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Tropical Cyclone Encounters In the
Bahamas Between 1981 and 1988
General Meteorology
Charvari Watson-Rahming
Friday Octobe...
Objectives
• Define the term “Tropical Cyclone”.
• List the cyclones that made landfall in the
Bahamas between 1981-1988
•...
What is a Tropical Cyclone?
• A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a
non-frontal synoptic scale low-pressure
system ...
Hierarchy of Tropical Cyclones
Term Wind Speed (knots)
Tropical Depression < 34
Tropical Storm 34-63
Hurricane < 63
Hurric...
Summary of Atlantic Hurricane
Seasons 1981 - 1988
11
5
4
12
11
6 6
11
7
2
3
5
7
4
3
5
4
3
1
7
4
2
3
6
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1...
Summary: Tropical Cyclones Making
Landfall In The Bahamas (1981 – 1988)
Year Name Category Date of Impact Maximum Winds
19...
Hurricane Katrina (1981)
• 11th named tropical cyclone in the region
• Formed from a system of clouds over the western
Car...
Track of Hurricane Katrina
Impacts of Hurricane Katrina (1981)
• Received up to 14 inches of rain (360 mm)
• Agricultural damages in Long Island
– Wa...
Tropical Storm Isidore (1984)
• 9th named tropical cyclone in the region
• Last of 8 named storms occurring in September
–...
Track of Tropical Storm Isidore
Impacts of Tropical Storm Isidore
• Cyclone produced flood rains and gales
• Financial Sector – Banks were closed for a fe...
Hurricane Kate (1985)
• 11th named tropical cyclone in the region
– Latest to strike the United States on record (November...
Track of Hurricane Kate
Impacts of Hurricane Kate
• Storm accompanied by lots of rain and winds of 90 mph
• Agricultural Impact
– “Ham radio opera...
Tropical Storm Floyd (1987)
• 6th named tropical cyclone in the region and third hurricane
– The first October hurricane t...
Track of Tropical Storm Floyd
Impacts of Tropical Storm Floyd
• Highest gusts at 48 mph, sustained winds of
40 mph in Freeport, Grand Bahama.
– Caused i...
Synopsis of Report
• Out of 66 named storms between the period of 1981-1988, only 12 tropical cyclones
made landfall in th...
References
• Bahamas Meteorological Department: “Tropical Cyclones Which Affected The Bahamas”. ©2015
http://www.bahamaswe...
Tropical Cyclones Presentation (1981-1988)
Tropical Cyclones Presentation (1981-1988)
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Tropical Cyclones Presentation (1981-1988)

  1. 1. Tropical Cyclone Encounters In the Bahamas Between 1981 and 1988 General Meteorology Charvari Watson-Rahming Friday October 2nd, 2015
  2. 2. Objectives • Define the term “Tropical Cyclone”. • List the cyclones that made landfall in the Bahamas between 1981-1988 • Identify the storms that had a substantial impact on the Bahamas • List and discuss the importance of the sectors most affected • List other pertinent information regarding the storms • Summarize findings in a synopsis
  3. 3. What is a Tropical Cyclone? • A tropical cyclone is the generic term for a non-frontal synoptic scale low-pressure system over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection (i.e. thunderstorm activity) and definite cyclonic surface wind circulation (Holland 1993).
  4. 4. Hierarchy of Tropical Cyclones Term Wind Speed (knots) Tropical Depression < 34 Tropical Storm 34-63 Hurricane < 63 Hurricane Intensity Wind Speed (Knots) Category 1 64-82 Category 2 83-95 Category 3 96-112 Category 4 113-136 Category 5 >137
  5. 5. Summary of Atlantic Hurricane Seasons 1981 - 1988 11 5 4 12 11 6 6 11 7 2 3 5 7 4 3 5 4 3 1 7 4 2 3 6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Named Storms Hurricanes Tropical Storms
  6. 6. Summary: Tropical Cyclones Making Landfall In The Bahamas (1981 – 1988) Year Name Category Date of Impact Maximum Winds 1981 Arlene Tropical Storm May 8th 58 1981 Gert Hurricane – 2 11th September 98 1981 Katrina Hurricane – 1 6th November 75 1983 Barry Tropical Storm 24th August 46 1983 Dean Tropical Storm 26th September 40 1984 Isidore Tropical Storm 27th September 58 1984 Josephine Hurricane – 1 10th October 81 1985 Gloria Hurricane – 4 25th September 144 1985 Isabel Tropical Storm 8th October 69 1985 Kate Hurricane – 2 19th November 109 1987 Emily Tropical Storm 23rd September 63 1987 Floyd Tropical Storm 13th October 69
  7. 7. Hurricane Katrina (1981) • 11th named tropical cyclone in the region • Formed from a system of clouds over the western Caribbean Sea • Timeline – 4th November - Developed into a tropical storm while drifting over the Cayman Islands – 6th November (a.m.) - Made landfall in Eastern Cuba – 6th November (p.m.) – Made landfall in Eastern Bahamas, crosses over Long Island and continues northeast, south of Exuma and Near San Salvador
  8. 8. Track of Hurricane Katrina
  9. 9. Impacts of Hurricane Katrina (1981) • Received up to 14 inches of rain (360 mm) • Agricultural damages in Long Island – Watermelon – Tomatoes – Corn • Financial Impact – With a population of over 5,000, Long Island is the leading stock-rearing island and its farmers also grow corn, peas, bananas, pineapples and other crops. – Flood damage jeopardized the integrity of the crops and prevented income for commercial farmers.
