Senior Graduation Project

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  • This Topic is relevant to me because I would like to be a teacher when I am older. I am 90% sure I am going to Cabrini College, and I am definitely majoring in Elementary Education.
  • Even education changes: The field of education has grown and changed since 100 years ago.Thinking about the students we teach: all children are expected to come to school. At one point, not all children came to public school. Children with physical disabilities or learning problems, stayed home. Children with poor homes, worked in factories, or other jobs to support their family. Farm children didn’t come to school, except when crops didn’t require planting or harvesting. Girls were often excluded from advanced education because of the perception that they would marry, raise children and run a household, which were rolls that didn’t require an education. Children that were rich had tutors or went to exclusive boarding schools. Most children who came to school had two parents at home. At least one of the parents was home before and after school. Now, there are many children who only have one parent. Most children now don’t have a parent home before and after school. It complicates children's lives. Many lack a hand to monitor school progress, or homework—or even to listen to events that happened at school. These Children , know more things, but understand less of what they know. They are accustomed to quick and ready entertainment, yet their imaginations are less active. They are exposed to many problems, that these children at this age should not be having or knowing about. And their support is smaller. They are aware of the possibilities in adult world, but don’t know how to build the bridge to get there Exposed to many technologies. Today children come to school bringing a greater range of backgrounds and needs. Many lack the “givens” of early life that a teacher once took for granted. They are enriched and impoverished by their environments. There is a chasm about children who have benefited from rich childhoods, to those who haven't had the same opportunities.
  • The Struggle for Equity and Excellence: many students come from homes where support and encouragement are in short supply. Many of these students have the potential to excel, but come to school with the lack of experience, support, models, and plans that would make education a fundamental expectation of life. Although some come up prepared, some come too prepared. With skills and knowledge months and years ahead of where their learning is expected. Schools need to belong to all of these children. Equity and excellence must be at the top of the agenda for all children. Equity forms when the teacher shows they are ready to help build the sorts of experiences and expectations that the outside world haven’t been able to build. Excellence can not form without emphatically, systematically, vigorously, and effectively seeing to the development of their full potential.
  • -In traditional Method classrooms, students are all taught by the same concepts, same material, same time, and the same speed. -These classrooms are set up into three categories: -Academic -College Prep. -Honors-In these classrooms, they are considered to be one size fits all-Everyone is always working at the same speed, and nothing is personalized for the learner themselves.--The material comes from the curriculum out of books.-the grading is on a scale of A-F-The actual teaching of these classrooms is not based on the importance of knowledge, beliefs and skills an individual brings.
  • CLASS ACTIVITY!-Each student in the class is given a questionnaire which helps them identify which type of learner they are. The Questionnaire is pretty straight forward questions, and is only 16 questions long.
  • Visual: These types of learners tend to learn best by seeing what it is they are trying to learn. For example: this may be something like note cards, power points, Pictures. Ect.Auditory: These types of learners tend to learn best by hearing what they are trying to learn. For example: This may be something like music, lectors, audio tapes, ect.Kinesthetic: these types of leaner's tend to learn best by doing what they are trying to learn. For example: This may be something like taking notes, doing project, ect. These learners are very hands on, and work best doing something with that ability.
  • When students are in different forms of Differentiated instruction, they are taught by working at their own ability. In these two pictures, that it what’s happening. When the students were put into stations as a part of DI, they were aloud to work at their own speed and comfort ability. In the picture to the bottom left, the boy worked alone on the activity because he felt comfortable doing that. The students in the far up right, worked in a group because they felt as if they could understand the activity better in that type of setting. A major part of DI is making sure you learn best to your ability by going at your own speed.
