impact. Whenever a change is requested, it is advisable to identify the impact of proposed change on project cost, quality, risks, resources, scope, and also on customer satisfaction. • Two pre-requisites to be measured for impact of change: • A realistic project management plan to be used as baseline • A complete product and process scope (as applicable) • Since changes are inevitable, project manager should work to prevent the root causes of changes whenever possible. Most cases indicate improper planning of the project results in change requests. Although changes can happen, they are not encouraged and the handling of possible changes must be planned, managed and controlled.
  23. 23. Integrated Change Control • Project manager should: Identify all requirements at the earliest Comprehensively identify all the risks related to the project Establish time and cost factors Establish Change Management Process Follow the change management process Have required templates in place to create change requests Identify clear roles and responsibilities amongst stakeholders to approve changes If number of changes become disproportionate, revaluate the business case Consider terminating a project (if required) if the number of changes are disproportionate Ensure only approved changes are added to the baselines
  24. 24. Integrated Change Control Changes can have two categories •Impact the project management plan, baselines, policies and procedures, charter, contract, or statement of work •Does not impact any of above. Change Control Board Review and analysis of change requests is done by the board. The board may either approve or reject a change request. Board can include multiple stakeholders including customers, experts, sponsors, functional managers, project manager, etc.
  25. 25. Integrated Change Control Process for Making Changes It is extremely important to prevent the root cause that makes the changes happen. Managing changes comes later, the prior thing to do for a project manager is to eliminate the need for changes. The next step is to identify change. A change originator could be the project manager, the sponsor, the team, the management, the customer or other stakeholders. The project manager can be proactive to identify changes from all these sources. If he is able to identify the changes early, it will decrease the impact of the changes. Identify the impact of the change is the third step. The fourth step is to Create a Change Request. The process of making change should follow a change management plan. The next step (fifth) is to perform integrated change control. The Perform Integrated Change Control seeks answer to the key question: How will the change affect the other project limitations? To resolve this, the first thing to be done is to Assess The Change. The next step is to Look for Options. The third is to check if the change is approved or rejected and the last point is to document the change in change control system. Close Project or Phase Close Project or Phase finalizes all activities across all process groups to formally close-out the project or project phase.
  26. 26. Scope Management ‘Scope’ is the way to define what your project will deliver. Scope management is all about making sure that everyone is clear about what the project is for and what it includes. It covers collecting requirements and preparing the work breakdown structure. The project scope management processes are: • Plan scope management • Collect requirements • Define scope • Create Work Breakdown Structure • Validate scope • Control scope.
  27. 27. Scope Management WBS : In scope management, project deliverables are subdivided into smaller and more manageable components until the work and deliverables are defined to the work package level. This is called as decomposition.
  28. 28. Time Management Time and Cost are two sides of Coin. Good time management enables you to work smarter – not harder – so that you get more done in less time, even when time is tight and pressures are high. Failing to manage your time damages your effectiveness and causes stress • Time has least amount of flexibility and it passes no matter • Much of Project Manager time taken by external communication • Schedule issues are main reason for conflicts in projects
  29. 29. Time Management Definition of activities. The project team needs to list the activities and tasks that should be done during the project life cycle so that they can be used for scheduling. Along with the activities and action items, the methods to be used during the processes should also be outlined. Sequencing of activities. During this time, project managers need to precede documents and map task dependencies. The team may use some tools such as precedence diagramming method and other techniques for diagramming dependencies and in the end, produce a network diagram.
  30. 30. Time Management Estimating resources. Resources include people, tools and equipments that are needed to execute various project activities to produce the deliverables. A specialist determines the type of resources required and the quantity needed. Each activity resource needs to be estimated and for this, an expert judgment is required. Estimating activity durations. The project manager estimates the time needed to complete an activity in accordance to the scope and resource availability. To estimate time, experts use formulas such as the PERT (Program Evaluation Review Technique). Accuracy is important to develop an exact schedule.
  31. 31. Time Management Developing project schedule. There may be a need for resource levelling to prevent over allocation of resources. During this stage, the project team plots the start and end dates for each activity as well as the entire project’s start and completion dates. The team may use activity sequences, duration and resource estimation as well as project schedule constraints to achieve an accurate schedule. Controlling the project schedule. Since processes change, so does the schedule. There is a need to create effective scheduling processes so that it becomes manageable so that when there is a need to change, it can be easily modified. A schedule’s manageable components can help minimize the need for changes. The schedule control process explains the project status monitoring so that it is easy to find changes in the schedule and the earlier it happens the more ways one can control the schedule to let the team meet the planned schedule.
