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Complex Sentence
Will Mani
Complex Sentences:
• Complex Sentences
Before we talk about types of sentences in English, you need to
understand a few terms:
What is a phrase ?
What is a clause ?
Independent ?
Dependent ?
What is a sentence ?
CoComplex Sentences
mplex Sentences:
What is a phrase ?
• A phrase is a group of words, but they are not complete thoughts.
Phrases cannot stand alone because they are missing either a subject
or a main verb .
• For example: the dog in the park walks to school
Complex Sentences:
What is a clause ?
A clause is a group of words with a subject and verb.
Two types of clauses - independent and dependent .
Independent clauses can stand alone as complete sentences.
Ex. The dog is brown.
Dependent clauses can not stand alone as complete sentences.
Ex. Although the dog is brown
Complex Sentences:
What is a sentence ?
• A sentence is a group of words with a subject and a verb that is a
complete thought . It can stand alone, so it is also called an
independent clause.
• For example:
• The dog is brown.
• She ate lunch in the park.
• The girl walks to school.
Complex Sentences:
• Complex Sentences Review:
• Phrase - a group of words that are not complete thoughts and cannot
stand alone. It is missing either a subject or verb.
• Clause - a group of words with a subject and verb. Clauses can be
either independent or dependent .
• Sentence - a group of words with a subject and a verb that is a
complete thought.
Complex Sentences:
Complex Sentences
Independent Clauses An independent clause ,
or sentence,
is a group of words with a subject and verb. It is a complete thought that CAN stand alone.
For example:
The dog is brown.
She ate lunch in the park.
The girl walks to school.
Independent Clause = Sentence
Complex Sentences:
Complex Sentences
Dependent Clauses
• A dependent clause is a group of words with a subject and verb.
However, it is NOT a complete thought; therefore, it can NOT stand
alone as a complete sentence.
For example:
Although the dog is brown As soon as she ate lunch in the park After
the girl walks to school
Complex Sentences:
• Now that you understand what phrases , clauses (dependent &
independent), and sentences are, we can talk about COMPLEX
sentences.
3 Types of Sentences in English:
Simple Sentences – The dog is brown .
Compound Sentences – The dog is brown , but the cat is grey .
Complex Sentences – Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful .
Complex Sentences:
Complex Sentences
• A COMPLEX sentence has one independent clause and one
dependent clause.
For example:
Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful .
Before she ate lunch in the park , she bought a coffee .
After the girl walks to school , she will start studying .
Complex Sentences:
• Complex Sentences A dependent clause can NOT stand alone as a
compete sentence, so it must be attached to an independent clause .
Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful .
Before she ate lunch in the park , she bought a coffee .
After the girl walks to school , she will start studying .
Dependent clause + Independent clause = COMPLEX sentence
Complex Sentences:
What words make a clause DEPENDENT?
• Subordinating Conjunctions*
• Time: after, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while
Reason/Condition : because, since, as, if, whether
• Place/Location : where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere
• Contrast : although, even though, though, whereas, while
• Similarities: just as, as
• *This is not a complete list.
Complex Sentences:
• A subordinating conjunction makes a clause DEPENDENT
• For example:
• INdependent : Maria studies English .
• DEpendent : After Maria studies English
• INdependent : I love to cook .
• DEpendent : Just as I love to cook
• INdependent : Omar is driving to work .
• DEpendent : While Omar is driving to work
Complex Sentence Patterns:
• Complex Sentence Patterns VERY IMPORTANT COMMA RULE:
• Pattern 1: DEPENDENT CLAUSE + COMMA + INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful .
After the girl walks to school , she will start studying .
Pattern 2: INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + DEPENDENT CLAUSE (No comma!!)
The dog is beautiful although it is brown .
The girl will start studying after she walks to school .
Complex Sentences:
• Here are the same complex sentences using
Pattern 2: Independent Clause + Dependent Clause ( no comma!)
The dog is beautiful although it is brown .
She bought a coffee before she ate lunch in the park .
The girl will start studying after she walks to school
Complex Sentences :
• Complex Sentences
• Examples of complex sentences:
He goes to school after he finishes work .
She felt better as soon as she took the medicine .
Before you apply to college , you have to take an entrance exam .
It has been a year since I left home .
We can’t leave the room until everyone has finished the test .
Whenever I don’t sleep well , I feel sick the next day .
Jack excels at sports because he trains hard .
I can never remember where I put my keys .
Complex Sentences :
• Review :
• Pattern 1: DEPENDENT CLAUSE + COMMA + INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Because he trains hard , Jack excels at sports.
• Pattern 2: INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + DEPENDENT CLAUSE (No comma!!)
Jack excels at sports because he trains hard .
Adapted from Introduction to Academic Writing ,
Third Edition, by Alice Oshima & Ann Hogue .