  • -ALSO known as DI-Two important features are students rights to “begin where they are” and to expect to grow as learners. -“A different way to learn is what the kids are calling for…All of them are talking about how our one-size-fits-all delivery system-which mandates that everyone learn the same thing at the same time, no matter what their individual needs-has failed them.” –Seymour Sarason
  • Student Differences: -Children know we are all not alike. Teachers are aware of differences as well, so in classes they help individuals address their common needs. Our experience, culture, gender, genetic code, and neurological wiring all affect how and what we learn. In these classrooms, the teacher accepts them for who they are and expects them to become all they can beModifications of Content, process, and Products. -With using assessment data the teacher can modify content, process, or product. Content: What she wants students to learn. Process: activities designed to ensure that students use skills to make sense out of essential ideas and information. Products: are vehicles through which students demonstrate and extend what they have learned. Students vary in readiness, interest and learning profile. Readiness: is a students entry point relative to a particular understanding or skill. Interest: is a students affinity, curiosity, or passion for a particular topic or skill. Learning profile: how we learn. It can be shaped by intelligence preferences, gender, culture, or learning style. Different students have their own different way of learning. A teacher may base the curricular elements based on one or more of the student characteristics in any point of a lesson or unit. Teachers don’t always differentiate classrooms in their lessons. Only when students are showing need and you are convinced that modification increases the likelihood that the learner will understand more as a result.
  • Combination of Academic, cp and honors kids in one. There is no more one size fits all for students. Students are combined in classrooms now so the student can essentially have more help. The curriculum is based upon the students, not based upon the curriculum assigned by a book. Help students learning differences. This type of classroom helps them.
  • There are three principles of effective teaching and learning that educators have not always known or clearly supported. Intelligence is variable: intelligence is multifactor, not a single thing. Although Many educators have come up with numerous definitions of what intelligence means. Researchers have come up with two significant conclusions. 1. We think, learn, and create in different ways. 2. Development of our potential is affected by the match between what we learn and how we learn with our particular intelligences. The theory's people have made suggest several clear implications for educator. For example: Teachers must be effective in developing many types of intelligence, not just one. Also students who come to school lacking rich experiences can make up lost ground if they find rich experiences in their classrooms. The brain hungers for meaning: Thanks to the field of medicine, we can now look inside the human brain and see how it functions. These observations have expanded the understanding of teaching and learning. The brain seeks meaningful patterns and resists meaninglessness. The brain retains isolated bits of information, it is much more efficient at retaining information that is “chunked”. Chunked information is organized around categories and ideas that increase the information's meaningfulness. The brain seeks to connect parts to wholes, and individuals learn by connecting something new to something they already understand. Brain learns best when it comes to understand by making its own sense out of information rather then when information is imposed on it. Doesn’t respond much to things that carry only a surface meaning. It responds more to something that carries deep and personal meaning, something that is life shaping, relevant, important, or taps into emotions. These tell us much about the individuality of learners and about the nature of effective curriculum and instruction. Each learners brain is unique, and educators must provide many opportunity for learners to make sense of ideas and information. When students are to connect novel to something familiar, research tells us, what is novel to one child already may be familiar to another and vice versa. Curriculum must cultivate meaning making. It should be organized around categories, concepts, and governing principles. A meaningful curriculum is characterized by high interest and high relevance, and it taps into learners feelings and experiences. If we want students to retain, understand, and use ideas, information and skills, we must give them ample opportunity to make sense of or own them through involvement in complex learning situations. If learning Is a process of connecting the unfamiliar to the familiar, teachers must create abundant opportunities for students to link the new with the old. This is a three part task. 1. teachers identify the essential concepts, principles, and skills of their subject. 2. They must become experts about their students learning needs. 3. They must use this information about learning needs to provide differentiated opportunities for students to construct understanding by connecting what they know with the essentials they are trying to learn.Humans learn best with moderate challenge: Students learn best when they are in a context that provides a moderate challenge. Until a take is to hard, then the learner fees threatened and downshifts into a self protection more. A threatened leaner will not persist with thinking or problem solving. But, a simple task also suppresses a learners thinking and problem solving. He or she coasts into a relaxation mode. A task is a good amount of challenging when it asks learners to risk a leap into the unknown, but they know enough to get started and have additional support for reaching a new level of understanding. Students who consistently fail lose their motivation to leaner. Students who succeed to easily also lose their motivation to leaner. For the learning to continue, students must believe that hard work is required, but the hard work often pays off with success. Challenges must grow as students grow in their learning. What is moderately challenging and motivation for one learner, may offer fat to little challenge for a classmate. The same take may be to stressful for yet another classmate. Learning tasks must be adjusted to each students appropriate learning zone. Further, tasks must escalate in complexity and challenge for students to learn continually.
