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Think like a storage architect, in four questions
GDG Cloud London, 18 April 2018
Cheryl Hung, Product Manager
© StorageOS Ltd.
Cheryl (@oicheryl)
Ex-Google software engineer
Product manager, StorageOS
Cloud Native London meetup
2© StorageOS Ltd.
Objectives
•Why is state so tricky?
•How does storage work with Kubernetes?
•How do I choose a storage solution?
3
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
•Why is state so tricky?
•How does storage work with Kubernetes?
•How do I choose a storage solution?
Anti-objective:
•Should I use a database/message queue/key-value
store... for my app?
Objectives
4
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
Audience poll
5
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
Why is state so
tricky?
6© StorageOS Ltd.
Why do I need storage?
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
8
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
Why do I need storage?
First challenge: No pet storage
9
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
Second challenge: Data needs to follow
10
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
Third challenge: Humans are fallible
11
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
How does storage work
with Kubernetes?
12© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
Extremely quick intro to Kubernetes
© StorageOS Ltd.
•An open source container orchestrator platform, originally
developed by Google
•One of the fastest moving projects in open source; “The
Linux of the cloud”
•Abstracts away infrastructure in a cluster
@oicheryl
Extremely quick intro to Kubernetes
© StorageOS Ltd.
“Always run my application (packaged as a
container/pod) with four replicas”
@oicheryl
Extremely quick intro to Kubernetes
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
Kubernetes Storage Model: Persistent Volumes and Claims
© StorageOS Ltd.
Registers PVs in the pool
Pool of Persistent Volumes
NFS
PV
iSCSI
PV
NFS
PV
GCE
PV
Administrator
@oicheryl
Kubernetes Storage Model: Persistent Volumes and Claims
© StorageOS Ltd.
Registers PVs in the pool
Claims a PV from the pool
claim
Pool of Persistent Volumes
NFS
PV
iSCSI
PV
NFS
PV
GCE
PV
Administrator
Developer
@oicheryl
Kubernetes Storage Model: Persistent Volumes and Claims
© StorageOS Ltd.
claim
Registers PVs in the pool
Claims a PV from the pool
References claim in pod
claim
Pool of Persistent Volumes
NFS
PV
iSCSI
PV
NFS
PV
Pod
GCE
PV
Administrator
Developer
@oicheryl
Dynamic provisioning with Storage Classes
© StorageOS Ltd.
Registers Storage Classes
Storage Classes
NS
PVstandard
fast
Administrator
@oicheryl
Dynamic provisioning with Storage Classes
© StorageOS Ltd.
Registers Storage Classes
claim
Storage Classes
NS
PV
fast
Administrator
Developer
Claims a PV from the pool
standard
@oicheryl
Dynamic provisioning with Storage Classes
© StorageOS Ltd.
claim
Registers Storage Classes
References claim in pod
claim
Storage Classes
NS
PV
Pod
fast
Administrator
Developer
Claims a PV from the pool
fast
PV
standard
Which storage solution
should I choose?
22© StorageOS Ltd.
Kubernetes storage plugins
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
From the CNCF Landscape
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
@oicheryl
Meet Jane
• A DevOps engineer at a
media company
• Migrating client Wordpress
websites into Kubernetes
• Needs to decide what
storage to use
© StorageOS Ltd.
The four questions
1. What is my use case?
2. What are my performance requirements?
3. How should developers access storage?
4. Where is the storage deployed and managed?
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
1. What is my use case?
28
App binaries App data Config Backup
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
2. What are my performance requirements?
29
App binaries
Ephemeral
App data
Latency,
availability,
performant
Config
Shared
Backup
Cost efficient,
cloud
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
3. How should developers access storage?
© StorageOS Ltd.
