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  1. 1. We are living in an era of change and challenge in a society which is presently enveloped bystriking and inspiring discoveries. One of these discoveries is classroom management skillswherein teachers’ competencies are much desired to fashion because it is the professionallandscape of the learner’s personalities. Education, therefore must equip the learners with theability in the proper use of classrooms and materials as far as their aptitudes and capabilitieswarrant. The ability of teachers to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of theirstudents is critical to achieving positive educational outcomes. Although sound behaviormanagement does not guarantee effective instruction, it establishes environmental contextthat makes good instruction possible. Reciprocally, highly effective instruction reduces, butdoes not eliminate, classroom behavior problems (Emmer and Stough, 2001)/ A significant body of research also attests to the fact that classroom organization andbehavior management competencies significantly influence the persistence of new teachers inteaching careers (Ingersoll & Smith, 2003).Chap.11.introduction 2. statement of the problem 3.significance of the study 4.scope and deliminationof the study.chap2.theoretical frame workrelevant theories ,definition of terms and related laws,related studies,coceptual framework-input-process-outputchapt.3methods of researchchapt.4presentation ,analysis ,and interpretation data .Presentation of finding .data from school survey-discussion of reslts4 last conclusion@ recommendation..
  2. 2. Definition of TermsIn order to provide a comprehensive framework of the materials incorporated inthis study the following definitions of terms are presented.A principle-defines the positive attitude and expectations for long-termbehavioral growth.A procedure-a specific activity by students and/or teachers that is directed ataccomplishing something related to the rule.A rule-is developed from a guiding principle, is short-term in nature, anddefines a general standard for observable behavior to support the principle.Classroom management-a systematic instructional process used by teachersto guide students toward successful rule compliance in the classroom, on the job, and inthe community.Obedience-based models of discipline-uses punishments as deterrents, then createsfear that something bad will happen when rules are broken, and provide rewards fordoing what is expected.Responsibility-based models of discipline-requires teaching students the skillsof decision making and providing opportunities to see appropriate behaviors in actionfrom good role models.ConclusionsBehavioral theorists, such as B. F. Skinner, have devoted their time and energyinto researching behavior, and how we can motivate and condition childrens learning.Many others have influenced how behavior can be modified for optimal learning. Thehistory of child psychology and development has assisted teachers in learning the stages achild experience from birth to adulthood. These important aspects of growth anddevelopment have assisted the evolution of education and behavior management in theclassroom.Out of all the studies and research that have been conducted in our past, new andsuccessful classroom management approaches have developed. Of the five approachesthat were researched in this study, it was found that each approach was unique in its ownright. Each had solid goals and objectives. Each had substantial research data to supportits theories and ideas.Some classroom approaches were not appropriate for every grade level. The 1-2-3 Magic (Phelan, 1995) approach was more appropriate for preschool through eighthgrades. There was no information found for management at the high school level for thisapproach. This approach did describe techniques that could be applied at home as well asat school. Having the same behavior management techniques at home and at schoolwould be advantageous to the child who needed strong consistency. On the other hand,Student Peer Mediation was appropriate for older students. This approach also hadunique techniques such as students helping other students. It allowed older students gain41skills in conflict and resolution. This approach gave teachers more opportunities to teach
