Subzero temperatures span across the prairie.
Animals hibernate, grow winter coats, or fly
south to warmer climate zones.
Goldenrod gall moth larvae survive harsh
winters in the stem galls of goldenrod plants.
• Macromolecules, like Glycerol, are used
to protect tissues from freezing
• As ice forms outside the cell, water leaves
the cell to dilute the higher
concentrations of solutes
• Cryoprotectants prevent all the water
from leaving by increasing the
concentration of solutes inside the cell
Glycogen to Glycerol
• Larvae prepare for winter by
consuming large quantities of plants
• Low temperatures initiate
accumulation of glycogen
• Glycerol is easily synthesized from
• Metabolism Pathway of glucose to
glycerol is shown in the diagram
•Glycerol has three hydroxyl groups
That hydrogen bond to water
•This binding of glycerol to water reduces
the amount ice
crystals that form inside the cells
Anti Freeze Proteins
•Lower freezing point
•Protect cell from ice
•Used in food industry
• The lighter blue areas on
these proteins represent
the water binding sites
• Anti-Freeze Proteins bind
to the water in the
• This prevents large ice
crystals to form in freeze
avoiding fish and insects
Freeze-Avoiding Gall Moth
•Freeze-Avoiding Insects, like the Goldenrod Gall Moth,
can not survive with large amounts of ice crystals
intracellularly and/or extracellularly
•Glycerol binds to the water inside the cell to prevent ice
•In addition, anti-freeze proteins, such as Protein Kinase
prevent cell death
"PDB-101: Antifreeze Proteins". Pdb101.rcsb.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Dec. 2016.
Pfister,T.D and K.B Storey. "Protein Kinase A: Purification And Characterization Of
The Enzyme FromTwo Cold-Hardy Goldenrod Gall Insects". Insect Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology 32.5 (2002): 505-515.Web.
TOLLAROVA, Michaela. "Seasonal Activity-Profiles Of Enzymes Involved In
Cryoprotectant Biosynthesis In Pyrrhocoris Apterus (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae)".
European Journal of Entomology 105.1 (2008): 149-152.Web.