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INTRODUCTION People must interact with one another from different communities.                People are born into a      ...
DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL GROUP      refers to a group of people that share things in      common namely; purpose, goals, hobb...
DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL GROUP It is a group of people which interacting with one another in a particular way. (Merton, R.)Th...
Basic Group              5
Basic GroupSecondary Group                  6
Basic GroupSecondary GroupOut and In Group                   7
Basic GroupSecondary GroupOut and In GroupPeer Group                   8
Basic GroupSecondary GroupOut and In GroupPeer GroupReference Group                   9
Statistical Group                    10
Statistical GroupCategorical Group                    11
Statistical GroupCategorical GroupAggregate Group                    12
Statistical GroupCategorical GroupAggregate GroupAssociation Group                    13
BASIC GROUP  Cooley, C.H. claims that basic group consists of both small and informal group.         PATTERNS OF INTERACTI...
Involves face to face intimate interaction, bound by commitment                          of its members.                  ...
CHARACTERISTICS OF BASIC GROUP   Small size group to promote good and more   intimate interaction .  If number of members ...
FACE –TO- FACE INTERACTIONRegular meeting among members to create intimate bond in their group.Members must know each othe...
DURATION OF INTERACTIONRegular and long interactionto build intimacy.                      Members in basic group who     ...
Why is basic group important      to individuals and society?Develops personality and self-esteem that are acceptable to t...
SECONDARY GROUPRelationship among members is less intimate compared tothe basic group.                     Members      in...
SECONDARY GROUP Actions and feelings among members are controlled hence members become less intimate with one another.  Wh...
Why is secondary group       important to individuals and       society?It fulfills a certain purpose namelyto fix a polic...
IN AND OUT GROUPSocial group   has   its   own   principles   andpractices.Members hold strongly to the principles hencesh...
DEFINITION OF IN-GROUPIndividuals feel that they ought to belong to a group.The members strongly hold to their own set ofi...
DEFINITION OF OUT-GROUP Individuals feel as if they do not belong to any group. An individual plays two different roles (I...
Two Features of IN AND OUT GROUP Involvement among the In-group gives a sense   of belonging and strength but with it come...
Considered to be a basic Group that is both informal andsmall.Made up of a group of people that share the same statusand u...
Teenagers who form this group share similar behavior,norms, interest and interest.Everyone in this group share equal posit...
TWO PROBLEMS THAT MAY ARISE IN            PEER GROUP                      (Mayo, E.)Power and Social Control• Problem with...
TWO PROBLEMS THAT MAY ARISE IN             PEER GROUP                        (Mayo, E.)Power and Social Control• Problem w...
Acts as a guide to an individual when shaping the belief,attitude, value and behavior.Psychologically identified as a grou...
Reference     • Compares itself with the Comparative      Reference Group and   Group          able to point out the      ...
Reference       • Compares itself with the Comparative        Reference Group and   Group            able to point out the...
“Reference group acts as a yard stick to ourattitude and behavior.” - Hodges, C.     Reference Group can be divided       ...
Founded by Sociologists and Statisticians.Made up of members of society and its phenomenon.Example: Men with the body mass...
Places a certain characteristics as an importantelement.        Example: A Millionaire who        lives in Kenny Hill amon...
AGGREGATE GROUPMembers of the society ay coincidentally meet orgather.  Example: A group of students waiting for a bus.Int...
DYADS                       TRIADSNorms and roles will dictate the behavior of a grouponce a group is set up.Size and powe...
The smallest group in the society.  DYADS                     Example: A couple                        The strength of thi...
TRIADS is Based on Rules and Regulations                     (STARK, R.)   TRANSITIVITY (BALANCED)   • Inconsistent relati...
TRIADS is Based on Rules and Regulations                      (STARK, R.)   TRANSITIVITY (BALANCED)   • Inconsistent relat...
PRESSURES FROM  GROUP AND CONFORMITYAccording to ASCH (1952), pressure subjected to the minoritymay result in 1/3 of the s...
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Socialogy

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Sociology refers to a group of people that share things in common namely; purpose, goals, hobbies, behavior etc. It is a group of people which interacting with one another in a particular way.