  32. 32. Time Management PERT estimation technique PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) is one of the successful and proven methods among the many other techniques, such as, CPM, Function Point Counting, Top-Down Estimating, WAVE etc. There are three estimation times involved in PERT; Optimistic Time Estimate (TOPT), Most Likely Time Estimate (TLIKELY), and Pessimistic Time Estimate (TPESS).BETA probability distribution is what works behind PERT. The expected completion time (E) is calculated as below: E = (TOPT + 4 x TLIEKLY + TPESS) / 6At the same time, the possible variance (V) of the estimate is calculated as below: V = (TPESS - TOPT)^2 / 6^2
  33. 33. Time Management Now, following is the process we follow with the two values: • For every activity in the critical path, E and V are calculated. • Then, the total of all Es are taken. This is the overall expected completion time for the project. • Now, the corresponding V is added to each activity of the critical path. This is the variance for the entire project. This is done only for the activities in the critical path as only the critical path activities can accelerate or delay the project duration. • Then, standard deviation of the project is calculated. This equals to the square root of the variance (V). • Now, the normal probability distribution is used for calculating the project completion time with the desired probability.
  34. 34. Cost Management Cost management is all about handling the project’s finances. The big activity in this knowledge area is preparing your budget which includes working out how much each task is going to cost and then determining your project’s overall budget forecast. And, of course, it covers tracking the project’s expenditure against that budget and making sure that you are still on track not to overspend Resource Planning for cost estimating: Work Breakdown Structures (WBS) and historical information of comparable projects can be used to define which physical resources are needed. Once the resource types and quantities are known the associated costs can be determined. Several cost estimating technique can be applied to predict how much it will cost to perform the project activities
  35. 35. Cost Management Cost Budgeting: The cost estimate forms together with a project schedule the input for cost budgeting. The budget gives an overview of the periodic and total costs of the project. The cost estimates define the cost of each work package or activity, whereas the budget allocates the costs over the time period when the cost will be incurred. A cost baseline is an approved time-phased budget that is used as a starting point to measure actual performance progress. Cost control: Cost control is concerned with measuring variances from the cost baseline and taking effective corrective action to achieve minimum costs. Procedures are applied to monitor expenditures and performance against the progress of a project. All changes to the cost baseline need to be recorded and the expected final total costs are continuously forecasted. When actual cost information becomes available an important part of cost control is to explain what is causing the variance from the cost baseline. Based on this analysis, corrective action might be required to avoid cost overruns.
  36. 36. Cost Management Cost Technique Description Expert Judgment Expert judgment uses the experience and knowledge of experts to estimate the cost of the project. This technique can take into account unique factors specific to the project. However, it can also be biased. Analogous Estimating Analogous estimating uses historical data from similar projects as a basis for the cost estimate. The estimate can be adjusted for known differences between the projects. This type of estimate is usually used in the early phases of a project and is less accurate than other methods.
  37. 37. Cost Management Cost Technique Description Parametric Estimating Parametric estimating uses statistical modelling to develop a cost estimate. It uses historical data of key cost drivers to calculate an estimate for different parameters such as cost and duration. For example, square footage is used in some construction projects. Bottom-Up Estimating Bottom-up estimating uses the estimates of individual work packages which are then summarized or "rolled up" to determine an overall cost estimate for the project. This type of estimate is generally more accurate than other methods since it is looking at costs from a more granular perspective.
  38. 38. Cost Management Technique Description Three-Point Estimates Three-point estimates originated with the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT). Reserve Analysis Reserve analysis is used to determine how much contingency reserve, if any, should be allocated to the project. This funding is used to account for cost uncertainty. Cost of Quality Cost of Quality (COQ) includes money spent during the project to avoid failures and money spent during and after the project due to failures. During cost estimation, assumptions about the COQ can be included in the project cost estimate.
  39. 39. Cost Management Technique Description Project Management Estimating Software Project management estimating software includes cost estimating software applications, spreadsheets, simulation applications, and statistical software tools. This type of software is especially useful for looking at cost estimation alternatives. Vendor Bid Analysis Vendor analysis can be used to estimate what the project should cost by comparing the bids submitted by multiple vendors.