  10. 10. Tropical Storm Isidore (1984) • 9th named tropical cyclone in the region • Last of 8 named storms occurring in September – (most named storms occurring in one month since 1886) • Developed near the southeast Bahamas from a frontal system producing a closed low level circulation – Same frontal system spawned a prior cyclone (Hortense) • Timeline – 25th September - Develops into a depression – 26th September – Intensifies into TS, Moves through Bahamas passing across San Salvador, Southern Cat Island and Northern Andros – 28th September – Moves past Florida twice, causing extensive flooding and damage
  11. 11. Track of Tropical Storm Isidore
  12. 12. Impacts of Tropical Storm Isidore • Cyclone produced flood rains and gales • Financial Sector – Banks were closed for a few days – Significant financial impact due to the delay of transactions – the sector contributes an estimated 15% of the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Central Bank 2015) – Employed about 3680 persons in both domestic and offshore sectors (1995) – Average wages of individuals approximately at $33,000 per annum (1995) • Education sector – Schools were closed for a few days – No financial impact
  13. 13. Hurricane Kate (1985) • 11th named tropical cyclone in the region – Latest to strike the United States on record (November 1985) • Developed as a result of the combination of a weak tropical wave with an upper level trough (200 mb) northeast of the Virgin Islands • Timeline – 14th November – Interaction of wave with upper level trough – 15th November – Attained TS status, named Kate – 16th November – upper level anti-cyclone (remnant from trough) builds north eastward above Florida straits, establishes excellent outflow pattern. Intensifies to hurricane status with favorable atmospheric and sea temperature conditions – 19th November – Hurricane Kate moves westward through southeast Bahamas, jut north off the north coast of Inagua
  14. 14. Track of Hurricane Kate
  15. 15. Impacts of Hurricane Kate • Storm accompanied by lots of rain and winds of 90 mph • Agricultural Impact – “Ham radio operators reported on Bahamian radio that several farms on Long Island were severely damaged.” • Infrastructural Impact – “There was little news from the sparsely-inhabited Out Islands struck by Kate Monday. Officials feared the mostly-wooden buildings on Great Inagua and Crooked Island may have suffered great damage.” – “E.R. Hanna, a contractor on Acklins Island, told ZNS television news by radio telephone that the roof of the post office blew off in that small Bahamian island. Other than that, Kate only brought ``lots of rain and wind.``”
  16. 16. Tropical Storm Floyd (1987) • 6th named tropical cyclone in the region and third hurricane – The first October hurricane to hit Florida in 19 years • Developed from a broad area of low pressure over the Gulf of Honduras • Timeline – 9th October – Low pressure system becomes more organized, upgraded to a tropical depression – 10th October – Upper level ridge over eastern Caribbean changes the direction of the depression from a southeastern drift to a northern bearing, strengthens into a tropical storm – 11th October – Low level trough situated over the Gulf of Mexico steers TS Floyd to Western tip of Cuba – 12th October – Upgraded to hurricane status, approaching trough from the northwest causes warm moist inflow to storm to be replaced by cool dry air stationary front across central Florida, storm steered east – 12th October (p.m.) – Passes east of Florida Cays and south of Miami as a weakening system due to the disruption of deep convective clouds near the eye. Disorganized system downgraded back to TS status – October 13th – TS Floyd moves Northeast of Northern Bahamas, near the northern tip of Abaco and south of Grand Bahama
  17. 17. Track of Tropical Storm Floyd
  18. 18. Impacts of Tropical Storm Floyd • Highest gusts at 48 mph, sustained winds of 40 mph in Freeport, Grand Bahama. – Caused infrastructural damage to the Freeport International Airport’s roof – Tourism and Infrastructural impact minimal Financial impact – minimal (roof repairs)
  19. 19. Synopsis of Report • Out of 66 named storms between the period of 1981-1988, only 12 tropical cyclones made landfall in the Bahamas’ archipelagic chain • Out of the 12, only four storms were reported to have contributed significant/ noteworthy damage to the country. – Inactive years during the Atlantic hurricane season, with the exception of 1987, did not contribute any storms that made any significant damage – Active years, with the exception of 1988, contributed cyclonic activity that impacted the Bahamas • Out of the 4 named cyclones which made an impact on sectors of the country: – Only one storm (Floyd 1987) exclusively affected the North Western Bahamas – Three Storms (Katrina 1981, Isidore 1984 and Kate 1985) affected the southeastern Bahamas – Tropical Storm Isidore was the sole hurricane that swept through the archipelagic chain and affected the capital. • None of the 4 named cyclones originated from the traditional trajectory of the South African Basin and originated in the Caribbean Sea or the Gulf of Mexico • The damages, in comparison to past and future storms were minimal, only tremendously affecting the agricultural livelihood of subsistence and commercial farmers in Long Island over a prolonged period (months compared to a few days) • There were no reported loss of life during this period
  20. 20. References • Bahamas Meteorological Department: “Tropical Cyclones Which Affected The Bahamas”. ©2015 http://www.bahamasweather.org.bs/index.php?page=storm-history • Carribbbean Hurricane Network :“Climatology of Caribbean Hurricanes – Bahamas and Turks and Caicos” © 2011 http://stormcarib.com/climatology/BHMS_all_car.htm • Chase, R.H: “Annual Summary-Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1985”, Volume 114, National Hurricane Center, NWS NOAA, Miami Florida. July 1986 http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/mwr_pdf/1985.pdf • