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Ch. Surinarayana M.Tech
NIT Rourkela
Introduction
• Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is a non-traditional
machining (NTM) process belonging to Electrochemical
c...
Machining Process
• During ECM, there will be reactions occurring at the
electrodes i.e. at the anode (Workpiece) and at t...
• As the potential difference is applied between the
work piece (anode) and the tool (cathode), the
positive ions move tow...
• Within the electrolyte iron ions would combine with
chloride, hydroxyl ions to form ferrous chloride, ferrous
hydroxide ...
• Moreover there is not coating on the tool, only
hydrogen gas evolves at the tool or cathode.
• As the material removal t...
Process Parameters
Power Supply
- Type direct current
- Voltage 2 to 35 V
- Current 50 to 40,000 A
- Current density 0.1 A...
Applications
1. ECM can be used to make disc for turbine rotor blades made up of
HSTR alloys
2. ECM can be used for slotti...
Modeling of material removal rate
• In ECM, material removal takes place due to atomic
dissolution of work material. Elect...
• The second law states that “the amount of material
deposited or dissolved further depends on
Electrochemical Equivalence...
m = (Q A)/(F ν)
where Q = I t
m = (I t A) / (F ν)
MRR = m / (t ρ)
where I = current
ρ= density of the material
Problem
1. In electrochemical machining of pure iron a material
removal rate of 600 mm3/min is required. Estimate current
...
MRR for Alloy Material
• The engineering materials are quite often alloys rather than
element consisting of different elem...
• Each element present in the alloy takes a certain amount of
charge to dissolve.
𝑚𝑖 =
𝑄𝑖 𝐴𝑖
𝐹𝜈𝑖
𝑄𝑖 =
𝐹𝑚𝑖 𝜈𝑖
𝐴𝑖
𝑄𝑖 =
𝐹𝛤𝑎 𝜌...
Electro chemical machining
Electro chemical machining
Electro chemical machining
Electro chemical machining
Electro chemical machining
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Electro chemical machining