  40. 40. Cost Management Earned Value – illustration
  41. 41. Techniques of Determine Budget Cost Aggregation It is the summation of all the individual costs. Historical Relationships Tools and technique of estimate costs analogous and parametric estimates can be used to help determine total project costs. Actual costs from previous projects of similar size, scope, and complexity are used to estimate the costs for the current project. Contingency and Management reserve: Contingency reserve is known to the project manager and the team. It is assigned for known risks in the project. Management reserves are kept for any unknown risks. The diagram clearly states the difference between contingency reserve and management reserve Cost Management
  42. 42. Cost Management Controlling Costs You can control costs by applying techniques using the budget, schedule, baseline and earned value. As the project progresses according to the schedule, the costs you incur have to match the scheduled costs according to your baseline. As you complete an activity, its cost has to match its budget. When your earned value identifies a given percent completion for the project, you must have spent that percentage of your total budget. For example, if you are eight months through a year long, $100,000 project, your baseline says you should have spent 65 percent of your budget, your earned value indicates that you have completed two thirds of your work and you have spent $65,000, everything matches and your project is on track. If a value diverges, you have to investigate further where the problem lies and possibly take corrective action.
  43. 43. Quality Management Project quality management includes the processes and activities required to ensure that the project will satisfy the needs for which it is undertaken. At its most basic level, quality means meeting the needs of customers. This is also known as "fit for use." Three Process • Quality Planning • Quality Assurance • Quality control Thought • How poor Quality affects the project ?Who should be responsible for quality ?
  44. 44. Quality Management • Project planning : Identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them (panning). Plan Quality involves identifying the quality requirements for both the project and the product and documenting how the project can show it is meeting the quality requirements. The outputs of this process include a Quality Management Plan, quality metrics, quality checklists and a Process Improvement Plan. The quality requirements are defined during the quality planning process. They include both project processes and product goals. • Quality Assurance Quality Assurance is used to verify that the project processes are sufficient so that if they are being adhered to the project deliverables will be of good quality. Process checklists and project audits are two methods used for project quality assurance. • Quality control Quality control verifies that the product meets the quality requirements. Peer reviews and testing are two methods used to perform quality control. The results will determine if corrective action is needed.
  45. 45. Project Management and Quality Management Both disciplines recognizes the importance of • Customer Satisfaction • Prevention over Inspection • Continuous Improvement • Customer satisfaction is a key measure of a project's quality. It's important to keep in mind that project quality management is concerned with both the product of the project and the management of the project. If the customer doesn't feel the product produced by the project meets their needs or if the way the project was run didn't meet their expectations, then the customer is very likely to consider the project quality as poor, regardless of what the project manager or team thinks. As a result, not only is it important to make sure the project requirements are met, managing customer expectations is also a critical activity that you need to handle well for your project to succeed.
  46. 46. Project Management and Quality Management • Prevention over Inspection The Cost of Quality (COQ) includes money spent during the project to avoid failures and money spent during and after the project because of failures. These are known as the Cost of Conformance and the Cost of Non-conformance. The cost of preventing mistakes is usually much less than the cost of correcting them. • Continuous Improvement Continuous improvement is a concept that exists in all of the major quality management approaches such as Six Sigma and Total Quality Management (TQM). In fact, it is a key aspect of the last concept, prevention over inspection. Continuous improvement is simply the ongoing effort to improve your products, services, or processes over time. These improvements can be small, incremental changes or major, breakthrough type changes.
  47. 47. Project Management and Quality Management Cost of Conformance Cost of Non-conformance Prevention Costs Internal Failure Costs •Training •Rework •Document Processes •Scrap •Equipment •Time To Do It Right Appraisal Costs External Failure Costs •Testing •Warranty Work •Destructive Testing Loss •Liabilities •Inspections •Lost Business
  48. 48. Quality Management What is Quality Assurance? American Society for Quality (ASQ) definition • The planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. • Simple term quality assurance as the activities and management processes that are done to ensure that the products and services the project delivers are at the required quality level. It is process driven and focused on the development of the product or delivery of the service.