  • -Teachers in these differentiated classrooms accept, embrace, and plan for the fact that learners bring many commonalities to school, but that learners also bring the essential differences that make them individuals.-teachers are more in touch with students, and these classrooms help students reach there needs, rather then a one size fits all. -doesn’t try to differentiate everything for everyone everyday. She/he selects a time in her teaching plans to differentiate by interest so that students can link what is being studied to something that is important to them.
  • -Readiness helps extend that students knowledge, understanding, and skills beyond what the student can do independently. -Pushes student beyond their comfort zone and provides support in bridging the gap between the known and unknown. -A way to make sure the lesson plan will help the students is by identifiying what makes them differentiated. -Creating a lesson plan for DI is similar to a CD player. You can control how much of each section would help the students. -This “equalizer” would look like this: -Foundational to Transformational -Concrete to Abstract -Simple to Complex -Single Facet to Multiple Facets -Small Leap to Great Leap -More structured to More open -Less Independence to Greater Independence -Slow to Quick
  • -A key feature of artful teaching is having a plan to engage or “hook” students.-When you give them a topic that they can relate to them selves, it makes them more interested in learning about it and gives them more of an opportunity to respond to it.-Some of the goals of interest based instruction are: -Helping students realize that there is a match between school and their own desires to learn -Demonstrating the connectedness between all learning -Using skills or ideas familiar to students to help them understand ideas or skills less familiar to them -Enhancing student motivation to learn.
  • -Students learn by different surroundings. Some learn by movement, some learn by quiet or loud rooms. Some learn by music.-Learning Profiles refers to ways in which we learn best as individuals. -Everybody knows how they learn best, learning profiles allows the students to tap into that to achieve excellence.-There are guidelines for learning profile Differentiation and they are; -Remember that some, but not all of the students share learning preferences -Help the students reflect on their own preferences -Use both teacher-structured and student-choice avenues to learning-profile differentiation -Select a few learning profile categories for emphasis as you begin -As a teacher, be a student of your students
  • New grade system is based on individual goal setting and progress in reaching goals, students are graded against themselves, rather then in competition with other students. Public expects “normed” report cards. Some other people believe traditional grades don’t communicate or motivate as they like to believe they do. 4 approaches to thisproblem:(Keep grade Book)- When teachers grade students in a traditional class where they all are doing the same activity, you might label it something like (text. Page 211) this shows that the class worked on this same activity. In DI classrooms, when they are all doing activities based on their level, you can label it something like (fractions 2-7) meaning on February 7th, each student worked on fractions at their ability. (student work folders) –Valuable record keeping device. Having these folders help students know where their stuff is, and allows teachers to use them as a powerful tool during planning conferences that focus on student growth. These folders should contain: record keeping forms (reading lists, spelling lists.), samples of students works, records of conferences, student goals, and any other data. (record keeping ) Share this with students. Let them keep track of their activities, records of reading, progress, and work that they feel shows best what they learned. Teachers don’t only have to hold on to their stuff, by allowing them to it helps them develop clarity regarding their goals, assignments and their progress. (all work doesn’t need to be graded)- Not every activity every day needs to be graded. A test or product assignment can give evidence of what the student has learned.
  • When teaching down the middle school, these are the three days I went down to teach in Mr. Lindelows Class room. They were all Day C, because I was told that was the best time to come down. Day C was the day the class had their reading in the afternoon, that’s why I was asked to come down then.
  • Based on everything you have heard through out the presentation, would you say you agree with Differentiated Instruction, or that you Disagree with it.
  • Traditional:Student differences are acted upon when problematicAssessment is mostly done at the end of learning to see who got itA single definition of excellence exists. (Typically meaning, A’s mean you understood it) Student interest is usually not a part of the learning. Usually few learning profile options are used Whole class instruction dominatesThe use of text books and curriculum is what guides the instruction. Facts and skills out of context are the focus of learningOne option for assignments is the “norm”Time is usually inflexibleThe teacher directs student behavior The teacher solves problemsTeacher provides whole class standards for gradingA single form of assessment is often used.Differentiated:Student differences are studied as a basis for planningAssessment is ongoing to understand how to make instruction more responsive to the learners needs.Many different forms of intelligence is taking place Excellence is defined in large measure by individual growth from a starting point..Students are frequently guided in making interest based learning choices.Many Leaner's profiles are used.Many instructional arrangements are usedStudents readiness, interest, and learning profile shape instructionUse of essential skills to make sense of and understand key concepts and principles is the focus of learning.Multi-option assignments are frequently usedTime is used flexibly Multiple materials are providedThe teacher facilitates students skills at becoming more self reliant learnersStudents help other students and the teacher solve problemsStudents work with the teacher to establish both whole class and individual learning goalsStudents are assessed in multiple ways.
