Adjectives and adverbswsd


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Adjectives and adverbswsd

  1. 1. Using Adjectives and Adverbs Correctly
  2. 2. What are adjectives? <ul><li>Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>These words are all adjectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A hot day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A happy camper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A silly twit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A big , bloody mess (both “big” and “bloody” modify “mess”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She is creative (“creative” is a subject complement that follows the linking verb “is”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A boring course (present participle used as an adjective </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. So what are adverbs? <ul><li>Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Many adverbs end with ly </li></ul><ul><li>Many adverbs answer the question “How?” </li></ul><ul><li>These are adverbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eating quickly ( modifying a verb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trying very hard ( modifying an adverb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A really big show ( modifying an adjective) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs <ul><li>Many words have both an adjective and adverb form </li></ul>Really hot Real butter Waiting hopefully hopeful children Dressing casually Casual dress Working efficiently Efficient workers Talking quickly Quick meeting Eating Well Good night Running smoothly Smooth rock Playing happily Happy kids Adverb Adjective
  5. 5. Comparatives and Superlatives <ul><li>Most adverbs and adjectives also have a comparative and superlative form </li></ul><ul><li>Use the comparative form to compare two things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sally is the larg er of the twins (not largest) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the superlative form to compare three or more </li></ul><ul><ul><li>August was the hott est month of the year </li></ul></ul>Least careful Less careful Careful Most exciting More exciting Exciting Best Better Good Hottest Hotter Hot Superlative Comparative Simple
  6. 6. Double Comparatives <ul><li>Don’t use “more” or “most” with –er or –est </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Yesterday was more hott er than today </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>That was the most dirti est story I ever heard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You are the bestest teacher </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Absolute Concepts <ul><li>Don’t use comparatives or superlatives with absolute concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutes have only two possibilities, on or off, yes or no, with nothing in between </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The most perfect student in the class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A very unique idea (say “very unusual” instead) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>These words express absolute concepts that cannot be modified </li></ul>Sort of dead More priceless A little bit pregnant Quite on Extremely perfect Very unanimous Completely anonymous Quite unique
  8. 8. Don’t use adjectives when adverbs are needed <ul><ul><ul><li>You did a real nice job </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(an adjective can’t modify another adjective) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You did a real ly nice job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(the adverb “really” modifies “nice”) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He did good </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He did well or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He did a good job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel injection helps the car run efficient </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel injection helps the car run efficient ly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Come quick ! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come quick ly ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hopefully , it won’t rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(an adverb explains how something will happen </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I hope that it won’t rain </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Don’t use needless adverbs <ul><li>Before using any of these words, check to see if they add anything to the sentence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Really, very, absolutely, extremely, quite, actually, somewhat, rather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I am really happy to see you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar is very boring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are absolutely correct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her language was extremely crude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You are quite intelligent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context will help you decide whether to retain the underlined words </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them only if they add to the meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Gates is very rich. I hope he gives me some money. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most college instructors are poor; their students are very poor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note : the terms “ good success ” and “ real good success ” have been reserved for sports broadcasters; do not use them </li></ul>
  10. 10. Compound Adjectives <ul><li>Two or more adjectives often appear together separated with commas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brad’s tiny, tight swimsuit showed off his hairy belly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The words “tiny” and “tight” each work separately to modify “swimsuit” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Connect the words with a hyphen when they function together before a noun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brad’s gold-plated piercings stood out against his bright-red sunburn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Gold-plated” and “bright-red” are compound adjectives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Compound Adjectives <ul><ul><li>Brad was well known along the boardwalk (no hyphen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>His SUV was fully equipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brad worked full time on his tan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brad was a well-known jerk (hyphenated) </li></ul><ul><li>He drove a fully-equipped SUV </li></ul><ul><li>Brad was a full-time chick magnet </li></ul><ul><li>Do not hyphenate the words when they come after the noun they modify </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the difference in these examples </li></ul>
  12. 12. Misplaced Modifiers <ul><li>Put adjectives and adverbs close to the words they modify </li></ul><ul><li>Notice how the meaning is affected by the improper placement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An old pile of clothes is on the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A pile of old clothes is on the floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I almost believe you are finished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I believe you are almost finished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The winners will only be contacted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only the winners will be contacted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I can’t quite do this as well as Fred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I can’t do this quite as well as Fred </li></ul></ul>