  49. 49. Quality Management There are many tools and techniques that form the basis of the key quality assurance principles. Some of these mentioned below • Cost-Benefit Analysis • Cost of Quality (COQ) • Control Charts • Design of Experiments (DOE) • Statistical Sampling • Flow Charting, Run Chart • Quality Management Methodologies (i.e. Six Sigma, CMMI, etc) • Cause and Effect Diagrams (i.e. Fishbone Diagram) • Histogram • Pareto chart • Scatter Diagram • Inspection
  50. 50. Quality Management Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control One of the key quality assurance principles that differentiates it from quality control is that quality assurance is performed during the project to help make sure the product meets the quality standards. For example, creating a Project Quality Management Plan, following a quality assurance process, and performing audits. Quality control, on the other hand, evaluates whether the resulting product produced by the project met the quality standards. Quality control activities are performed after a product has been created to determine if it meets the quality requirements. The results of the quality control process are used by the quality assurance process to determine if any changes are needed to the quality assurance process.
  51. 51. Quality Management What is Quality Control? American Society for Quality (ASQ) definition Quality Control consists of the observation techniques and activities used to fulfil requirements for quality. You can think of quality control as the activities that are used to evaluate whether your product or service meets the quality requirements specified for your project. It's important to note that project quality control is performed throughout the project.
  52. 52. Quality Management Quality Control Tools & Techniques • Cause and Effect Diagram (i.e. Fishbone Diagrams ) • Control Chart • Flow Chart • Parteo Chart • Histogram • Run Chart • Scatter Diagram • Statistical Sampling • Inspection Quality control tools and techniques can help you in three ways • Confirm that your project is meeting the quality standards • Provide a basis for corrective action • Provide feedback about your quality assurance process
  53. 53. Quality Management Control Chart Characteristics of control chart : If a single quality characteristic has been measured or computed from a sample, the control chart shows the value of the quality characteristic versus the sample number or versus time. In general, the chart contains a centre line that represents the mean value for the in-control process. Two other horizontal lines, called the upper control limit (UCL) and the lower control limit (LCL), are also shown on the chart. These control limits are chosen so that almost all of the data points will fall within these limits as long as the process remains in-control. Chart demonstrating basis of control chart
  54. 54. Quality Management Normal Distribution The general formula for the probability density function of the normal distribution is f(x)=e−(x−μ)2/(2σ2)σ2π√ μ is the location parameter σ is the scale parameter The case where μ = 0 and σ = 1 is called the standard normal distribution. The equation for the standard normal distribution is f(x)=e−x2/22π√ The general form of probability functions can be expressed in terms of Standard deviation. Distribution totally characterized by Mean and Standard deviation The following is the plot of the standard normal probability density function.
  55. 55. Quality Management Pareto Diagram 80% of the outputs/problems result from 20% of the inputs/work which is 80/20 Rule and the Pareto Distribution A Pareto Diagram has several key benefits. • Helps the project team focus on the problems that will have the greatest impact • Displays in order of importance the problems that matter in a simple, visual format • Provides an easy way to compare before and after snapshots to verify that any process changes had the desired result. The chart lists the inputs along the horizontal axis in descending order of output frequency. The left vertical axis measures the number or frequency of the output for each input and is charted using a bar graph. The right vertical axis measures the cumulative percentage of the outputs and is charted using a line graph There are seven categories of Project Issues. It is evident that most of the issues, 42% to be exact, are related to "Installation." It is also very easy to see that three categories account for 79% of the issues: Installation, Software Faults, and Shipping. Based on this Pareto analysis, if you focused your efforts on addressing just the Installation issues, you would have the potential to cut your total issues by more than 40%
  56. 56. Quality Management Fishbone Diagram (Ishikawa diagram )- Cause and Effect Analysis : A fishbone diagram is a tool that can help you perform a cause and effect analysis for a problem you are trying to solve. • Draw Problem Statement: You want to make sure that you define the problem correctly and that everyone agrees on the problem statement. • Draw Major Cause Categories • the major cause categories on the left hand side and connect them to the "backbone" of the fishbone chart • Brainstorm Causes: Brainstorming the causes of the problem is where most of the effort in creating your Ishikawa diagram takes place • Categorize Causes : Start to place them in the appropriate category on the diagram • Determine Deeper Causes : Each cause on the chart is then analyzed further to determine if there is a more fundamental cause for that aspect • Identify Root Causes :Identifying the root causes of the problem can be done in several ways... • Look for causes that appear repeatedly • Select using group consensus methods • Select based on frequency of occurrence Fishbone diagrams are an excellent way to explore and visually depict the causes of a problem. They enable the root causes of a problem to be determined. This will help you be more effective by focusing your actions on the true causes of a problem and not on its symptoms.
