PSYCHOLOGY             1
INTRODUCTION► Human    being are unique► Each   individual has its own uniqueness.► The individual self will become as a ‘...
PSYCHOLOGY study of the behavior of people and  animals Behavior– is the product of both nature and nurture, that is the...
Definition► From  the word Psyche and Logos. Psyche-soul and the ‘root’ of life. Logos - research which refers to scienc...
The Main Field of Psychology► It has two (2) components:  i. Basic component  ii. Technical or implementation component.  ...
Field Of Psychology   (Technical/Implementation Component)i. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.ii. Clinical and Cou...
Method of Doing Psychological              Research► All scientific criteria which were embedded  in the psychological fie...
The Relationship Between       Psychology And The Self► There   are several areas in psychology which  have interrelated a...
Human Development► To    see and analyze how the individual or  self changes during the course of his/her  life.► Most imp...
► Most important related theory of human development to remember: The  Cognitive     Development     Theory   of Piaget....
Motivation► refers       to the Theory of Human Needs of Abraham  Maslow.► Five (5) stages: (Can be shown by using the sha...
EmotionDefinition:Emotion- is a subjective respond mediated    through feelings followed by changes in    physical/physiol...
► isa complex psychological and physiological  phenomenon involving an individuals state  of mind and how it interacts bet...
In humans, emotion fundamentally involves;         -    physiological arousal         -    expressive behaviors         - ...
Emotion - is associated with:          -   mood          -   temperament          -   personality          -   disposition...
► The   typical human emotions include:                   love                   grief                   fear             ...
► Each   indicates a state of some kind of arousal, a state that can prompt some activities and interfere with others.► Th...
► Unlike moods they have objects: one grieves over some particular thing, or is angry at something.► Differentphilosophica...
► The characteristic expression of emotion was studied extensively by Darwin, resulting in the classic The Expression of t...
► In 1884 James published what became known as the James-Lange theory of emotion whose main contention is that we feel as ...
► Pure  arousal theory imagines a visceral reaction triggered by some event, which stands ready to be converted into one e...
► Theories  based on the feel or qualia of an emotion were put forward by writers such as Hume and Kant, but the approach ...
► The English word emotion is derived from the French word émouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e- (variant...
Emotions can be    divided   into   two   (2)    components: Physiological component  -changes in                         ...
► Emotion - is central to human life and intimately     connected with consciousness.                                     ...
► The   European-American tradition often values reason over emotion, except in specifically defined events such as funera...
► Buddhism,  on the other hand, rejects both self-denial and self-indulgence in a quest to extinguish the craving for phys...
► Emotion  frequently plays an important role in religious ritual. Many Christian sects revere emotional ecstasy as a dire...
Personality► From   the word ‘Persona’.► ‘Persona’- means ‘Mask’ which was being used by  an actor.► It is a way of referr...
Id► It comes naturally from birth.► Comes from the energy of psyche and  instinct.► To fulfill the self needs’.► The princ...
Ego► Based  on the principle of reality.► Function is to give satisfaction to Id by  considering the Reality (Facts of Lif...
Superego► The  trait of morality, social and judgment in  the individual personality.► To show perfection and ideal, but n...
Intelligence► Intelligence   - is the capability and the ability       of the individual to use the knowledge       acquir...
Psychology & Knowledge               Management► There are many fields of social sciences which use psychology to expand, ...
ConclusionIn this chapter, we briefly discussed theimportant aspects of psychology which givesus the ground knowledge of u...
► We  also looked at the human/individual  behavior and the relationship towards other  people.► It is a very important fi...
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Psychology

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Psychology is a study of the behavior of people and animals. Behavior is the product of both nature and nurture, that is the product of our biological make up and our environmental conditioning.

