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- 1. Energy as Heat <ul><li>A sample can transfer energy to another sample. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the simplest ways energy is transferred is as heat. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat is the energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Though energy has many different forms, all energy is measured in units called joules (J). </li></ul>
- 2. <ul><li>Temperature is a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object. </li></ul><ul><li>When samples of different temperatures are in contact, energy is transferred from the sample that has the higher temperature to the sample that has the lower temperature. </li></ul>
- 3. <ul><li>Temperature is an intensive property, which means that the temperature of a sample does not depend on the amount of the sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Heat is an extensive property, which means that the amount of energy transferred as heat by a sample depends on the amount of the sample. </li></ul>
- 4. <ul><li>Changes in energy content can be determined. </li></ul><ul><li>If 73 J of energy enter a piece of silver and no change in pressure occurs, we know that the enthalpy of the silver has increased by 73 J. </li></ul><ul><li>Enthalpy, which is represented by the symbol H, is the total energy content of a sample. </li></ul>
- 5. <ul><li>Enthalpy is the sum of the internal energy of a system plus the product of the system’s volume multiplied by the pressure that the system exerts on its surroundings. </li></ul>
- 6. <ul><li>The particles in a sample are in constant motion. </li></ul><ul><li>The enthalpy of a sample includes the total kinetic energy of its particles. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the total and average kinetic energies of a substance’s particles are important to chemistry, because these quantities account for every particle’s kinetic energy. </li></ul>
- 7. <ul><li>Molar heat capacity can be used to determine the enthalpy change of a sample. </li></ul><ul><li>The molar heat capacity of a pure substance is the energy as heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 mol of the substance by 1 K. </li></ul><ul><li>Molar heat capacity has the symbol C and the unit J/K mol. </li></ul>
- 8. <ul><li>When a substance receives energy in the form of heat, its enthalpy increases and the kinetic energy of the particles that make up the substance increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The direction in which any particle moves is not related to the direction in which its neighboring particles move. The motions of these particles are random . </li></ul>
- 9. <ul><li>Because enthalpy is the total energy of a system, it is an important quantity. </li></ul><ul><li>The only way to measure energy is through a change. Absolute values cannot be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>The enthalpy change for one mole of a pure substance is called molar enthalpy change. </li></ul>
- 10. <ul><li>When a pure substance is only heated or cooled, the amount of heat involved is the same as the enthalpy change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> H = q for the heating or cooling of substances </li></ul></ul>
- 11. <ul><li>A change in enthalpy during a reaction depends on many variables. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature is one of the most important variables. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To standardize the enthalpies of reactions, data are often presented for reactions in which both reactants and products have the standard thermodynamic temperature of 25.00 C or 298.15 K. </li></ul>
- 12. <ul><li>Chemists usually present a thermodynamic value for a chemical reaction by using the chemical equation. </li></ul><ul><li>This equation shows that when 0.5 mol of H 2 reacts with 0.5 mol of Br 2 to produce 1 mol HBr and all have a temperature of 298.15 K, the enthalpy decreases by 36.4 kJ. </li></ul>
- 13. <ul><li>For the H 2 and Br 2 reaction, in which H is negative, the total energy of the reaction decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>The energy is released as heat by the system. </li></ul><ul><li>If the reaction was endothermic, energy in the form of heat would be absorbed by the system and the enthalpy would increase. </li></ul>
- 14. <ul><li>The experimental measurement of an enthalpy change for a reaction is called calorimetry. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorimetry is the measurement of heat-related constants, such as specific heat or latent heat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combustion reactions are always exothermic. </li></ul><ul><li>The enthalpy changes of combustion reactions are determined using a bomb calorimeter. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A calorimeter Is a device used to measure the heat absorbed or released in a chemical or physical change </li></ul></ul>
- 16. <ul><li>Inside the pressurized oxygen atmosphere of a bomb calorimeter, most organic matter, including food, fabrics, and plastics, will ignite easily and burn rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample sizes are chosen so that there is excess oxygen during the combustion reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Under these conditions, the reactions go to completion and produce carbon dioxide, water, and possibly other compounds. </li></ul>
- 17. <ul><li>Any two processes that both start with the same reactants in the same state and finish with the same products in the same state will have the same enthalpy change. </li></ul><ul><li>Hess’s law states that the overall enthalpy change in a reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the process. </li></ul>
- 18. <ul><li>When phosphorus is burned in excess chlorine 4 mol of phosphorus pentachloride, PCl 5 , is synthesized. </li></ul><ul><li>P 4 ( s ) + 10Cl 2 ( g ) 4PCl 5 ( g ) H = -1596 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus pentachloride may also be prepared in a two-step process. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: P 4 ( s ) + 6Cl 2 ( g ) 4PCl 3 ( g ) H = -1224 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: PCl 3 ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g ) PCl 5 ( g ) H = -93 kJ </li></ul>
- 19. <ul><li>The second reaction must take place four times for each occurrence of the first reaction in the two-step process. </li></ul><ul><li>This two-step process is more accurately described by the following equations. </li></ul><ul><li>P 4 ( s ) + 6Cl 2 ( g ) 4PCl 3 ( g ) </li></ul><ul><li> H = -1224 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>4PCl 3 ( g ) + 4Cl 2 ( g ) 4PCl 5 ( g ) </li></ul><ul><li> H = 4(-93 kJ) = -372 kJ </li></ul>
- 20. <ul><li>So, the total change in enthalpy by the two-step process is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>(-1224 kJ) + (-372 kJ) = -1596 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>This enthalpy change, H, for the two-step process is the same as the enthalpy change for the direct route of the formation of PCl 5 . </li></ul><ul><li>This example is in agreement with Hess’s law. </li></ul>
- 21. <ul><li>The enthalpy of the formation of CO, when CO 2 and solid carbon are reactants, is found using the equations below. </li></ul><ul><li>2C( s ) + O 2 ( g ) 2CO( g ) H = -221 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>C( s ) + O 2 ( g ) CO 2 ( g ) H = -393 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot simply add these equations because CO 2 would not be a reactant. </li></ul>
- 22. <ul><li>Adding the two equations gives the equation for the formation of CO by using CO 2 and C. </li></ul><ul><li>2C( s ) + O 2 ( g ) 2CO( g ) H = – 221 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 ( g ) C( s ) + O 2 ( g ) H = 393 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>2C( s ) + O 2 ( g ) + CO 2 ( g ) 2CO( g ) + C( s ) + O 2 ( g ) H = 172 kJ </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen and carbon that appear on both sides of the equation can be canceled. </li></ul><ul><li>C( s ) + CO2( g ) 2CO( g ) H = 172 kJ </li></ul>
- 23. <ul><li>The enthalpy change in forming 1 mol of a substance is called the standard enthalpy of formation of the substance, </li></ul><ul><li>The values of the standard enthalpies of formation for elements are 0. </li></ul><ul><li>The following equation is used to determine the enthalpy change of a chemical reaction from the standard enthalpies of formation. </li></ul><ul><li> H reaction = H products - H reactants </li></ul>

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