  57. 57. Statistical Sampling sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a Statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population. Two advantages of sampling are that the cost is lower and data collection is faster than measuring the entire population. Different type of sampling like Simple Random Sampling ,Stratified Sampling etc are used in Sampling process Quality Management
  58. 58. Quality Gurus Edward Deming : PDCA (plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continual improvement of processes and products. It is also known as the Deming cycle or plan–do–study–act (PDSA). Another version of this PDCA cycle is OPDCA. The added "O" stands for observation or as some versions say "Grasp the current condition.“ • Plan: Design a consumer research methodology which will inform business process components. • Do: Implement the plan to measure its performance. • Check: Check the measurements and report the findings to the decision makers • Act/Adjust: Draw a conclusion on the changes that need to be made and implement them. Deming’s other chief contribution came in the form of his 14 Points for Management, which consists of a set of guidelines for managers looking to transform business effectiveness. Quality Management
  59. 59. Quality Gurus Joseph Juran The Juran Quality Trilogy Juran developed an approach for cross-functional management that comprises three legislative processes for cost of poor quality. Quality Planning, Quality Control, Quality Improvement Three Steps to Progress Juran also introduced the Three Basic Steps to Progress, which, in his opinion, companies must implement if they are to achieve high quality. • Accomplish improvements that are structured on a regular basis with commitment and a sense of urgency. • Build an extensive training program. • Cultivate commitment and leadership at the higher echelons of management. Juran also devised ten steps for organizations to follow to attain better quality. Quality Management
  60. 60. Quality Management Phillips Corby Crosby's principle, Doing It Right the First Time, was his answer to the quality crisis. He defined quality as full and perfect conformance to the customers' requirements. The essence of his philosophy is expressed in what he called the Absolutes of Quality Management and the Basic Elements of Improvement. Crosby defined Four Absolutes of Quality Management, which are The First Absolute: The definition of quality is conformance to requirements The Next Absolute: The system of quality is prevention The Third Absolute: The performance standard is zero defects The Final Absolute: The measurement of quality is the price of non-conformance Zero Defects Crosby's Zero Defects is a performance method and standard that states that people should commit themselves to closely monitoring details and avoid errors. By doing this, they move closer to the zero defects goal. He also formulated Fourteen Steps to Quality Improvement. Masaaki Imai Kaizan, Japanese for "improvement" or "change for the best", refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, and business management.
  61. 61. Project HR Management
  62. 62. Project HR Management
  63. 63. Project HR Management Conflict Management Techniques Conflict situations are an important aspect of the workplace. A conflict is a situation when the interests, needs, goals or values of involved parties interfere with one another. A conflict is a common phenomenon in the workplace. Different stakeholders may have different priorities; conflicts may involve team members, departments, projects, organization and client, boss and subordinate, organization needs vs. personal needs. Often, a conflict is a result of perception. Is conflict a bad thing? Not necessarily. Often, a conflict presents opportunities for improvement. Therefore, it is important to understand (and apply) various conflict resolution techniques. Methods of Managing conflicts • Withdrawal • Smoothing • Compromising • Forcing • Problem solving(Confronting)
  64. 64. Project HR Management People seem to have different wants. This is fortunate, because in markets this creates the very desirable situation where, because you value stuff that I have but you don't, and I value stuff that you have that I don't, we can trade in such a way that we are both happier as a result we need to try to get a handle on the whole variety of needs and who has them in order to begin to understand how to design organizations that maximize productivity. Motivation the basic perspective on motivation looks something like this,
  65. 65. Project HR Management Maslow hierarchy example Need Home Job self-actualization education, religion, hobbies, personal growth training, advancement, growth, creativity esteem approval of family, friends, community recognition, high status, responsibilities belongingness family, friends, clubs teams, depts, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinates safety freedom from war, poison, violence work safety, job security, health insurance physiological food water sex Heat, air, base salary
