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1.4 Laboratory Equipment: Names & Uses

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BHS Laboratory Equipment

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1.4 Laboratory Equipment: Names & Uses

  1. 1. BHS Chemistry Lab Equipment Adapted from presentations by Stephen L. Cotton, Charles Page High School and Mrs. Parris, Galax High School
  2. 2. Beaker • Beakers hold solids or liquids. • Very poor accuracy – should only be used to estimate volume • Note the size capacity (250 mL in this case) There are four sizes of beakers for you to use in your lab desk.
  3. 3. Beaker Tongs Beaker tongs are used to move beakers containing hot liquids. Note the rubber coating to improve grip on the glass beaker - do NOT hold this in a burner flame.
  4. 4. Bunsen Burner Bunsen burners are used for heating nonvolatile liquids and solids. Make sure the hose is snug on the gas outlet and that there are no cracks in the hose.
  5. 5. Analytical Balance Make sure balance is zeroed (reads zero) before beginning. You can do this with the “zero” function. Never place chemicals directly onto the balance pan. Use a weigh paper or dish.
  6. 6. Crucible and cover Crucibles are used for heating certain solids, particularly metals, to very high temperatures. The cover can be used to contain any smoke particles.
  7. 7. Crucible Tongs For handling hot crucibles; also used to pick up other hot objects - NOT to be used for picking up beakers!
  8. 8. Erlenmeyer Flask Erlenmeyer flasks hold solids or liquids that may release gases during a reaction or that are likely to splatter if stirred or heated. Note the size
  9. 9. Evaporating Dish The evaporating dish is used for heating stable solid compounds and elements, as well as for evaporating nonvolatile solutions.
  10. 10. Florence Flask Rarely used in first year chemistry, it is used for the mixing of chemicals. Narrow neck prevents splash exposure.
  11. 11. Forceps Forceps are used to hold or pick up small objects.
  12. 12. Funnel A funnel is used to aid in the transfer of liquids from one vessel to another, and will hold filter paper while filtering. It may be glass or plastic.
  13. 13. Graduated Cylinder A graduated cylinder is used to more accurately measure volumes of liquids (probably your best everyday measuring tool) there are three sizes in your desk: 10 mL, 50 mL and 100 mL.
  14. 14. Buret A buret is used to very accurately measure volumes of liquids and dispense small measurable amounts of liquids.
  15. 15. Pipet A pipet is used to very accurately dispense volumes of liquids. We use a pipet bulb or a delivery tube to dispense the liquid. Never use your mouth to draw liquid into the pipet.
  16. 16. Glass Dropper Pipet A droper pipet is used to transfer a small volume of liquid, usually one drop at a time. On top of each pipet is a “rubber bulb” – never put your mouth on the dropper to provide suction
  17. 17. Disposable Pipet
  18. 18. Pipe Stem (Clay) Triangle The pipe stem triangle is used as a support for crucibles when being heated over a lab burner. It can also be used to support a funnel when filtering.
  19. 19. Reaction Plates Reaction plates (or multi-well plates) are used when we want to perform many small scale reactions at one time. It is like having lots of test tubes available at one time.
  20. 20. Ringstands and their Components Ringstands are a safe and convenient way to perform reactions that require heating using a lab burner. Never put them in the cabinet if they are too hot to hold as it can cause a fire.
  21. 21. Ringstands and their Components Metal Ring Metal rings connect to a ringstand, and provide a stable, elevated platform for a beaker to be heated. Will also hold a pipe stem triangle and funnel during filtering
  22. 22. Ringstands and their Components Test tube/Utility Clamps Test tube clamps are used to secure test tubes, distillation columns, and burets to the ringstand. Image source xump.com
  23. 23. Ringstands and their Components Wire Gauze Wire gauze sits on the iron ring to provide a place to stand a beaker. On older wire gauze, the white material was asbestos – currently it is a ceramic.
  24. 24. Scoopula/Spatula Spatulas are used to transfer solid chemicals. Never insert a spatula directly into a reagent bottle. Chemicals should never be transferred with your bare hands.
  25. 25. Stirring Rod The stirring rod is used to: a) manually stir solutions; b) assist in pouring liquids; and c) to transfer a single drop of a solution. Rubber policeman tip is used to remove precipitates. Stir with this end.
  26. 26. Flint Lighter / Striker These strikers are used to light lab burners. The flints on strikers are expensive. Do not operate the striker repeatedly just to see the sparks!
  27. 27. Test Tubes – we commonly use 2 sizes: 18 x 150 mm 13 x 100 mm Ignition Tube (25 x 200 mm – I’ll use these in demos.) Test tubes are used to mix chemicals, and also to heat chemicals. Only heat test tubes that are Pyrex or Kimax.
  28. 28. Rubber Stoppers Rubber stoppers are used to seal a reaction vessel, which could be a flask or a test tube. Stoppers can also be used to force gaseous products of a reaction to flow into a specific location.
  29. 29. Test Tube Brushes Test tube brushes are used to clean test tubes and graduated cylinders. Forcing a large brush into a small test tube will often break the tube. Don’t worry about drying the inside of a test tube. Small test tube brush Large test tube brush
  30. 30. Test Tube Holder A test tube holder is useful for holding a test tube which is too hot to handle. Knowing where to hold this piece of equipment (at the end) is important!
  31. 31. Test Tube Racks Test tube racks are for holding and organizing test tubes on the laboratory counter.
  32. 32. Wash Bottle Wash bottles are used to rinse solids from other equipment when trying to conserve (keep all of) the solid—for instance, from the inside of a test tube.
  33. 33. Test Tube Racks Test tube racks are for holding and organizing test tubes on the laboratory counter.
  34. 34. LabQuest and Probes Keep probe wires clear of flame and burners.
  35. 35. Mortar & Pestle A mortar & Pestle is used to grind solids into fine powders to speed the mixing or reaction process. The mortar & pestle is a thicker porcelain that is more heavy duty than the evaporating dish.
  36. 36. Watch Glass A watch glass is used to hold a small amount of solid, such as the product of a reaction. Can also be used as a cover for an evaporating dish or beaker.
  37. 37. Weigh Boat  Weigh boats are used to weigh solids that will be transferred to another vessel.  Never put chemicals directly on the balance – it leaves residue and can harm the balance and contaminate the chemicals.

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