  • Senior Graduation Project

    1. 1. Teaching Methods and Techniques-Differentiated Instruction-<br />Chelsea Duva<br />http://asnailpace.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/crowded_crayon_colors3.jpg<br />
    2. 2. Thesis Statement<br /> Teachers have begun using different teaching methods and techniques for middle school-high school students, called Differentiated Instruction. I plan to define what it is and why teachers are using it more and more now. Interviewing teachers will help me understand why DI has become so popular.  And teaching at the middle school in a diverse class will allow me to see a differentiated instruction classroom. This will be beneficial for the class and myself because its interesting to see how teachers techniques and methods seems to be continuously changing.<br />
    3. 3. Personal Relevance<br />
    4. 4. History of Education<br />http://www.personal.psu.edu/mas53/timln920.html<br />
    5. 5. HISTORY (continued)<br />http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/photo_gallery/photo1.html<br />
    6. 6. Traditional Classroom<br />http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_6ao0HFi8dN8/TIEo-SSEccI/AAAAAAAAGoE/KZyKgBBzt8Q/s1600/Classroom.jpg<br />
    7. 7. What’s Your<br />Learning style<br />?<br />http://brownc2.org/<br />
    8. 8. Different Types of Learners<br />http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://studio3music.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/learning-styles.jpg&imgrefurl=http://orlandogators.com/visual-kinesthetic-auditory-learning-styles%26page%3D3&usg=__r2Z0P6Y3RJTtMMJdeUwin8Jq_cY=&h=434&w=323&sz=37&hl=en&start=159&zoom=1&tbnid=T_rcLmflPfDIwM:&tbnh=144&tbnw=107&ei=WGhuTbbPK43EgAf8qPRB&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlearning-styles-%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26client%3Dsafari%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1182%26bih%3D636%26tbs%3Disch:10%2C5168&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=226&oei=TGhuTbSaL8T68AaKjsn8Dg&page=11&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:159&tx=65&ty=69&biw=1182&bih=636<br />
    9. 9. Work At…<br />…Your Own Ability<br />
    10. 10. What is..<br />?<br />http://www.differentiatedinstruction.net/<br />
    11. 11. Elements of Differentiated Instruction<br />Focuses on the Essentials<br />Student differences<br />Assessment and Instruction<br />Modifications of content, process, and Products<br />Participation<br />Teacher and Student collaborate in learning<br />Group/individual<br />Teacher and Student work together<br />http://www.redicecreations.com/article.php?id=14200<br />
    12. 12. Effective Strategies on students…<br /><ul><li>Identify Similarities and differences
    13. 13. Summarizing and note taking
    14. 14. Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
    15. 15. Homework and practice
    16. 16. Nonlinguistic representations
    17. 17. Cooperative learning
    18. 18. Setting objectives and providing feedback
    19. 19. Generating and testing hypotheses
    20. 20. Questions, cues and advance organizers</li></ul>http://www.zazzle.com/achievement_motivational_poster_print-228394926418138722<br />
    21. 21. Differentiated<br /> Classroom<br />
    22. 22. Effective Teachers<br /> “Effective Teachers are not afraid of feedback; in fact, they elicit information and criticism from others. Additionally, in the interest of improving their ability to have a positive impact on student learning, these teachers readily accept constructive criticism and reflect upon it.”<br />—James H. Stronge<br />
    23. 23. Teachers Performing DI<br /> “They work diligently to ensure that struggling, advanced, and in-between students think and work harder than they’re meant to; achieve more than they thought they could; and come to believe that learning involves effort, risk, and personal triumph”<br /> -Carol Ann Tomlinson<br />http://www.photos.com/search/royaltyfree/87607541<br />
    24. 24. Lesson Planning Step 1<br />readiness<br />http://www.faqs.org/photo-dict/phrase/328/stairs.html<br />http://www.files32.com/Analog-Clock-Scr-i266.asp<br />
    25. 25. Lesson Planning Step 2<br />INTEREST<br />http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/clip/art-color.html<br />http://www.worldphoto360.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/athletes.jpg<br />
    26. 26. Lesson Planning Step 3<br />LEARNING PROFILE<br />http://www.metrolic.com/the-benefits-of-optimization-142992/<br />http://www.allaboutdrawings.com/music-notes.html<br />
