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Case Study
Subzero temperatures span across the prairie.
Animals hibernate, grow winter coats, or fly
south to warmer clim...
How do the moth larvae survive?
GLYCEROL
AND
ANTI-FREEZE PROTEINS
Cheryl Hosie
Cryoprotectant
• Macromolecules, like Glycerol, are used
to protect tissues from freezing
• As ice forms outside the cell,...
Glycogen to Glycerol
• Larvae prepare for winter by
consuming large quantities of plants
• Low temperatures initiate
accum...
Glycerol
•Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups
That hydrogen bond to water
•This binding of glycerol to water reduces
the am...
Anti Freeze Proteins
•Lower freezing point
•Protect cell from ice
damage
•Used in food industry
https://pdb101.rcsb.org/mo...
Anti-Freeze Proteins
• The lighter blue areas on
these proteins represent
the water binding sites
• Anti-Freeze Proteins b...
Freeze-Avoiding Gall Moth
•Freeze-Avoiding Insects, like the Goldenrod Gall Moth,
can not survive with large amounts of ic...
REFERENCES
"PDB-101: Antifreeze Proteins". Pdb101.rcsb.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Dec. 2016.
Pfister,T.D and K.B Storey. "Pr...
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Glycerol and AFP Case study

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Extra Credit for BIOC 460 Final

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Glycerol and AFP Case study

  1. 1. Case Study Subzero temperatures span across the prairie. Animals hibernate, grow winter coats, or fly south to warmer climate zones. Goldenrod gall moth larvae survive harsh winters in the stem galls of goldenrod plants.
  2. 2. How do the moth larvae survive?
  3. 3. GLYCEROL AND ANTI-FREEZE PROTEINS Cheryl Hosie
  4. 4. Cryoprotectant • Macromolecules, like Glycerol, are used to protect tissues from freezing • As ice forms outside the cell, water leaves the cell to dilute the higher concentrations of solutes • Cryoprotectants prevent all the water from leaving by increasing the concentration of solutes inside the cell
  5. 5. Glycogen to Glycerol • Larvae prepare for winter by consuming large quantities of plants • Low temperatures initiate accumulation of glycogen • Glycerol is easily synthesized from glycogen storages • Metabolism Pathway of glucose to glycerol is shown in the diagram https://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img= PMC2712079_pone.0006394.g004&req=4
  6. 6. Glycerol •Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups That hydrogen bond to water •This binding of glycerol to water reduces the amount ice crystals that form inside the cells https://www.quora.com/Why- does-glycerol-retain-water
  7. 7. Anti Freeze Proteins •Lower freezing point •Protect cell from ice damage •Used in food industry https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/120
  8. 8. Anti-Freeze Proteins • The lighter blue areas on these proteins represent the water binding sites • Anti-Freeze Proteins bind to the water in the extracellular matrix • This prevents large ice crystals to form in freeze avoiding fish and insects https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/120
  9. 9. Freeze-Avoiding Gall Moth •Freeze-Avoiding Insects, like the Goldenrod Gall Moth, can not survive with large amounts of ice crystals intracellularly and/or extracellularly •Glycerol binds to the water inside the cell to prevent ice crystals •In addition, anti-freeze proteins, such as Protein Kinase prevent cell death
  10. 10. REFERENCES "PDB-101: Antifreeze Proteins". Pdb101.rcsb.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Dec. 2016. Pfister,T.D and K.B Storey. "Protein Kinase A: Purification And Characterization Of The Enzyme FromTwo Cold-Hardy Goldenrod Gall Insects". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 32.5 (2002): 505-515.Web. TOLLAROVA, Michaela. "Seasonal Activity-Profiles Of Enzymes Involved In Cryoprotectant Biosynthesis In Pyrrhocoris Apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)". European Journal of Entomology 105.1 (2008): 149-152.Web.

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