Practice

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Complex sentence

  • 2. Complex Sentences: • Complex Sentences Before we talk about types of sentences in English, you need to understand a few terms: What is a phrase ? What is a clause ? Independent ? Dependent ? What is a sentence ?
  • 3. CoComplex Sentences mplex Sentences: What is a phrase ? • A phrase is a group of words, but they are not complete thoughts. Phrases cannot stand alone because they are missing either a subject or a main verb . • For example: the dog in the park walks to school
  • 4. Complex Sentences: What is a clause ? A clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. Two types of clauses - independent and dependent . Independent clauses can stand alone as complete sentences. Ex. The dog is brown. Dependent clauses can not stand alone as complete sentences. Ex. Although the dog is brown
  • 5. Complex Sentences: What is a sentence ? • A sentence is a group of words with a subject and a verb that is a complete thought . It can stand alone, so it is also called an independent clause. • For example: • The dog is brown. • She ate lunch in the park. • The girl walks to school.
  • 6. Complex Sentences: • Complex Sentences Review: • Phrase - a group of words that are not complete thoughts and cannot stand alone. It is missing either a subject or verb. • Clause - a group of words with a subject and verb. Clauses can be either independent or dependent . • Sentence - a group of words with a subject and a verb that is a complete thought.
  • 7. Complex Sentences: Complex Sentences Independent Clauses An independent clause , or sentence, is a group of words with a subject and verb. It is a complete thought that CAN stand alone. For example: The dog is brown. She ate lunch in the park. The girl walks to school. Independent Clause = Sentence
  • 8. Complex Sentences: Complex Sentences Dependent Clauses • A dependent clause is a group of words with a subject and verb. However, it is NOT a complete thought; therefore, it can NOT stand alone as a complete sentence. For example: Although the dog is brown As soon as she ate lunch in the park After the girl walks to school
  • 9. Complex Sentences: • Now that you understand what phrases , clauses (dependent & independent), and sentences are, we can talk about COMPLEX sentences. 3 Types of Sentences in English: Simple Sentences – The dog is brown . Compound Sentences – The dog is brown , but the cat is grey . Complex Sentences – Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful .
  • 10. Complex Sentences: Complex Sentences • A COMPLEX sentence has one independent clause and one dependent clause. For example: Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . Before she ate lunch in the park , she bought a coffee . After the girl walks to school , she will start studying .
  • 11. Complex Sentences: • Complex Sentences A dependent clause can NOT stand alone as a compete sentence, so it must be attached to an independent clause . Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . Before she ate lunch in the park , she bought a coffee . After the girl walks to school , she will start studying . Dependent clause + Independent clause = COMPLEX sentence
  • 12. Complex Sentences: What words make a clause DEPENDENT? • Subordinating Conjunctions* • Time: after, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while Reason/Condition : because, since, as, if, whether • Place/Location : where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere • Contrast : although, even though, though, whereas, while • Similarities: just as, as • *This is not a complete list.
  • 13. Complex Sentences: • A subordinating conjunction makes a clause DEPENDENT • For example: • INdependent : Maria studies English . • DEpendent : After Maria studies English • INdependent : I love to cook . • DEpendent : Just as I love to cook • INdependent : Omar is driving to work . • DEpendent : While Omar is driving to work
  • 14. Complex Sentence Patterns: • Complex Sentence Patterns VERY IMPORTANT COMMA RULE: • Pattern 1: DEPENDENT CLAUSE + COMMA + INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Although the dog is brown , it is beautiful . After the girl walks to school , she will start studying . Pattern 2: INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + DEPENDENT CLAUSE (No comma!!) The dog is beautiful although it is brown . The girl will start studying after she walks to school .
  • 15. Complex Sentences: • Here are the same complex sentences using Pattern 2: Independent Clause + Dependent Clause ( no comma!) The dog is beautiful although it is brown . She bought a coffee before she ate lunch in the park . The girl will start studying after she walks to school
  • 16. Complex Sentences : • Complex Sentences • Examples of complex sentences: He goes to school after he finishes work . She felt better as soon as she took the medicine . Before you apply to college , you have to take an entrance exam . It has been a year since I left home . We can’t leave the room until everyone has finished the test . Whenever I don’t sleep well , I feel sick the next day . Jack excels at sports because he trains hard . I can never remember where I put my keys .
  • 17. Complex Sentences : • Review : • Pattern 1: DEPENDENT CLAUSE + COMMA + INDEPENDENT CLAUSE Because he trains hard , Jack excels at sports. • Pattern 2: INDEPENDENT CLAUSE + DEPENDENT CLAUSE (No comma!!) Jack excels at sports because he trains hard .
  • 18. Adapted from Introduction to Academic Writing , Third Edition, by Alice Oshima & Ann Hogue .