    27. 27. Grading In a DI Classroom <br />Keep grade book!<br />Students work folders<br />Share record-keeping responsibility<br />Not all work has to be formally graded. <br />http://www.reviewstl.com/09-so-far-has-it-been-average/<br />
    28. 28. Just call me Ms. Duva…<br />“Chelsea, Mr. Lindelow and I are happy to have you. Accept this email as the permission to join Mr. Lindelow's class. I hope this works for everyone's needs. Thanks, David Burnes”<br />
    29. 29. Teaching Days!<br />http://freebookmarkscalendars.blogspot.com/2010/12/black-and-white-calendar-february-2011.html<br />http://www.theproducersperspective.com/my_weblog/2010/10/our-fourth-and-final-reading-of-the-year-announced.html<br />
    30. 30. http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/6350519/2/istockphoto_6350519-agree-or-disagree-checkbox-choices.jpg<br />
    31. 31. Comparing Classrooms<br />Traditional Classroom<br />DifferentiatedClassroom<br />VS<br />http://www.onlineautoinsurance.com/compare/comparison.jpg<br />
    32. 32. CONCLUSION<br />WHAT DID I LEARN!<br />
    33. 33. Work Cited<br />Marzano, Robert J, Debra J Pickering, and Jane E Pollock. "Identifying      Similarities and Differences." Classroom Instruction That Works.      Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001.      13-28. Print. <br />Tomlinson, Carol Ann. "Learning Environments That Support Differentiated      Instruction." The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All      Learners. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum      Development, 1999. 9-16. Print. <br />"Learning Environments That Support Differentiated Instruction." The      Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners.      Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1999.      25-35. Print. <br />"What Differentiated Instruction Is and Isn't." How to Differentiate      Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. 2nd ed. Alexandria: Association      for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001. 1-7. Print<br />
    34. 34. Work Cited<br />Dyck, Brenda. "Your Students: No Two Are Alike." Education World. N.p., 1 Jan.      2010. Web. 19 Dec. 2010. <http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/voice/      voice061.shtml> <br />Edwards, Cheryl J, Sonya Carr, and Wendy Siegel. "Influences of Experiences and      Training on Effective Teaching Practices to Meet the Needs of Diverse      Learners in Schools." Education 126.3 (2006): 580-92. ERIC: Education      Resources Information Center. Web. 18 Dec. 2010.      <http://www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/search/      detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ765777&ERICExtSearch_Se      archType_0=no&accno=EJ765777> <br />King-Shaver, Barbara, and Alyce Hunter. "How Does Differentiated Intruction      Apply to Middle and Secondary English Classrooms?" Differentiated      Instruction in the English Classroom. Ed. James Strickland. Portsmouth:      Barbara King-Shaver, 2003. 15-27. Print <br />. "How Do Teachers Put It All Together? A Case Study with Examples."      Differentiated Instruction in the English Classroom. Ed. James      Strickland. Portsmouth: Barbara King-Shaver, 2003. 79-125. Print<br />
    35. 35. Work Cited<br />Tomlinson, Carol Ann. How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability      Classrooms. 2nd ed. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and      Curriculum Development, 2001. Print.<br />Tomlinson, Carol Ann. The Differentiated Classroom Responding to the Needs of  All Leaners. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1999. Print. <br />Marzano, Robert J, Debra J Pickering, and Jane E Pollock. Classroom Instruction  that Works. Alexandria: McREL, 2001. Print.<br />Stronge, James H. Qualities of Effective Teachers. Alexandria: Association for  Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2002. Print.<br />King-Shaver, Barbara, and Alyce Hunter. Differentiated Instruction in the      English Classroom. Ed. James Strickland. Portsmouth: Barbara King-Shaver  and Alyce Hunter, 2003. Print. <br />Brooks, Jacqueline Grennon, and Martin G Brooks. "Honoring the Learning      Process." The Case for Constructivist Classrooms. Alexandria: Association  for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993, 1999. 3-13. Print. <br />

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