Block
Fixed-size ‘blocks’ in
a rigid arrangement
– ideal for enterprise
databases
File
‘Files’ in
hierarchically nested
‘folders’ – ideal for
active documents
Object
‘Objects’ in scalable
‘buckets’ – ideal for
unstructured big
data and archiving
4. Where is the storage deployed and managed?
●CO supports one or more Interfaces to interact
with the Storage System
●Storage System can (A) support control-plane
interface API directly and interact directly with the
CO or can (B) interact with the CO via an API
framework layer or other Tools.
●Storage system must support the ability to
provision and consume (C) volumes through a
standard interface to be considered Interoperable
●Workloads interact (C) with storage systems over
various data-plane methods
Cluster Orchestrators
Control-Plane Interfaces
(CSI, DVDI, Flex, Native)
Storage SystemsFrameworks and Tools
AB
B
Workloads
C
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
@oicheryl
Jane’s storage requirements
• Postgres database for
application data
• Database location,
credentials
• Database and website
backups
• User uploaded media
© StorageOS Ltd.
Database location and credentials
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
1. Use case? Configuration
2. Performance requirements? Shared across instances
3. Access? Kubernetes provides Secrets for sensitive data
such as passwords, and ConfigMap for arbitrary config. Both
can be accessed by the application through environment
variables
4. Deployed and managed? Tight integration with Kubernetes
User uploaded media
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
1. Use case? Shared media
2. Performance requirements? Large blobs of data, shared
across pods
3. Access? Shared filesystem
4. Deployed and managed?
Cloud: Managed NFS, or object store if the app can support it
On prem: Distributed FS (not NFS)
Database and website backup
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
1. Use case? Backup and archival
2. Performance requirements? Durability, cost, snapshots
3. Access? Object store
4. Deployed and managed?
Cloud: Managed object store (Google Cloud Storage), long term
cold storage (Google Coldline)
On prem: Object store, NAS
Postgres for application data
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
1. Use case? Transactional database
2. Performance requirements? High availability, low latency,
deterministic performance
3. Access? Database connector
4. Deployed and managed?
Cloud: Block storage (but Google persistent disks cannot be
detached from running GCE instances) or managed db
On prem: Software defined storage
Software-defined storage
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
Thanks
Slides at oicheryl.com
© StorageOS Ltd.
What is StorageOS?
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
What is StorageOS?
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
Platform
agnostic
Horizontally
scalable
Database (ie.
block)
Docker/K8s
integration
High
availability
StorageOS architecture
@oicheryl
© StorageOS Ltd.
StorageOS architecture
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
StorageOS is conceptually pretty simple; it’s a virtualization layer on top of any
commodity or cloud storage. It’s deployed as one container per node, similar to
a DaemonSet.
1. Nodes contribute local block storage to the storage pool.
2. Virtual volumes (block storage formatted with a standard filesystem) are
created using the StorageOS volume plugin.
3. Any pods can mount the virtual volumes from any node. If a pod is
rescheduled to a different node, StorageOS simply redirects reads and
writes so the pod can continue to access the storage.
StorageOS architecture
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
It’s designed to scale horizontally by adding more nodes. New nodes contribute
their storage into the storage pool, or, if they don’t have storage themselves,
can access storage on other nodes.
High availability with StorageOS
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
High availability with StorageOS
© StorageOS Ltd.
@oicheryl
StorageOS uses a hybrid master/replica architecture, where replicas are
distributed across nodes.
Replication is very simple in StorageOS. Volume D is created with two replicas.
StorageOS creates the replicas (D2, D3) and schedules them to two different
nodes (N3, N5). Incoming writes to D are synchronously replicated to D2 and
D3, ie. writes are not persisted until acknowledged by both replicas.
If N1 fails, one of D2 or D3 gets promoted to master, providing instant failover
and no interruption of service. StorageOS creates and resyncs a new replica on
N2 or N4 in the background.
Browser-based demo
• my.storageos.com/main/tutorials
Quickstart
• storageos.com/kubernetes
@oicheryl
StorageOS resources
© StorageOS Ltd.
More reading
Download the technical architecture overview at
storageos.com/storageos-platform-architecture-overview.