  66. 66. Project Risk Management A risk is event that may happen that could have an unfavourable effect on your project's objectives. The key characteristic of a risk is the uncertainty of its occurrence. Uncertainty is what differentiates a risk from an issue. A risk has some probability of occurring whereas an issue has occurred. You can think of an issue as a risk that has materialized. Risk management is a systematic approach to managing project risk in order to increase the likelihood of meeting project objectives. There is a four step process for effective risk management... • Identify Risks • Risk Assessment • Risk Response Development • Monitor and Control Risks
  67. 67. Why Risk Management is Important • Better Project Decisions Including risk potential into your project decisions will help you make better decisions. • Set Priorities Risk probability and risk impact can help you prioritize project tasks. • Effective Resource Allocation Understanding which activities have greater risk impact to the project will help you determine the best places to allocate your resources to meet project objectives. • Improve Planning Risk mitigation and contingency planning will make your plans more robust, and maybe even bullet proof! • Reduce Project Costs Managing risks effectively can help your project avoid or minimize costs it may have otherwise incurred. • Reduce Your Stress Risk mitigation and contingency planning will help reduce surprises and keep you one step ahead. Being proactive will definitely reduce your stress. Project Risk Management
  68. 68. Project Risk Management Risk analysis is the process of prioritizing risks based on the probability of the risk occurring and the impact it would have on the project. There are two primary methods of risk analysis you can use on your project... • Qualitative Risk Analysis • Quantitative Risk Analysis The main difference between qualitative and quantitative risk analysis is that the former uses a relative or descriptive scale to measure the probability of occurrence whereas quantitative analysis uses a numerical scale. For example, a qualitative analysis would use a scale of "Low, Medium, High" to indicate the likelihood of a risk event occurring. A quantitative analysis will determine the probability of each risk event occurring. For example, Risk #1 has an 80% chance of occurring, Risk #2 has a 27% chance of occurring, and so on.
  69. 69. Project Risk Management A Risk Assessment Matrix (RAM) is a tool to help you determine which risks you need to develop a risk response for. The first step in developing a RAM is to define the rating scales for likelihood and impact. In a qualitative analysis, likelihood or probability is measured using a relative scale. Here's an example Likelihood Scale and Impact Scale definition. With your rating scales prepared, you can create a Risk Assessment Matrix to help you categorize the Risk Level for each risk event. Ra ti ng Likelihoo d Description 1 Very Low Highly unlikely to occur. May occur in exceptional situations. 2 Low Most likely will not occur. Infrequent occurrence in past projects. 3 Moderate Possible to occur. 4 High Likely to occur. Has occurred in past projects. 5 Very High Highly likely to occur. Has occurred in past projects and conditions exist for it to occur on this project. Rat ing Impa ct Cost Schedule 1 Very Low No increase in budget No change to schedule 2 Low < 5% increase in budget < 1 week delay to schedule 3 Mod erate 5-10% increase in budget 1 - 2 weeks delay to schedule 4 High 10-20% increase in budget 2 - 4 weeks delay to schedule 5 Very High > 20% increase in budget > 4 weeks delay to schedule
  70. 70. Qualitative Risk Assessment Using your RAM and Rating Scales, you can then analyze the likelihood of each risk event occurring and its impact to determine what Risk Level it is at. This will give you the information you need to prioritize your list of project risks. A qualitative risk assessment can also help you determine if there are any specific types or categories of risks that would require special attention or any risk events that need to be handled in the near-term. The most challenging aspect of performing a qualitative risk analysis is defining your rating scales. But once that has been done, you can use them for the duration of the project to effectively manage your project's risks in a timely manner. Project Risk Management
  71. 71. Procurement Management
  72. 72. Procurement Management Contract Types Some contracts are fixed price: no matter how much time or effort goes into them, the client always pay the same. The cost to the client stays the same, but as more effort is exerted the profit to the contractor goes down. Some are cost reimbursable also called cost plus. This is where the seller charges you for the cost of doing the work plus some fee or rate. As efforts increase, costs to the client go up but the contractor’s profits stay the same. The third major kind of contract is time and materials. That’s where the client pays a rate for the time spent working on the project and also pays for all the materials used to do the work. As costs to the client go up, so does the profit for the contractor.
  73. 73.  Reference  PMBOK    capability&source=iu&pf=m&fir=KENhn6RrODHUhM%253A%252CZY_YREzNFhLmFM%252C_&usg=__zeSRqeMG4JijfbeFq- aYvfj4Nhg%3D&biw=1366&bih=662&ved=0ahUKEwiLvI2jrc7SAhXEJJQKHUPwD5w4ChDKNwhZ&ei=PeDDWMupIsTJ0ATD4L_gCQ#imgrc=8mQXWUHGaT3MxM:    ,d.c2I&psig=AFQjCNEw5l_RGk72hJBo8ACUJMc02EHwLg&ust=1489389046788433    Thank You