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Psychology

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION► Human being are unique► Each individual has its own uniqueness.► The individual self will become as a ‘whole’ when combines with the knowledge of ‘psychology’. 2
  3. 3. PSYCHOLOGY study of the behavior of people and animals Behavior– is the product of both nature and nurture, that is the product of our biological make up and our environmental conditioning. 3
  4. 4. Definition► From the word Psyche and Logos. Psyche-soul and the ‘root’ of life. Logos - research which refers to science and knowledge.► Definition - an empirical study of behavior and experience (Kalat, 1999).► Psychology deals with the mind and personality of individuals. 4
  5. 5. The Main Field of Psychology► It has two (2) components: i. Basic component ii. Technical or implementation component. particularly in the aspect of work, life, health, social and community etc.► The usages were more towards the technical or implementation component. 5
  6. 6. Field Of Psychology (Technical/Implementation Component)i. Industrial and Organizational Psychology.ii. Clinical and Counseling Psychology.iii. School and Education Psychology.iv. Health Psychology.► Any other field of psychology… 6
  7. 7. Method of Doing Psychological Research► All scientific criteria which were embedded in the psychological field must use empirical method.► Some of the methods being used: Surveying method Observational method Experimental method 7
  8. 8. The Relationship Between Psychology And The Self► There are several areas in psychology which have interrelated and in depth relationship with the self: The development of human being. Motivation Emotion Personality Intelligence 8
  9. 9. Human Development► To see and analyze how the individual or self changes during the course of his/her life.► Most important issues focused on: The process of physical development and maturity. The process of mental development which touches on the issue of cognition, perception, social development etc. 9
  10. 10. ► Most important related theory of human development to remember: The Cognitive Development Theory of Piaget. The Personality Theory of Erik Erikson. The Moral Development Theory of Kohlberg. 10
  11. 11. Motivation► refers to the Theory of Human Needs of Abraham Maslow.► Five (5) stages: (Can be shown by using the shape of pyramid which started from bottom and moved up). 5.Need to have self perfection. 4.Need to have self recognition/self-worth. 3.Social and to be able to love and be loved need. 2.Safety need. 1.Physiology need. 11
  12. 12. EmotionDefinition:Emotion- is a subjective respond mediated through feelings followed by changes in physical/physiological responds. 12
  13. 13. ► isa complex psychological and physiological phenomenon involving an individuals state of mind and how it interacts between that individual and their environment. 13
  14. 14. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves; - physiological arousal - expressive behaviors - conscious experience 14
  15. 15. Emotion - is associated with: - mood - temperament - personality - disposition 15
  16. 16. ► The typical human emotions include: love grief fear anger joy► 16
  17. 17. ► Each indicates a state of some kind of arousal, a state that can prompt some activities and interfere with others.► These states are associated with characteristic feelings, and they have characteristic bodily expressions. 17
  18. 18. ► Unlike moods they have objects: one grieves over some particular thing, or is angry at something.► Differentphilosophical theories have tended to highlight one or other of these aspects of emotion. 18
  19. 19. ► The characteristic expression of emotion was studied extensively by Darwin, resulting in the classic The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). 19
  20. 20. ► In 1884 James published what became known as the James-Lange theory of emotion whose main contention is that we feel as we do in virtue of the bodily expressions and behaviour that we are prompted towards, rather than the other way round: ‘our feeling of the changes as they occur is the emotion’. 20
  21. 21. ► Pure arousal theory imagines a visceral reaction triggered by some event, which stands ready to be converted into one emotion or another by contextual factors. 21
  22. 22. ► Theories based on the feel or qualia of an emotion were put forward by writers such as Hume and Kant, but the approach meets difficulty when we consider that an emotion is not a raw feel, but is identified by its motivational powers, and their function in prompting action. 22
  23. 23. ► The English word emotion is derived from the French word émouvoir. This is based on the Latin emovere, where e- (variant of ex-) means out and movere means move.[2] The related term "motivation" is also derived from the word movere. 23
  24. 24. Emotions can be divided into two (2) components: Physiological component -changes in physical Cognitive component -the mental reaction 24
  25. 25. ► Emotion - is central to human life and intimately connected with consciousness. 25
  26. 26. ► The European-American tradition often values reason over emotion, except in specifically defined events such as funerals, weddings, or births. 26
  27. 27. ► Buddhism, on the other hand, rejects both self-denial and self-indulgence in a quest to extinguish the craving for physical or material pleasures. Religious emotion is often balanced through paired rituals; Catholic cultures often have a festival period preceding the asceticism of Lent. 27
  28. 28. ► Emotion frequently plays an important role in religious ritual. Many Christian sects revere emotional ecstasy as a direct encounter with the Holy Spirit and an expression of our oneness with God. 28
  29. 29. Personality► From the word ‘Persona’.► ‘Persona’- means ‘Mask’ which was being used by an actor.► It is a way of referring to our various characters which were shown in every day life.► Psychologists have divided into three (3) categories which were interrelated to personality: Id Ego Superego 29
  30. 30. Id► It comes naturally from birth.► Comes from the energy of psyche and instinct.► To fulfill the self needs’.► The principles of fun and fulfilling ones’ own need.► The first to create personality of the self. 30
  31. 31. Ego► Based on the principle of reality.► Function is to give satisfaction to Id by considering the Reality (Facts of Life).► The development is in line with human experience in life.► To control and educate the Id and Superego to be able to interact with the ‘outside world’ or reality/facts of life. 31
  32. 32. Superego► The trait of morality, social and judgment in the individual personality.► To show perfection and ideal, but not the reality.► Developed by aggressiveness and parenting style as well as self authority.► Function as a moral and ‘Social Gatekeeper’. 32
  33. 33. Intelligence► Intelligence - is the capability and the ability of the individual to use the knowledge acquired.► Anability to adapt one self towards surrounding. 33
  34. 34. Psychology & Knowledge Management► There are many fields of social sciences which use psychology to expand, develop and give explanation to other areas of studies. 34
  35. 35. ConclusionIn this chapter, we briefly discussed theimportant aspects of psychology which givesus the ground knowledge of understandinghuman being as a unique individual andhow to understand the self through thepersonality traits. 35
  36. 36. ► We also looked at the human/individual behavior and the relationship towards other people.► It is a very important field in order to understand ourselves and other people why they act as they are.► To learn the field of psychology can enhance the use of knowledge itself, to improve ourselves and to better understand other peoples’ behavior 36

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