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Socialogy

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION People must interact with one another from different communities. People are born into a certain group most certainly will from new groups throughout their lives. 2
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL GROUP refers to a group of people that share things in common namely; purpose, goals, hobbies, behavior etc. (BOTTOMORE, T.B. ) TWO DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCIAL GROUPING There is a connection between individual and a social group. Every individual is aware of groups and symbols involved. 3
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS OF SOCIAL GROUP It is a group of people which interacting with one another in a particular way. (Merton, R.)They share mutual interaction among membersand have a sense of belongingness.Every social group differs interms of its size, purpose andstructure. If individuals become members of a particular social group, they can also become members of another social group. 4
  5. 5. Basic Group 5
  6. 6. Basic GroupSecondary Group 6
  7. 7. Basic GroupSecondary GroupOut and In Group 7
  8. 8. Basic GroupSecondary GroupOut and In GroupPeer Group 8
  9. 9. Basic GroupSecondary GroupOut and In GroupPeer GroupReference Group 9
  10. 10. Statistical Group 10
  11. 11. Statistical GroupCategorical Group 11
  12. 12. Statistical GroupCategorical GroupAggregate Group 12
  13. 13. Statistical GroupCategorical GroupAggregate GroupAssociation Group 13
  14. 14. BASIC GROUP Cooley, C.H. claims that basic group consists of both small and informal group. PATTERNS OF INTERACTION Personal, direct and Intimate namely; Personal, Family, and Play GroupThey are responsible formoulding personalities of theirmembers. Acts as initial group discovered by individual since birth. 14
  15. 15. Involves face to face intimate interaction, bound by commitment of its members. Gives a sense of belongingVery influential in shaping and among its members enablingdeveloping personalities and them to share each othersidentities of individuals. emotions and identities. Relationship not based on returns. Able to share conversation, experiences and emotions with one another. Not bound by formal rules or law but involves the integrity and their own rules. 15
  16. 16. CHARACTERISTICS OF BASIC GROUP Small size group to promote good and more intimate interaction . If number of members increase interaction becomes less focused owing to the fact that members fail to understand each others roles. Size does not really matter as it does not really portray the real situation. Example in a broken family. 16
  17. 17. FACE –TO- FACE INTERACTIONRegular meeting among members to create intimate bond in their group.Members must know each other and interaction would be meaningless if there is no understanding. Example: Students sit in for lecturers with other students without knowing each other is not a basic group. A broken family. 17
  18. 18. DURATION OF INTERACTIONRegular and long interactionto build intimacy. Members in basic group who have achieved intimacy, find themselves reluctant to leave the group.Example: Children stay in theirparents or vice- versa. 18
  19. 19. Why is basic group important to individuals and society?Develops personality and self-esteem that are acceptable to thesociety. 19
  20. 20. SECONDARY GROUPRelationship among members is less intimate compared tothe basic group. Members interact indirectly, formally and rarely face to face. Formed for specific purpose and for a specific amount of time only. Once aims are achieved the group will disperse.The size of secondary group is relatively bigger thanthat of a basic group.Members differ in terms of likes, behavior, morale andetc. 20
  21. 21. SECONDARY GROUP Actions and feelings among members are controlled hence members become less intimate with one another. When situation and conditions are right, secondary group may evolve into basic group. Example: Students rally together to sort out and settle problems they encounter in their residential college.However, such basic group is notpermanent, it may regress back in tothe secondary group once solutions totheir problems are found. 21
  22. 22. Why is secondary group important to individuals and society?It fulfills a certain purpose namelyto fix a policy pertaining to amatter in a committee. 22
  23. 23. IN AND OUT GROUPSocial group has its own principles andpractices.Members hold strongly to the principles henceshare a “Sense of “Belonging.Appear to be isolated from the rest of thegroups because members hold strongly to theirown practices and principles. 23
  24. 24. DEFINITION OF IN-GROUPIndividuals feel that they ought to belong to a group.The members strongly hold to their own set ofideologies, fate, come from the same background andhighly aware.The strength of the IN-GROUP depends on the supportamong members of the group.Individuals that belong to a superior group cannot becomea member of another group. (Summer, W.G.) Example: Members of the Republicans will not be accepted into the democrats. 24