  3. 3. because many of the disruptions could be settled outside of the classroom.There were several classroom management approaches that could be gearedtoward all grade levels, or used as a school-wide program. The Discipline with Dignityapproach offered essential skills and strategies to handle anger and disruptive behavior inthe classroom. The main objective was to treat the student fairly, but on an individualbasis. The program also strongly encouraged students to learn self-discipline andresponsibility. The Assertive Discipline approach (Canter, 1976) could easily berecommended as a school-wide program as well as an individual classroom managementprogram. The rules could be consistent inside and outside of the classroom. Forexample, the rule of: follow the directions of the adult could pertain to the classroom aswell as recess on the playground. This program had an interesting practice of havingobjectives for both the teacher and the child. White et al. (2001) demonstrated that thisapproach was very effective as a school-wide program. Its special features includedunified support by all faculty members and administrators. This was a rare, butwelcomed technique for making all parties including students, staff, and administratorsresponsible for the success (or failure) of the school-wide behavior management.The development of knowledge was found to be crucial in creating well-designedclassroom rules. Teachers are still at a great disadvantage because professional trainingoften overlooks the issue of classroom management skills. Yet, teachers are expected tocreate, implement, and maintain high standards for these skills. Teachers need to beorganized, efficient, highly motivating educators. They also need to obtain knowledge42from the wide spectrum of categories including principles, rules, procedures, timemanagement and inclusion of students with disabilities.The steps for planning an effective classroom management concept revealed oneoverall objective. That objective was to provide a cooperative and productive learningenvironment for all students. After rules have been established it is important toremember what the student needs to do in order to follow the rules successfully.Communication is and always will be the key to success!RecommendationsThe following recommendations are made to help the educator analyze criticalinformation about classroom management techniques and practices. It is the researchershope that these recommendations may assist in reading and reviewing a variety ofclassroom management approaches. It is also the researchers hope that the educator gainappropriate knowledge about the wide spectrum of criteria needed to select and createwell-designed rules for an effective classroom management concept. Therefore, thefollowing recommendations are given:* Communicate high expectations to students.* Use active listening skills.* Look for what is positive in a students work.* Nurture student self-esteem.* Create rules that will accommodate all students, including students withhandicaps or disabilities.· Provide positive reinforcement.· Deliver clear expectations.43* Model effective leadership.
  4. 4. * Be consistent in handling consequences.· Be fair.* Always respect students feelings.* Avoid sarcasm, put-downs, and ridicule.* Believe that students are competent.* Be open to all points of view.· Be sincere.* Listen without judging.*Make parents allies.* Model the behavior you want.* State classroom rules in positive terms.* Always encourage children to do their best.* Keep parent-teacher lines of communication open at all times.· Keep children safe.· Belief in yourself as a fine educator.* Try new approaches.* Wait for appropriate response time.* Set clear, concise goal for instruction.* Give students choices to develop positive self-worth.* Get to know your students.*· Start your day off with a positive ritual.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------There are four categories of disciplinary behaviors identified by Stage and Quiroz, they are: (1)reinforcement, (2) punishment, (3) no immediate consequences, and (4) combined punishmentand reinforcement.Rules have to be clear and preferably with no room for misinterpretation.The level of appropriateness for disciplinary action must be in conjunction with the behaviour.Therefore, it is significant to match the consequence to the seriousness of the infractions.Rule: Keep your hands to yourself; no hitting and fighting with your classmates.Reason: Students are not encouraged to be physical with their classmates as well as theirinclination to use their hands to provoke or disturb their classmates as they move in or out ofclass.This is to reduce the possibility of incidences of fights breaking out from such silly actions. Mostfights normally begin from innocent light pushes and slaps, which eventually turn into nasty andviolent fights.
