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THE
MOTHER
SAUCES
HISTORY OF THE MOTHER SAUCES
All sauces in cooking are derived from
five basic sauces,
called the Mother Sauces.
The mother sauces were traditionally prepared in
huge quantities, and then separated into smaller
portions. These smaller portions combined with
additional ingredients created over 100’s of
variations.
Béchamel
Veloute
Espagnole
Tomato Sauce
Hollandaise
Mother Sauce: The 5 main
sauces that any chef
should know. From these
5 basic sauces you can
make literally hundreds of
derivative sauces by
adding a few extra
ingredients to the original
mother sauce. The name
“mother” was given
because they can have
many offspring!
STOCK
• Stock may be either white
or brown. It has tons of
FLAVOUR!
• Its contains bones, with fat
and connective tissue
(Bones contain collagen,
which when simmered
forms gelatin. The more
gelatin there is in the stock,
the more body it will have)
• Vegetables (mirepoix)
• Aromatics (bay leaves,
thyme, peppercorns, garlic,
salt)
• Do not be confused with a
broth, which is made for
meat, not bones
White Stock
• blanched and rinsed
bones (fish, chicken,
veal),
• white colour
vegetables (onion,
celery)
Brown Stock
• Dark oven-roasted
bones (chicken, veal,
beef)
• Dark oven roasted
vegetables (mirepoix)
• Many times tomato
paste is also added
ROUX
• Once the fat is melted in the pan the flour
is added. The mixture is stirred until the
flour is incorporated and then cooked.
• The longer you cook it, the darker it will
become. The end result is a thickening and
flavoring agent.
• Roux can be white, blonde/pale, or brown
depending on how long it is cooked
• Brown roux & brown stock usually go
together,
• White roux goes with white stock or milk
¼ cup butter : ¼ cup flour
1:1 ratio
BECHAMEL - WHITE SAUCE
Preparation
Whisk scalded
milk gradually
into a flour
butter white
roux.
Once you have the basic sauce made, you can work with it to fit the taste
profile you’re looking for.
These Sauces are made FROM a Bechamel
Dill Cream Sauce: Add dry or fresh Dill 1
tsp at a time. Taste after each addition
to check for readiness.
Cheese Sauce: Whisk the Béchamel
Sauce with 2 cups of shredded
cheese at the end.
Alfredo Sauce: Whisk grated parmesan cheese, lemon juice into
the finished sauce.
-Use about ¾ cup of cheese per two cups of sauce.
-Pour your cheese sauce over angel hair noodles that
are cooked al dente.
VELOUTE - BLOND SAUCE
Veloute uses a slightly darker roux (the roux is toasted longer
to a slight brown color), and a white stock such as chicken or
fish.
Again, use the 1:1 ratio = 1 cup liquid (stock) per 1 ounce of
Roux
These Sauces are made FROM a Veloute
If you want some onion flavor, chop up part
of an onion and sauté it, same as you’d do
for a mushroom sauce.
If you want a spicier sauce, add some
hot pepper in with the roux and toast it a
bit before adding your liquid.
Herb sauce by finishing the Veloute
sauce with minced fresh herbs to
taste. Be careful, the herbs are potent.
Mushroom Sauce: by sautéing
mushrooms and stirring them into
the finished sauce.
ESPAGNOLE - BROWN SAUCE
Step 1:
Espagnole sauce is prepared from
vegetables and herbs that are cooked
in a brown roux, a dark stock such as
beef, and then a tomato purée.
Step 2:
The sauce is left to simmer for around two hours until it
reduces to a thick brown sauce.
Step 3:
The final stage is to pass the sauce through a sieve, which will
retain all of the vegetables, lumps and unwanted ingredients.
You may add this on top when finished.
These Sauces are made FROM an Espagnole
Mushroom Sauce: Espagnole
sauce and mushrooms.
Bordelaise Sauce: Espagnole sauce
with red wine, shallots and herbs.
Lyonnaise Sauce: Espagnole sauce
with chopped onions, parsley and
white wine.
HOLLANDAISE - BUTTER SAUCE
Hollandaise sauce is an emulsion of butter and
lemon juice. Egg yolks are used as the
emulsifying agent. Usually seasoned with salt and
cayenne pepper.
It must be made and served
warm, not hot
Properly made, the sauce
is smooth and creamy.
The flavor should be
rich and buttery, with
a mild tang added by
the lemon juice and
seasonings.
TOMATO SAUCE - RED SAUCE
Classically, Tomato Sauce is made with tomatoes, vegetables,
seasonings, and vegetable stock. Tomato Sauce should be
thick and rich, with a slightly sweet flavor.
