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SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) IN ARCHITECTURE
ASIAN ARCHITECTURE (ARC60403 / ARC...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal
Comfort in 8D Hous...
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Asian architecture case study paper_8d_house

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Asian architecture case study paper_8d_house

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Asian architecture case study paper_8d_house

  1. 1. SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING & DESIGN BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) IN ARCHITECTURE ASIAN ARCHITECTURE (ARC60403 / ARC2234) PROJECT: CASE STUDY PAPER AN ANALYSIS OF THE APPLICATION OF DESIGN STRATEGIES OF VERNACULAR MALAY ARCHITECTURE TO ACHIEVE THERMAL COMFORT IN 8D HOUSE, BUKIT DAMANSARA GROUP MEMBERS: CHAN YI QIN (0315964) CHIA CHENG WEI (0322091) CHEW JIA CHEN (0322852) KOOI YONG KAI (0323152) LEE XIANG LOON (0322090) LECTURER: MS NURUL ALIA AHAMAD SUBMISSION DATE: 29 NOVEMBER 2016
  2. 2. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 2 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Abstract 3 1.0 Introduction 4 2.0 Objectives 5 3.0 Methodology 5 4.0 Limitations 6 5.0 Case Studies 7 – 8 5.1 Vernacular Malay Architecture 7 5.2 Overview of 8D House 8 6.0 Findings 9 – 24 6.1 Choice of Local Materials 9 – 12 6.2 Building Form and Orientation 13 – 15 6.3 Landscape 16 – 20 6.4 Roof Design 21 – 22 6.5 Louvered Sun Screens 23 – 24 7.0 Conclusion 25 8.0 References 26 9.0 Appendix 27 – 33
  3. 3. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 3 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) ABSTRACT The purpose of this research paper aims to investigate how the application of vernacular Malay architecture design strategies help to reduce solar heat gain and achieve thermal comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara, Kuala Lumpur. Due to the rise of commercial developments in Bukit Damansara that contributes to the increase of thermal heat, the 8D House was designed to curb this climatic issue to improve the thermal comfort for the building occupants. To assist the validation of research, literature reviews based on various sources such as books and articles on the building and thermal comfort were conducted to complete this case study paper. Vernacular Malay architecture is greatly influenced by climate and it is the most appropriate to attain thermal comfort in Malaysia. 8D House is efficiently designed to adapt local climatic requirements by using raw local materials, carefully orientated to the direction of prevailing winds, landscaping placed in relation to sun paths, usage of large insulated overhanging canopy and metal louvered sun screen to reduce solar radiation. Hence, it is concluded that the application of these design strategies in reference to vernacular architecture does reduce solar heat gain and achieve thermal comfort in 8D House.
  4. 4. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 4 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 1.0 INTRODUCTION Twenty years ago, Bukit Damansara began as a residential scheme for government servants. Commercial projects were slowly poured into the area and buildings began to develop into office complexes, which give rise to temperature and significantly affects the housing estate including where our research building is situated. The 8D House project started off with the intention to design a three-storey bungalow incorporating vernacular elements in response to climate change within the area to achieve thermal comfort. Malaysian architecture started off with a vernacular design approach to suit the local hot and humid climate, adapting to its surrounding context and were designed to fulfil the needs of the user. Thermal comfort, according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55, is the condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. This research paper focuses on how the application of design strategies of vernacular Malay architecture helps to reduce solar heat gain and improve thermal comfort in 8D House by responding to the following questions:  How does the choice of materials address solar heat gain issues to achieve thermal comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara?  How does the implementation of shading devices improve thermal and visual comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara?  How does the site response contribute to the reduction of solar heat gain in 8D House, Bukit Damansara?  How does local materials, site response and shading devices modernize traditional vernacular architecture in 8D House, Bukit Damansara?
  5. 5. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 5 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 2.0 OBJECTIVES The purpose of this research paper aims to conduct a thorough study on the implementation of various vernacular Malay architecture design strategies in 8D House, Bukit Damansara. It also aims to investigate how these strategies help to reduce solar heat gain and achieve thermal comfort in this building. 3.0 METHODOLOGY The research data that has been found is collected from online resource materials and also books. The research was conducted with the aim to gather an in-depth understanding of what vernacular architecture and how its design strategies are implemented into the 8D House in order to achieve thermal comfort. Components of a vernacular Malay house such as roof, built form, landscape, materials and sun screens have been studied upon and analysed. Architectural drawings of the research building obtained are also studied and analysed.