Try out in your browser, with zero downloads or configuration:
my.storageos.com/main/tutorials
Full documentation at docs.storageos.com.

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Think like a storage architect, in four questions

  • 1. Think like a storage architect, in four questions GDG Cloud London, 18 April 2018 Cheryl Hung, Product Manager © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 2. Cheryl (@oicheryl) Ex-Google software engineer Product manager, StorageOS Cloud Native London meetup 2© StorageOS Ltd.
  • 3. Objectives •Why is state so tricky? •How does storage work with Kubernetes? •How do I choose a storage solution? 3 @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 4. •Why is state so tricky? •How does storage work with Kubernetes? •How do I choose a storage solution? Anti-objective: •Should I use a database/message queue/key-value store... for my app? Objectives 4 @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 6. Why is state so tricky? 6© StorageOS Ltd.
  • 7. Why do I need storage? @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 9. First challenge: No pet storage 9 @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 10. Second challenge: Data needs to follow 10 @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 11. Third challenge: Humans are fallible 11 @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 12. How does storage work with Kubernetes? 12© StorageOS Ltd.
  • 13. @oicheryl Extremely quick intro to Kubernetes © StorageOS Ltd. •An open source container orchestrator platform, originally developed by Google •One of the fastest moving projects in open source; “The Linux of the cloud” •Abstracts away infrastructure in a cluster
  • 14. @oicheryl Extremely quick intro to Kubernetes © StorageOS Ltd. “Always run my application (packaged as a container/pod) with four replicas”
  • 15. @oicheryl Extremely quick intro to Kubernetes © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 16. @oicheryl Kubernetes Storage Model: Persistent Volumes and Claims © StorageOS Ltd. Registers PVs in the pool Pool of Persistent Volumes NFS PV iSCSI PV NFS PV GCE PV Administrator
  • 17. @oicheryl Kubernetes Storage Model: Persistent Volumes and Claims © StorageOS Ltd. Registers PVs in the pool Claims a PV from the pool claim Pool of Persistent Volumes NFS PV iSCSI PV NFS PV GCE PV Administrator Developer
  • 18. @oicheryl Kubernetes Storage Model: Persistent Volumes and Claims © StorageOS Ltd. claim Registers PVs in the pool Claims a PV from the pool References claim in pod claim Pool of Persistent Volumes NFS PV iSCSI PV NFS PV Pod GCE PV Administrator Developer
  • 19. @oicheryl Dynamic provisioning with Storage Classes © StorageOS Ltd. Registers Storage Classes Storage Classes NS PVstandard fast Administrator
  • 20. @oicheryl Dynamic provisioning with Storage Classes © StorageOS Ltd. Registers Storage Classes claim Storage Classes NS PV fast Administrator Developer Claims a PV from the pool standard
  • 21. @oicheryl Dynamic provisioning with Storage Classes © StorageOS Ltd. claim Registers Storage Classes References claim in pod claim Storage Classes NS PV Pod fast Administrator Developer Claims a PV from the pool fast PV standard
  • 22. Which storage solution should I choose? 22© StorageOS Ltd.