Marinara sauce is a
common Italian
variation of this mother
sauce, made by adding
onions, garlic and
oregano.

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Mother sauces

  • 2. HISTORY OF THE MOTHER SAUCES All sauces in cooking are derived from five basic sauces, called the Mother Sauces. The mother sauces were traditionally prepared in huge quantities, and then separated into smaller portions. These smaller portions combined with additional ingredients created over 100’s of variations.
  • 3. Béchamel Veloute Espagnole Tomato Sauce Hollandaise Mother Sauce: The 5 main sauces that any chef should know. From these 5 basic sauces you can make literally hundreds of derivative sauces by adding a few extra ingredients to the original mother sauce. The name “mother” was given because they can have many offspring!
  • 4. STOCK • Stock may be either white or brown. It has tons of FLAVOUR! • Its contains bones, with fat and connective tissue (Bones contain collagen, which when simmered forms gelatin. The more gelatin there is in the stock, the more body it will have) • Vegetables (mirepoix) • Aromatics (bay leaves, thyme, peppercorns, garlic, salt) • Do not be confused with a broth, which is made for meat, not bones White Stock • blanched and rinsed bones (fish, chicken, veal), • white colour vegetables (onion, celery) Brown Stock • Dark oven-roasted bones (chicken, veal, beef) • Dark oven roasted vegetables (mirepoix) • Many times tomato paste is also added
  • 5. ROUX • Once the fat is melted in the pan the flour is added. The mixture is stirred until the flour is incorporated and then cooked. • The longer you cook it, the darker it will become. The end result is a thickening and flavoring agent. • Roux can be white, blonde/pale, or brown depending on how long it is cooked • Brown roux & brown stock usually go together, • White roux goes with white stock or milk ¼ cup butter : ¼ cup flour 1:1 ratio
  • 6. BECHAMEL - WHITE SAUCE Preparation Whisk scalded milk gradually into a flour butter white roux.
  • 7. Once you have the basic sauce made, you can work with it to fit the taste profile you’re looking for. These Sauces are made FROM a Bechamel Dill Cream Sauce: Add dry or fresh Dill 1 tsp at a time. Taste after each addition to check for readiness. Cheese Sauce: Whisk the Béchamel Sauce with 2 cups of shredded cheese at the end. Alfredo Sauce: Whisk grated parmesan cheese, lemon juice into the finished sauce. -Use about ¾ cup of cheese per two cups of sauce. -Pour your cheese sauce over angel hair noodles that are cooked al dente.
  • 8. VELOUTE - BLOND SAUCE Veloute uses a slightly darker roux (the roux is toasted longer to a slight brown color), and a white stock such as chicken or fish. Again, use the 1:1 ratio = 1 cup liquid (stock) per 1 ounce of Roux
  • 9. These Sauces are made FROM a Veloute If you want some onion flavor, chop up part of an onion and sauté it, same as you’d do for a mushroom sauce. If you want a spicier sauce, add some hot pepper in with the roux and toast it a bit before adding your liquid. Herb sauce by finishing the Veloute sauce with minced fresh herbs to taste. Be careful, the herbs are potent. Mushroom Sauce: by sautéing mushrooms and stirring them into the finished sauce.
  • 10. ESPAGNOLE - BROWN SAUCE Step 1: Espagnole sauce is prepared from vegetables and herbs that are cooked in a brown roux, a dark stock such as beef, and then a tomato purée. Step 2: The sauce is left to simmer for around two hours until it reduces to a thick brown sauce. Step 3: The final stage is to pass the sauce through a sieve, which will retain all of the vegetables, lumps and unwanted ingredients. You may add this on top when finished.
  • 11. These Sauces are made FROM an Espagnole Mushroom Sauce: Espagnole sauce and mushrooms. Bordelaise Sauce: Espagnole sauce with red wine, shallots and herbs. Lyonnaise Sauce: Espagnole sauce with chopped onions, parsley and white wine.
  • 12. HOLLANDAISE - BUTTER SAUCE Hollandaise sauce is an emulsion of butter and lemon juice. Egg yolks are used as the emulsifying agent. Usually seasoned with salt and cayenne pepper. It must be made and served warm, not hot Properly made, the sauce is smooth and creamy. The flavor should be rich and buttery, with a mild tang added by the lemon juice and seasonings.
  • 13. TOMATO SAUCE - RED SAUCE Classically, Tomato Sauce is made with tomatoes, vegetables, seasonings, and vegetable stock. Tomato Sauce should be thick and rich, with a slightly sweet flavor. Marinara sauce is a common Italian variation of this mother sauce, made by adding onions, garlic and oregano.