  6. 6. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 6 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 4.0 LIMITATIONS Although the research has reached its aims, there were some unavoidable limitations. Firstly, due to time constraints, this research is being studied as a data comparison between and traditional and contemporary Malay vernacular architecture. Thermal comfort conditions achieved in 8D House are examined by comparing passive design features in traditional Malay architecture. Besides, we were unable to set up an appointment with the architect to obtain more information about the building due to limited resources. Since 8D House is a private residential building, the public is strictly prohibited to enter and visit the building without proper permission. Therefore, the information collected for the purpose of this study was mainly through photo documentation of traditional architecture within the area of study where many deviations from the traditional ways of designing and construction of houses were noticed.
  7. 7. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 7 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 5.0 CASE STUDIES 5.1 Vernacular Malay Architecture Figure 1: A typical traditional Malay house (Source: musimpanas, 2010) Traditional vernacular Malay architecture is greatly affected by climate, hence, this architecture includes dwellings and other elements which relate to their surrounding climate and weather. Since Malaysia is situated in a tropical region, vernacular Malay architecture uses raw materials such as timber, rattan, tree roots, bamboo and leaves as they are easily obtained from the tropical rainforests and have high specific heat capacity to ensure the spaces inside a building are cool and comfortable. Vernacular Malay houses attempted numerous methods to respond to their climate including building orientation to avoid direct sunlight, large openings to allow natural ventilation and eaves to reduce the glare of the sun. These ideas and concept responding to its climate are still being implemented and referenced into today’s contemporary architecture in places like Malaysia and other tropical countries.
  8. 8. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 8 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 5.2 Overview of 8D House Figure 2: 8D House sits on a sloping site in Bukit Damansara (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Situated on a slope looking over the views of the Petronas Twin Towers in the suburb of Bukit Damansara, Kuala Lumpur, 8D House is designed by architect Dr Tan Loke Mun. The site, in which the building sits, comprises a long and narrow lot sloping down the Lengkok Setiabudi road by about 10 meters. The intention behind the design of this bungalow was meant for two family generations with resort facilities and green sustainable features. The opportunity of the long road frontage allows the architect to design a 70-meter long tropical verandah made of contemporary materials such as steel and off-form concrete with sawn timber finish to shelter the house from the evening sun. Large insulated overhanging roof and metal louvered sun screen wraps the entire building to provide the necessary shade and shelter to curb the hot and humid climate for 8D House.
  9. 9. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 9 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 6.0 FINDINGS 6.1 Choice of Local Materials The lightweight construction of the vernacular Malay architecture with minimum mass and much voids, using low thermal capacity and high insulation materials, is the most appropriate for thermal comfort in Malaysia’s climate. 8D House, a contemporary architecture, is efficiently designed to suit the local climatic requirements using raw local materials. In Bukit Damansara, most masonry finishes like bricks, marble and slate are thin veneers that have been adhered to the structural wall and floor of the building, and are mostly found on ground and eye level around the entrance of the building. Figure 3: Raw clay red brick boundary wall of 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016)
  10. 10. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 10 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Figure 4: Brickwork as the flooring seen on the patio of the living area of 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) With thermal mass and high specific heat capacity, even long after the air conditioning has switched off, masonry walls will remain cool to reduce heating loads and improve occupants’ comfort. In addition, the commonly available red bricks require comparatively less energy to sustain thermal comfort conditions. Thus, the internal temperatures in such buildings remain fairly stable despite external diurnal fluctuations which make it a good choice for a building material especially in hot climates. Concrete seems to be the material of choice among contemporary vernacular architecture in Bukit Damansara as it gives stability, versatility and lightness to the appearance of the buildings. With high thermal mass, concrete is the most common building material and has the property to store and delay heat conduction through structural elements and thereby provide thermal comfort.
  11. 11. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 11 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Figure 5: Concrete as the walls of the annexe and staircase (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Standing out from its neighbouring houses, timber is heavily used in 8D House mainly because of minimal maintenance required. The decision of using wooden wall panels and sun screen gives warmth in contrast with the dull concrete and cold marble flooring. Timber is acceptable in terms of thermal insulation properties that are suitable for all kinds of applications in windows, doors, roofing and flooring. Moreover, timber has a higher heat capacity and relatively low density compared with other building materials.