  25. 25. DEFINITION OF OUT-GROUP Individuals feel as if they do not belong to any group. An individual plays two different roles (IN-GROUP and OUT-GROUP) simultaneously. Example: A Muslim Group (IN-GROUP) considers a group of Buddhists as an OUT-GROUP and vice-versa.OUT-GROUP is viewed as INFERIORby the IN-GROUP. IN-GROUP considers those in the OUT-GROUP as just like the rest.When tested either tangibly or intangibly by the Out-Group, the strength of an In-Group becomes good. 25
  26. 26. Two Features of IN AND OUT GROUP Involvement among the In-group gives a sense of belonging and strength but with it comes conflicts which pose obstacles in interaction with other communities.. Forced collaboration between two groups will bring about true cooperation bringing down boundaries and even differences. Example: Cooperation in the Aftermath of natural Disasters. 26
  27. 27. Considered to be a basic Group that is both informal andsmall.Made up of a group of people that share the same statusand usually are of the same age group. Equality is thekey success.Nonetheless, there are Peer Groups that may not be ofthe same age but share the characteristics of Peer Groupnamely informal, basic relationship and have equality. Example: Peer friends are Clubbing friends, Peer friends in school, Street gangs and etc. 27
  28. 28. Teenagers who form this group share similar behavior,norms, interest and interest.Everyone in this group share equal position.Likewise, secondary group also exists among adults. 28
  29. 29. TWO PROBLEMS THAT MAY ARISE IN PEER GROUP (Mayo, E.)Power and Social Control• Problem within a group may occur if more than one member wish to be a leader. 29
  30. 30. TWO PROBLEMS THAT MAY ARISE IN PEER GROUP (Mayo, E.)Power and Social Control• Problem within a group may occur if more than one member wish to be a leader.Integration• Problems occur when a new student tries to mix around in his/her new group especially when Junior mix with the Seniors. They tend to go through the integration process.“When Integration takes place in a Peer Group, personal problemis inevitable.” – Durkheim, E. 30
  31. 31. Acts as a guide to an individual when shaping the belief,attitude, value and behavior.Psychologically identified as a group that provides amirror to evaluate ourselves.Influences the way we think and behave.A member of a group cannot be a member of theReference Group looked up upon.Becomes an attraction due to its intelligence, dressingand behavior. 31
  32. 32. Reference • Compares itself with the Comparative Reference Group and Group able to point out the differences involved.(COMPARATIVE) 32
  33. 33. Reference • Compares itself with the Comparative Reference Group and Group able to point out the differences involved.(COMPARATIVE) Reference • When someone tries toNormative Group conform to the norms of (NORMATIVE) the group. 33
  34. 34. “Reference group acts as a yard stick to ourattitude and behavior.” - Hodges, C. Reference Group can be divided into two groups: • Attitude and • Attitude and behavior that behavior that should be should not be followed. avoided. POSITIVE NEGATIVE 34
  35. 35. Founded by Sociologists and Statisticians.Made up of members of society and its phenomenon.Example: Men with the body mass ofbetween 55-80- kg and undergraduateswith accumulative points of 3.5. 35
  36. 36. Places a certain characteristics as an importantelement. Example: A Millionaire who lives in Kenny Hill amongst the other millionaires. 36
  37. 37. AGGREGATE GROUPMembers of the society ay coincidentally meet orgather. Example: A group of students waiting for a bus.Interactions that takes place can be briefand short. Members may not be familiarwith one another. 37
  38. 38. DYADS TRIADSNorms and roles will dictate the behavior of a grouponce a group is set up.Size and power within the group determine thekind of relationship that takes place in thegroup. 38
  39. 39. The smallest group in the society. DYADS Example: A couple The strength of this relationship depends solely on the involvement of both parties.“A failed DYAD relationship is theresult of either one of the partywithdraws or retreats.” - Simmel TRIADS Social interaction that involves a threesome. 39
  40. 40. TRIADS is Based on Rules and Regulations (STARK, R.) TRANSITIVITY (BALANCED) • Inconsistent relationship with the third party • Said to be INTRANSITIVE if either one of them is no longer in favor with the other two in the Triad. 40
  41. 41. TRIADS is Based on Rules and Regulations (STARK, R.) TRANSITIVITY (BALANCED) • Inconsistent relationship with the third party • Said to be INTRANSITIVE if either one of them is no longer in favor with the other two in the Triad. COALITION FORMULATION • Two of the three some get together and confront the third party. 41
  42. 42. PRESSURES FROM GROUP AND CONFORMITYAccording to ASCH (1952), pressure subjected to the minoritymay result in 1/3 of the subject conforming to result made bythe majority even though the result is the opposite to itsperception.ASCH came up with a few important assumptions: Though 2/3 ofsubject did not conform to the majority, there was a handful thatagreed with the results.When ASCH introduced new student in his case study, the studentchoose not to conform. With the existence of a nonconformist,group think becomes impaired. 42
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