Electrochemical machining

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Electro chemical machining

  1. 1. Ch. Surinarayana M.Tech NIT Rourkela
  2. 2. Introduction • Electrochemical Machining (ECM) is a non-traditional machining (NTM) process belonging to Electrochemical category. ECM is opposite of galvanic coating or deposition process. Thus ECM can be thought of a controlled anodic dissolution at atomic level of the work piece that is electrically conductive by a shaped tool due to flow of high current at relatively low potential difference through an electrolyte which is quite often water based neutral salt solution.
  3. 3. Machining Process • During ECM, there will be reactions occurring at the electrodes i.e. at the anode (Workpiece) and at the cathode (Tool) along with within the electrolyte. • Example: Machining of low carbon steel which is primarily a ferrous alloy mainly containing iron. • Salt solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) is taken as the electrolyte. NaCl ↔ Na+ + Cl- H2O ↔ H + + (OH)-
  4. 4. • As the potential difference is applied between the work piece (anode) and the tool (cathode), the positive ions move towards the tool and negative ions move towards the workpiece. • Thus the hydrogen ions will take away electrons from the cathode (tool) and from hydrogen gas as: 2H+ + 2e- = H2↑ at cathode • Similarly, the iron atoms will come out of the anode (work piece) as: Fe = Fe+ + + 2e-
  5. 5. • Within the electrolyte iron ions would combine with chloride, hydroxyl ions to form ferrous chloride, ferrous hydroxide and similarly sodium ions would combine with hydroxyl ions to form sodium hydroxide. Fe2+ +2Cl- = FeCl2 Na+ + OH- = NaOH Fe2+ +2OH- = Fe(OH)2 • In practice FeCl2 and Fe(OH)2 would form and get precipitated in the form of sludge. In this manner it can be noted that the work piece gets gradually machined and gets precipitated as the sludge.
  6. 6. • Moreover there is not coating on the tool, only hydrogen gas evolves at the tool or cathode. • As the material removal takes place due to atomic level dissociation, the machined surface is of excellent surface finish and stress free.
  7. 7. Process Parameters Power Supply - Type direct current - Voltage 2 to 35 V - Current 50 to 40,000 A - Current density 0.1 A/mm2 to 5 A/mm2 Electrolyte - Material NaCl and NaNO3 - Temperature 20oC – 50oC - Flow rate 20 lpm per 100 A current - Pressure 0.5 to 20 bar - Dilution 100 g/l to 500 g/l Working gap 0.1 mm to 2 mm Overcut 0.2 mm to 3 mm Feed rate 0.5 mm/min to 15 mm/min Electrode material Copper, brass, bronze Surface roughness Ra 0.2 to 1.5 μm
  8. 8. Applications 1. ECM can be used to make disc for turbine rotor blades made up of HSTR alloys 2. ECM can be used for slotting very thin walled collets. 3. ECM can be used for copying of internal and external surfaces, cutting of curvilinear slots, machining of intricate patterns, production of long curved profiles, machining of gears and chain sprockets, production of integrally bladed nozzle for use in diesel locomotives, production of satellite rings and connecting rods, machining of thin large diameter diaphragms. 4. ECM principle has be employed for performing a number of machining operations namely, turning, trepanning, broaching, grinding, fine hole drilling, die sinking, piercing, deburring, plunge cutting etc. 5. ECM can also be used to generate internal profile of internal cams.
  9. 9. Modeling of material removal rate • In ECM, material removal takes place due to atomic dissolution of work material. Electrochemical dissolution is governed by Faraday’s laws. • The first law states that “the amount of electrochemical dissolution or deposition is proportional to amount of charge passed through the electrochemical cell”. m∝ Q where m = mass of material dissolved or deposited Q = amount of charge passed
  10. 10. • The second law states that “the amount of material deposited or dissolved further depends on Electrochemical Equivalence (ECE) of the material that is again the ratio of the atomic weigh and valency. m∝ ECE ∝ A/ν Thus m α (QA) / (ν) m = (QA) / (F ν) where F = Faraday’s constant F = 96500 coulombs
  11. 11. m = (Q A)/(F ν) where Q = I t m = (I t A) / (F ν) MRR = m / (t ρ) where I = current ρ= density of the material
  12. 12. Problem 1. In electrochemical machining of pure iron a material removal rate of 600 mm3/min is required. Estimate current requirement. AFe = 56 νFe = 2 F = 96500 coulomb ρ = 7.8 gm/cc 1 cc = 1000mm ANS :- MRR = m / (t ρ) m = (I t A) / (F ν) I= 268.8 A answer
  13. 13. MRR for Alloy Material • The engineering materials are quite often alloys rather than element consisting of different elements in a given proportion. • Let us assume there are ‘n’ elements in an alloy. • The atomic weights are given as A1, A2, ….., An with valency during electrochemical dissolution as ν1, ν2, …, νn. • The weight percentages of different elements are α1, α2,….., αn (in decimal fraction) • Now for passing a current of I for a time t, the mass of material dissolved for any element ‘i’ is given by 𝒎𝒊 = 𝜞 𝒂 𝛒𝜶𝒊 Where 𝛤𝑎 is the total volume of alloy dissolved.
  14. 14. • Each element present in the alloy takes a certain amount of charge to dissolve. 𝑚𝑖 = 𝑄𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝐹𝜈𝑖 𝑄𝑖 = 𝐹𝑚𝑖 𝜈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝑄𝑖 = 𝐹𝛤𝑎 𝜌𝛼𝑖 𝜈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 The total charge passed 𝑄 𝑇 = 𝐼𝑡 = 𝑖=1 𝑛 𝑄𝑖 𝑄 𝑇 = 𝐼𝑡 = 𝐹𝛤𝑎 𝜌 𝑖=1 𝑛 𝛼𝑖 𝜈𝑖 𝐴𝑖 𝑀𝑅𝑅 = 𝛤𝑎 𝑡 = 𝐼 𝐹𝜌 𝛼𝑖 𝜈𝑖 𝐴𝑖

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Electrochemical machining

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