  12. 12. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 12 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Figure 6: Both 8D House and vernacular Malay house use timber as a wall material (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Figure 7: Wooden panels in contrast with cold marble flooring in the interior of 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016)
  13. 13. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 13 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 6.2 Building Form and Orientation A traditional Malay house exhibits a quality of openness with large voids in windows and features an open plan interior layout with minimum partitions. This quality reflects the importance given to ventilation in the design of such Malay houses. The open plan layout makes use of spaces while encompassing multifunctional spaces to allow easy passage of air and proper cross ventilation within the interior spaces. Traditional Malay houses are oriented in an east-west direction to face Mecca for religious purposes and this also helps to minimize areas exposed to solar radiation and best suited for the wind patterns in Malaysia. Figure 8: Open plan layout of a typical Malay house (Source: W. B. W. Abidin, 1981) The 8D House has a perfect rectangular building form with low surface area-to-volume ratio (S/V) and this makes it inherently more efficient than buildings with complex shapes. The building is thin and has low building depth (narrow building shape) which allows internal heat to be lost to the outside. The interior buffer zones such as stairs, lift and entry corridors are placed in the building’s west side to protect the living and working areas from the hot afternoon sun as highlighted in Figure 9. This house demonstrates a similar spatial layout to that of a typical Malay house with minimum internal partitions for cross ventilation.
  14. 14. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 14 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Figure 9: Buffer zones shield living areas from hot afternoon sun (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Figure 10: Cross ventilation within the interior spaces of 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) The long facades of the building is orientated to the east-west direction, relatively 23 degrees away from the north. Ample shading devices are used to reduce solar heat gain in the building on the narrow site which east-west orientation is not possible. The long sides of the building
  15. 15. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 15 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) are arranged to face the direction of incoming prevailing winds and since these sides are difficult to shield from the low sun, special shading devices such as the long verandah and sufficient fenestration are used on the west and east elevations. Figure 11: The long facades facing the direction of incoming prevailing winds (Source: meteoblue, 2016) Figure 12: View looking towards the main and into the verandah (Source: ArchDaily, 2016)
  16. 16. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 16 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 6.3 Landscape Traditional Malay vernacular landscape design consists of soft and hard landscape elements. A typical Malay house is separated into three areas; the front, side and rear compound. Placements of landscaping features depend on the different compounds. As shown in Figure 13, the front is not obstructed by any vegetation but the vegetation on the side and rear compounds slowly densifies. Coconut trees are often the favourable choice as the thin bark does not disrupt air circulation into the house and the large vegetation at the top of this tree provides sufficient shading from the sun. Figure 13: A vernacular Malay house (Source: Connor, J., 2015)
  17. 17. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 17 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Figure 14: Functional spaces in a vernacular Malay house (Source: Yuan, 1987) Figure 15: Climatic impact on vernacular Malay houses (Source: Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2008)
  18. 18. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 18 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) The landscaping around 8D House is designed to respond to sun paths and prevailing winds where vegetation allows shadows to be casted on the north-east façade and also cools down prevailing winds. Landscaping such as trees, bushes with dense foliage acts as a vertical shading device to prevent direct solar radiation onto the façade of the building. Figure 16: Landscaping in the 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Evapotranspiration, the process by which water is transferred from land to the atmosphere by the help of wind, evaporation from the soil and other surfaces, and by transpiration from plants and leaves, will help cool down surrounding air. Ground elements such as grass and water features replacing pavements to reduce overall ground temperature. These features do not reflect heat like how harder materials such as paving and stones do.
  19. 19. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 19 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Figure 17: Relationship between prevailing winds and landscape (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Figure 18: Climatic impact on 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016)
  20. 20. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 20 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) Materials such as stones and paving may have higher specific heat capacities, which enable them to store mass amounts of heat. However, clay brick pathways are kept in the shade, preventing them from heating up quickly. Water features are also strategically positioned around the east and south sides of the building to cool down prevailing winds through evaporation.
