The word politics come from the Greek word “ politika ” models on Aristotle’s affairs of the city.
According to Aristotle , <ul><ul><li>Man is said to be a “political animal” naturally because of his innate inclination to take part in the affairs of the city or ‘polis’ ( city) and become a human being. </li></ul></ul>Being a political animal means that man is innately drawn to dealing with other men when it comes to the city and what should be done within it.
A process by which group of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running a governmental or state affairs. As an activity to govern the state or political institutions. Study of state, power and political institutions which play an important roles in managing human activity.
Laswell & Kaplan: An empirical research/study on the power development and distribution The study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of power. K. Ramanathan : As a way to manage human activities.
In sum, the study of political science focuses on:
Begins 500 B.C. – end of 19 th Century Political discussions focus on the existence and problem which may face by an ideal society.
Discussion can be classified into three main topics : What is human What is society What is human civilization Political idea based on moral basis (morality issue, harmonization and rules in society).
Begins on end of 19 th century. Scholar : Machiavelli Main discussion based on the idea of the following: Voter’s role, administration system State existence Roles play by the political institutions (example: Constitution) T ype of western government Power State is regards as a formal structure to govern the society.
Begins in the US (1865-1867) Populared by Walter Bagehot in his book entitled The English Constitution Regard as a new political discussion in order to overcome political and social problem exist in the US. Combination of the idea of universalism, legalism and informal politics.
Political research during this phase mainly focuses on democratic government, less attention given on other type of political power such as fascism, Nazism and totalitarian government such as in Russia, Spain, German, Italy and Japan Scholars (Charles Merriam and advocates) argue that the reconceptualization of the political study may help scholars and the government to make any prediction on political situations. War between Britain and German in 1930s and after World War II – reconceptualized political study.
After World War II (1950-1960s) Scholars : Graham Wallas, Walther Lippman, David Easton, Karls Deutsch, Lucian Pye, G.A. Almond & Harold D. Laswell. Main argument: <ul><ul><li>Political study is not mainly focused on the study of the political institutions but attention should also be given on the behavior (behavourism) of the political actors, individuals and society/the public which may have influence over government. </li></ul></ul>
Scholars: Giovarnni Sartori Maurice Duverger Seymzour Lipset Bernard Berelson The development of new political discipline i.e. Comparative political study. Emphasis on the political changes and the development of new independent countries and third world countries.
<ul><ul><li>An institution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>"govern“: the power to administer, whether over an area of land, a group of people, or an association. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimate power to govern the state / is an organization that has the power to make and enforce laws for a certain territory. </li></ul></ul>
Derives from the Latin word ‘Monos’ means one and ‘archien’ means rules. A form of government in which a monarch, usually a single person, is both the head of state and government. The monarch holds their position for life.
Many monarchs claimed to rule by divine right, ruling either by the will of the god(s) or even claiming to be (incarnated) gods themselves (the right to rule is anointed by God (or gods)). Highly respected. Example of country which has monarchical system still exist: Bhutan, Brunei, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland.
Unlimited political power (political, economic and social power) held by a single person/one individual holds all the power. Against the democratic concept. Exists from the failure of legitimate power in solving development or public riot . Society may involve in any activity which may not considered as a threat to the ruler.
REPUBLIC A form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. The rule of law is an essential feature of a republic. <ul><li>Head of state and government: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as President </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selected by the public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held position as stated in constitutio n </li></ul></ul>
THE AMERICAN TYPE OF REPUBLIC Chosen by the majority of the voters in elections. Elected periodically (normally for 4 years) and can held position for the second term. Held position as the head of state and the head of government. The President cannot interfere in Senate and the House of Representative affairs. example : Philippines, North Korea , Taiwan
THE FRANCE TYPE OF REPUBLIC <ul><li>The President: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold position as the head of state and the head of government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elected periodically (normally for 7 years) and can hold position for the second term </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has the right to appoint members of the House of Representative as Prime Minister </li></ul>Heading Cabinet Meeting Council and has the right to oppose any policy proposal. Example: Indonesia, Kenya, Pakistan (2002), Turkey & Zimbabwe
THE INDIAN TYPE OF REPUBLIC President is the official head of state elected indirectly by an electoral college for a five-year term. Its function is same as constitutional monarchy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President But, the Prime Minister is, however, the de facto head of government and exercises most executive powers. Example: India, German, Singapore
Derives from the ancient Greek demokratia formed from the roots demos "people”, and kratos "rule” Introduced during the Renaissance era (1400-1600 Century) Emphasizes on the importance of the individual in the context of government through the representative system.
<ul><li>Abraham Lincoln : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ government of the people, by the people, for the people” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are able to participate in policy-making process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decision made based on majority rule or agreeme nt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minority group stand a chance to voice their opinion </li></ul></ul>
MALAYSIA Parliamentary Democracy Based on the model of traditional system and Westminster parliamentary system, a legacy of British colonial rule. Practice a system of parliamentary democracy and is ruled as a Constitutional Monarchy, with His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of the country. <ul><ul><li>constitutional monarchy : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the YDPA is bound by a constitution </li></ul></ul>
MALAYSIA Parliamentary Democracy The establishment of the government is based on the two-third majority voting in Parliament. Members of Dewan Rakyat are chosen by the majority of the voters in elections. The Federal Constitution of Malaysia divides the authority of the Federation into three authority:
The power to govern the laws endorsed by the Parliament.
<ul><ul><li>Article 121 (1) of the Constitution, the judicial power of the Federation is vested in the High Court of Malaya and the High Court of Borneo and in such inferior courts as provided by federal law. </li></ul></ul>