  • 23. Kubernetes storage plugins © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl
  • 24. From the CNCF Landscape @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 26. @oicheryl Meet Jane • A DevOps engineer at a media company • Migrating client Wordpress websites into Kubernetes • Needs to decide what storage to use © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 27. The four questions 1. What is my use case? 2. What are my performance requirements? 3. How should developers access storage? 4. Where is the storage deployed and managed? @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 28. 1. What is my use case? 28 App binaries App data Config Backup @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 29. 2. What are my performance requirements? 29 App binaries Ephemeral App data Latency, availability, performant Config Shared Backup Cost efficient, cloud @oicheryl © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 30. @oicheryl 3. How should developers access storage? © StorageOS Ltd. Block Fixed-size ‘blocks’ in a rigid arrangement – ideal for enterprise databases File ‘Files’ in hierarchically nested ‘folders’ – ideal for active documents Object ‘Objects’ in scalable ‘buckets’ – ideal for unstructured big data and archiving
  • 31. 4. Where is the storage deployed and managed? ●CO supports one or more Interfaces to interact with the Storage System ●Storage System can (A) support control-plane interface API directly and interact directly with the CO or can (B) interact with the CO via an API framework layer or other Tools. ●Storage system must support the ability to provision and consume (C) volumes through a standard interface to be considered Interoperable ●Workloads interact (C) with storage systems over various data-plane methods Cluster Orchestrators Control-Plane Interfaces (CSI, DVDI, Flex, Native) Storage SystemsFrameworks and Tools AB B Workloads C © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl
  • 32. @oicheryl Jane’s storage requirements • Postgres database for application data • Database location, credentials • Database and website backups • User uploaded media © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 33. Database location and credentials © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl 1. Use case? Configuration 2. Performance requirements? Shared across instances 3. Access? Kubernetes provides Secrets for sensitive data such as passwords, and ConfigMap for arbitrary config. Both can be accessed by the application through environment variables 4. Deployed and managed? Tight integration with Kubernetes
  • 34. User uploaded media © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl 1. Use case? Shared media 2. Performance requirements? Large blobs of data, shared across pods 3. Access? Shared filesystem 4. Deployed and managed? Cloud: Managed NFS, or object store if the app can support it On prem: Distributed FS (not NFS)
  • 35. Database and website backup © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl 1. Use case? Backup and archival 2. Performance requirements? Durability, cost, snapshots 3. Access? Object store 4. Deployed and managed? Cloud: Managed object store (Google Cloud Storage), long term cold storage (Google Coldline) On prem: Object store, NAS
  • 36. Postgres for application data © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl 1. Use case? Transactional database 2. Performance requirements? High availability, low latency, deterministic performance 3. Access? Database connector 4. Deployed and managed? Cloud: Block storage (but Google persistent disks cannot be detached from running GCE instances) or managed db On prem: Software defined storage
  • 39. What is StorageOS? © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl
  • 40. What is StorageOS? © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl Platform agnostic Horizontally scalable Database (ie. block) Docker/K8s integration High availability
  • 42. StorageOS architecture © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl StorageOS is conceptually pretty simple; it’s a virtualization layer on top of any commodity or cloud storage. It’s deployed as one container per node, similar to a DaemonSet. 1. Nodes contribute local block storage to the storage pool. 2. Virtual volumes (block storage formatted with a standard filesystem) are created using the StorageOS volume plugin. 3. Any pods can mount the virtual volumes from any node. If a pod is rescheduled to a different node, StorageOS simply redirects reads and writes so the pod can continue to access the storage.
  • 43. StorageOS architecture © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl It’s designed to scale horizontally by adding more nodes. New nodes contribute their storage into the storage pool, or, if they don’t have storage themselves, can access storage on other nodes.
  • 44. High availability with StorageOS © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl
  • 45. High availability with StorageOS © StorageOS Ltd. @oicheryl StorageOS uses a hybrid master/replica architecture, where replicas are distributed across nodes. Replication is very simple in StorageOS. Volume D is created with two replicas. StorageOS creates the replicas (D2, D3) and schedules them to two different nodes (N3, N5). Incoming writes to D are synchronously replicated to D2 and D3, ie. writes are not persisted until acknowledged by both replicas. If N1 fails, one of D2 or D3 gets promoted to master, providing instant failover and no interruption of service. StorageOS creates and resyncs a new replica on N2 or N4 in the background.
  • 46. Browser-based demo • my.storageos.com/main/tutorials Quickstart • storageos.com/kubernetes @oicheryl StorageOS resources © StorageOS Ltd.
  • 47. More reading Download the technical architecture overview at storageos.com/storageos-platform-architecture-overview. Try out in your browser, with zero downloads or configuration: my.storageos.com/main/tutorials Full documentation at docs.storageos.com.