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THE VISUAL FRAMING OF ROMANIAN MIGRANTS
IN THE NATIONAL PRESS:
A SOCIAL SEMIOTIC APPROACH
Understanding Transition III,
Te...
CONTEXT
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices,
Bucharest, 1-3 July ...
CONTEXT
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices,
Bucharest 1-3 July, ...
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
• RQ1: How do the Romanian journalists construct the social issue of
migration visually?
• RQ2: What ar...
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
• Migration: a public problem discussed in the media (Boltanski, Cefaï, Gusfield, 2001);
• Politics o...
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
• Images – “largely analogical system of communication” (Messaris & Abraham, 2001);
• Framing - the s...
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
• The social semiotic approach to visuals (Bell, 2001; Jewitt & Oyama, 2001; Kress & Van
Leeuwen, 199...
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
• Semiotic resources:
– the products of cultural histories and the cognitive resources used to create...
METHODOLOGY
• Qualitative and social semiotic approach;
– Social semiotic analysis (Bell, 2001; Kress and van Leeuwen,1996...
METHODOLOGY
• 3 categories to analyze news photographs:
1) social distance (Hall, 1966):
- intimate distance (face or head...
RESULTS – THE VISUAL FRAMING OF ROMANIAN MIGRANTS
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and int...
RESULTS – THE PUBLIC SECURITY FRAME
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural pra...
RESULTS – THE ECONOMIC FRAME
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices,...
RESULTS – THE EMPLOYMENT FRAME
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practice...
RESULTS – SOCIAL DISTANCE (CLOSE PERSONAL)
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultu...
RESULTS – SOCIAL DISTANCE ( PUBLIC)
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural pra...
RESULTS – VISUAL MODALITY
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices,
Bu...
RESULTS – CONTACT
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices,
Bucharest ...
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
• 3 dominant visual frames of migrants emerging in the Romanian national press:
– public security ...
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
• The majority of the news photographs represent Roma people - anti-Roma discourses
found in the R...
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
• Under which conditions does a news image work more powerful?
• How do the Romanian journalists v...
Understanding Transition III,
Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices,
Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
Tha...
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The Visual Framing of Romanian migrants in the national press. A social semiotic approach

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The Visual Framing of Romanian migrants in the national press. A social semiotic approach

  1. 1. THE VISUAL FRAMING OF ROMANIAN MIGRANTS IN THE NATIONAL PRESS: A SOCIAL SEMIOTIC APPROACH Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices Bucharest, 1-3 July 2015 Bianca-Florentina Cheregi, Doctoral School in Communication Sciences, N.U.P.S.P.A., Bucharest Ana Adi, Quadriga University of Applied Sciences, Berlin * The research has been supported by the project “Doctoral and Postdoctoral Fellowships for young researchers in the area of Political Sciences, Administrative Sciences, Communications Sciences and Sociology” (http://postdoctorat.snspa.ro/), taking place at N.U.P.S.P.A., with the financial support of European Social Fund, contract POSDRU/159/1.5/S/134650
  2. 2. CONTEXT Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest, 1-3 July 2015
  3. 3. CONTEXT Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  4. 4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS • RQ1: How do the Romanian journalists construct the social issue of migration visually? • RQ2: What are the main semiotic resources employed in the visuals and how are they organized? • RQ3: What stereotypes about Romanians are embedded in the news photographs? Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  5. 5. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • Migration: a public problem discussed in the media (Boltanski, Cefaï, Gusfield, 2001); • Politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis, 2011); – Research on framing from a visual perspective (Coleman, 2010; Messaris & Abraham, 2001; Rodriguez and Dimitrova, 2011): media content that is processed by the eye alone; Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  6. 6. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • Images – “largely analogical system of communication” (Messaris & Abraham, 2001); • Framing - the selection of one view, scene, or angle, when making the image; – Most research on visual news frames - visual framing of war (Aday, 2005; Dimitrova & Stromback, 2005; Griffin, 2004; Hartley Major & Perlmutter, 2005; Pary, 2010; 2011; Schwalbe, 2006; Schwalbe, Silcock, & Keith, 2008) or natural disasters (Borah, 2009). Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  7. 7. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • The social semiotic approach to visuals (Bell, 2001; Jewitt & Oyama, 2001; Kress & Van Leeuwen, 1996; Van Leeuwen, 2001) - the inter-personal semiosis of images; Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  8. 8. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK • Semiotic resources: – the products of cultural histories and the cognitive resources used to create meaning in the production and interpretation of visual and other messages; • Visuals: independently organized and structured messages; – 3 ‘metafunctions’ of the visual resources (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996/2006): - (1) ‘representational’; - (2) ‘interactive’ ; - (3) ‘compositional’. Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  9. 9. METHODOLOGY • Qualitative and social semiotic approach; – Social semiotic analysis (Bell, 2001; Kress and van Leeuwen,1996/2006); • Data collection during 1st of January 2013 – 31st March 2014 – 101 press photographs and captions depicting Romanian migrants, published in three of the most read Romanian newspapers (online editions): - Adevărul (N=74); - Gândul (N=13); - Jurnalul Național (N=14); Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  10. 10. METHODOLOGY • 3 categories to analyze news photographs: 1) social distance (Hall, 1966): - intimate distance (face or head only); - close personal distance (head and shoulders); - far personal distance (another person from the waist up) - close social distance (whole figure); - far social distance (whole figure and the space around it); - public distance (torso of at least 4 or 5 people); 2) visual modality (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996/2006): - high/medium/low (saturated colors) 3) contact (Kress & van Leeuwen, 1996/2006): . - ‘offer’/ ‘demand’. Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  11. 11. RESULTS – THE VISUAL FRAMING OF ROMANIAN MIGRANTS Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Public Security Frame Economic Frame Employment Frame
  12. 12. RESULTS – THE PUBLIC SECURITY FRAME Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  13. 13. RESULTS – THE ECONOMIC FRAME Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  14. 14. RESULTS – THE EMPLOYMENT FRAME Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  15. 15. RESULTS – SOCIAL DISTANCE (CLOSE PERSONAL) Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  16. 16. RESULTS – SOCIAL DISTANCE ( PUBLIC) Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  17. 17. RESULTS – VISUAL MODALITY Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015 High modality Medium modality Low modality
  18. 18. RESULTS – CONTACT Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015 ‘Offer’ visual frame ‘Demand’ visual frame
  19. 19. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION • 3 dominant visual frames of migrants emerging in the Romanian national press: – public security (images of homeless Romanians rough sleeping), – economic (images of pauper Romanian villages) and – employment (images of job seekers and unemployed) frames; • Adevărul newspaper: the economic frame (32 news images out of 74); • Gândul newspaper: the employment frame (7 news images out of 13); • Jurnalul Național newspaper: the public security frame (9 news images out of 14). Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  20. 20. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION • The majority of the news photographs represent Roma people - anti-Roma discourses found in the Romanian society; • Romanian migrants are positioned in the shot’s middle and foreground (especially in the close personal distance frame); Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  21. 21. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION • Under which conditions does a news image work more powerful? • How do the Romanian journalists visually frame a public issue (transnational migration) that impacts both the individual and the society? Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015
  22. 22. Understanding Transition III, Technique and technology in social and intercultural practices, Bucharest 1-3 July, 2015 Thank you for your attention! Bianca-Florentina Cheregi, National University of Political Studies and Public Administration, Bucharest Email: cheregi_bianca@yahoo.com Ana Adi, Quadriga University of Applied Sciences, Berlin Email: ana.adi@quadriga.eu

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