  5. 5. Consequences: Negative approach (punishment): students found to infringe this rule would berequired to make use of their hands to do more productive activities, such as, picking up litter inthe school compound and cleaning up the classroom for a week.Rule: Respecting other people’s property; treat it as if it’s your own . Students are expected torespect other people’s belongings. This includes the properties of the school. They should notdestroy the property of others.Reason: Students must learn not to abuse other people’s property. Defacing and destroying is anunhealthy habit as well as outright disrespect for others and authority.Consequences: Negative approach: Students who break this rule will have to volunteer to helpthe horticultural club with the gardening process as well as the Operations Manager with simplemaintenance of the properties in the school for the month. They will also be enrolled in thecorrective-work- order squad and assigned duties for a month.Rule: Coming back to class immediately after Mother Tongue lesson.Students are expected to be back in their class for their subsequent lesson and seated with theirbooks for that lesson no more than 5 minutes after the Mother Tongue lesson.Reason: Students must learn to be responsible for their movement and take ownership of theirrole as dutiful students by moving for their next lesson in an efficient manner. The longer theytake to get back to class for lesson, the lesser time they have for the subsequent lesson and theywould be loitering and disturbing other classes’ lessons.Consequences: Combine no immediate consequence, punishment and reinforcement: Studentswho are later than 5 minutes are given a verbal warning up to the third time. After which, thestudent would be required to attend detention (on the 3rd and 4th time being late) for 1 hour and,subsequently, 2 hours of detention for the 5th time late onwards. The student’s late coming is adistraction to the lesson. However, if any students who are ready and have their books out for thenext lesson will be given early recess (on Friday) of 5 - 10 minutes if they are behaving in thisconsistently favourable manner for the whole week.Rule: Moving off in an orderly fashion for CPA lesson at the computer lab.When students are getting ready to go to the computer lab, they have to first get up from theirseats and push it in silently and slowly walk out of class and form a single line with nomovement.Reason: Students must learn to be responsible for their individual action and behaviour. Theyshould also understand how their action can affect the other classes’ lessons. Their rowdinessand inability to follow instructions is a bad influence and should not be condoned.Consequences: Punishment (corrective) followed by negative punishment: If these students pushthe chairs in loudly, dash out of class, unable to form a single line but one that is haphazard and
  6. 6. rowdy. the teacher will require the students to return to class silently, be seated quietly, reviewtheir behaviour and then try the earlier procedure of lining up in a single file and quietly again. Ifthe class persistently behave in the undesirable manner for the next 2 subsequent CPA lesson,then the students will have to practice this routine for 30 minutes after school hours according tothe number of time they fail to move off in an orderly fashion to the computer lab.Rule: Visiting inappropriate websites.Reason: Students must learn to be responsible for their own action and learn the importance ofbehaving in an appropriate manner that encourages high level of moral and ethical values.Incident: Students are in the computer lab during their regular CPA lesson. One of the studentswho is sitting at the far back is surfing an inappropriate website. Another student happens to passby and saw the site the former was viewing and hollers out “Teacher, A is watching an XX site!”Consequences: Negative consequence (removal): The student has violated one of school’s keyvalues which breaches its mission of being morally upright. Therefore, the student will have hisprivilege of using the computer taken away from him. He will be assigned a partner who wouldwork on the computer while he watches his partner work on the computer for the next threelessons. And, he will have to be placed in the front where the teacher can see his entire computerscreen for at least one term.How would you motivate your students in your class for effective learning to take place?The Motivated StudentMotivation is crucial for effective learning and this develops from an understanding of thelearning process. This process relates to the complete learning experience which includes: thelearner’s preference, expectations placed on the learner, the task, the teaching process, learningstrategies, the resources and the learning environment: opportunities for exploratory learning,and provision of a stimulating and supporting environment that embraces even failures. It is clearhere that in order to cultivate motivated students, there are a series of processes that are neededto be taken into consideration to enable a student-centred learning environment.Education advances have been focusing on curriculum and instruction, the what and how ofteaching. Far less attention and focus has been paid to the who of teaching.Therefore, equally, if not, more importantly the areas that should be developed include theintrinsic ways to create motivated students. Here are some ways:a) Teach routines, rituals, procedures and structure to help students internalise and polish theirrepertoire of essential skill sets.b) Create realistic expectations – set goals that are challenging yet achievable. Break difficultsubject matter into doable parts to make it achievable so that students see progressive inthemselves.
  7. 7. c) Teach students to consciously self-evaluate so as to encourage them to unlock theirenthusiasm for learning. The students will be encouraged to evaluate the effectiveness of theiractions, and can then plan accordingly with regards to their educational needs.d) Help students discover the power of their internal motivation so as to create a positive self-image and capability and boost their self-efficacy: the willingness and ability in themselves toachieve success.e) Teach the students about the components of behaviour: overt action, feelings, thoughts, andphysiological. They need to understand that these components work in concert; thereforechanging any one necessarily affects the others. As such, students should learn to control andmanage these components of behaviour.f) Minimise use of coercion and accept failure to be a critical part of the learning process and asopportunities to breed subsequence successes.e a productive learning environment.