INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Changes in society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional or simple society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern or complex society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main elements in society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdependency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together to achieve the mutual goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together in solving proble ms </li></ul></ul>
is a group of individuals that have common features in many aspects. Classification of Society
DEFINITION SOCIETY is a group of human beings that live together and interact to each other. (Kamus Dewan) The word MASYARAKAT was adopted from Arabic word – syarika which mean “relations to build one group”. (Drs. Sidi Gazalba).
<ul><li>Horton and Hunt (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>“ a society is relatively independent, self-perpetuating human group which occupies a territory, shares a culture, and has most of its associations within this group. A society is an organization of people whose associations are with another” </li></ul><ul><li>Example :Eastern and Western Society </li></ul>
Two Important Concepts introduced by Ferdinand Tonnies (German sociologist) Concept based on types of society; social structure and social relations that exist in the society.
GEMEINSCHAFT <ul><li>The society of tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Social relations based on family ties and friendship </li></ul><ul><li>(informal relationship) </li></ul><ul><li>Primary relations – close and face to face interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Example : families that live together </li></ul>
GESSELSCHAFT <ul><li>A society of contract </li></ul><ul><li>Relations based on agreement and more formal </li></ul><ul><li>Social relations – secondary and impersonal; </li></ul><ul><li>interactions among individuals are more individualistic and cannot trust to each other compete to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Specific roles and responsibilities in doing jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Rules and regulations control people’s behavior </li></ul>
<ul><li>Society formation based on Talcott Parson </li></ul><ul><li>Based on functional structure </li></ul><ul><li>Each social structure in the society contributes the stability of society </li></ul><ul><li>Example : family; school </li></ul>
1. ADAPTABILITY - adaptable to surroundings and environment in order to survive. Main task: distribution of material resources to members of society 2. GOALS – effort to enhance the well-being of society. 3 . INTEGRATION AND COOPERATION - to achieve the desired goals. 4. CONSISTENCY – each member agrees and shares the common values to conform with the norms and culture within the society.
ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE Ibnu Khaldun : Human beings are weak. They need to live in groups and helping each other. Society is formed from individuals. Have common norms that abide each member of the group. Religion plays important role in forming the society. Example : Al-Quran and As-Sunnah for Islam
IMPORTANTS ELEMENTS IN SOCIETY Individuals Interactions Rules (culture) Society is a group of individuals that live and work together for a long period of time. Until they manage to organize themselves as one social union that has its own limitations.
Changes from one phase to another phase ( to better development)
Use simple technology Existed since 10,000 years ago Living in small group ( not more than 15 people) Strong family ties Male – hunting; female – farming Have a chief and selected based on his leadership Informal education to children Boys – hunting Girls - farming
Replace the Horticultural society – farming by using simple tools Pastoral society – animal husbandry The size is bigger (almost 1000) Family ties Nomad – finding better place suitable for farming Chief is selected from the strongest male in the clans The strongest clan will lead and protect other clans
Also known as agrarian society Involve in estate and using animals to work at estates Located in certain place Has a bigger size (almost 100,000) High mortality and high death rate The cause of death : virus and war
Economic Activities Farming Using money in economy Trade activities <ul><ul><li>Division of labors ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>job opportunities </li></ul></ul>
Existed due to Industrial Revolution (1750s) Use natural resources and better equipment to produce goods. Using more machine as compared to manpower.
Population size Bigger and various job opportunities Economic activities Complex; division of labor; various economic systems such as capitalist, communist, mixed economy A leader is selected through election. Formal and systematic educational system.
The concept of “ Organizing the Organization ” A mechanism or means <ul><ul><li>In order to ensure the goal and the needs of individuals as well as society as a whole will be achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates closely to taking action and coordinating activities done by the particular society. </li></ul></ul>
Factors Contribute to the Formation of Organization in the Society
IMAGINE OUR FUTURE SOCIETY THE THIRD WAVE the structure of the society is becoming too complex. Changes of structure always occur <ul><ul><li>Formal organization that represents the society. </li></ul></ul>Borderless
Societal needs will change based on time. Combination and Cooperation between each member in the society is important to get better structure. Control (via formal and informal rules) will make the society stable.