  21. 21. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 21 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 6.4 Roof Design Figure 19: Overhanging roof of 8D house and traditional Malay house (Source: ArchDaily, 2016; fjodolf, 2008) Vernacular Malay architecture uses large thatched roofs with large overhangs to provide shading and protection against driving rain. 8D House applied similar strategies and modernized it by using large insulated overhanging canopy roof to control the penetration of solar radiation. A 7.5-meter overhang on the east side of the building helps to avoid direct exposure from sunlight. Due to the house built mostly with exposed materials, the roof tends to be under lighted to give a psychological effect of coolness as strong light is often mentally associated with heat. Figure 20: North elevation of 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) Beside overhangs, the roofing material is another factor to improve building’s thermal comfort. Vernacular Malay architecture uses attap due to its good insulting properties and it retains heat
  22. 22. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 22 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) into the building. In the modern context, attap is no longer suitable as a roofing material and therefore, the 8D House roof was constructed with lightweight metal deck in a light grey with 0.52mm total coated thickness (TCT). According to the Reflectance Index of Roof Surface, light grey colour may absorb less than 50% of incoming solar energy. The internal layers include highly insulated by 200mm rock wool and have an air gap of 300mm that acts as a barrier to heat flow. Figure 21: Sectional detail of the 8D House roof (Source: Foo, W., 2016)
  23. 23. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 23 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 6.5 Louvered Sun Screens Similar to the climatic control concept of vernacular architecture, 8D House controls glare from the open sky and surrounding by using metal louvered sun screen to wrap the entire mass of the living spaces. Sun screens extend rather than attach to the facades to form a distance for air ventilation as well as preventing large amount of heat to pass through the transparent glasses directly which may cause overheating. Figure 22: Climatic design of a traditional Malay house (Source: Yuan, 1987) Extended corridor without any form of blockage is formed through the distance of facade and sunscreen. This helps the spaces to remain cooler as air flow is encouraged. Louvers are also incorporated into the shade to prevent the high-angle sun falling on the glass facades, but also to allow small portion of sunlight to provide some passive solar heating. Louvered sun screens are very effective at shading south-facing glass facades when sun angles are high. However, the same device is ineffective at blocking low afternoon sun from entering west-facing areas during peak heat gain. This explains why the west side sun screen is longer than the east and
  24. 24. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 24 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) north side. The sun screen at the east side of 8D House extends until the head level to ensure no blockage of air flow occurred, maintaining good air ventilation at the main side of living areas. Figure 23: Extended walkway and sun screen detail of 8D House (Source: ArchDaily, 2016) The reason why an egg-crate sunscreen is chosen for 8D House is because the ideal orientation of this type of sun screen device is at east and west and as such, visual restriction is also low.
  25. 25. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 25 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 7.0 CONCLUSION 8D House demonstrates a series of different design strategies in relation to vernacular architecture to attain thermal comfort in its building in a modern context. The use of local raw materials helps to reduce solar radiation and promote coolness in the interior spaces. Utilization of building materials and passive technologies in buildings can effectively offer the solution for thermal comfort demands and substantially reduce energy demand. The rectangular building is orientated with the long facades arranged to face the direction of incoming prevailing winds. Landscaping such as vegetation and water features that help promote evapotranspiration to cool down surrounding air are carefully placed in relation to sun paths. Large insulated overhanging canopy roof constructed with lightweight metal decking is used to provide necessary shade and control the penetration of solar radiation. This bungalow also controls glare from the open sky and surroundings by using metal louvered sun screens to wrap the entire mass of the living space, varying in lengths on different sides of the façades.
  26. 26. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 26 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 8.0 REFERENCES American Society of Landscape Architects (n.d.). Combating Climate Change with Landscape Architecture. Retrieved November 19, 2016, from https://www.asla.org/climatechange.aspx ArchDaily (2016). 8D House / DRTAN LM Architect. Retrieved September 13, 2016, from http://www.archdaily.com/784182/8d-house-drtan-lm-architect Green Home Building (n.d.). Shaping buildings for the humid tropics - Green home building. Retrieved October 6, 2016, from http://www.greenhomebuilding.com/pdf/shapingbuildings1.pdf Janzen, C. (2016). Vernacular Architecture in Malaysia. Retrieved November 16, 2016, from http://connorjanzen.com/vernacular-malaysia/ Lim, J. Y. (1987). The Malay house: Rediscovering Malaysia's indigenous shelter system. Pulau Pinang, Malaysia: Institut Masyarakat. Lim, W. S., & Tan, H. B. (1998). The new Asian architecture: Vernacular traditions and contemporary style. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions. Vernacular Architecture (2011). Malay houses. Retrieved October 5, 2016, from https://vernaculararchitecture.wordpress.com/2011/12/30/hello-world/
  27. 27. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 27 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234) 9.0 APPENDIX
  28. 28. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 28 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234)
  29. 29. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 29 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234)
  30. 30. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 30 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234)
  31. 31. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 31 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234)
  32. 32. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 32 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234)
  33. 33. An Analysis of the Application of Design Strategies of Vernacular Malay Architecture to Achieve Thermal Comfort in 8D House, Bukit Damansara 33 | Asian Architecture (ARC60403 / ARC2234)

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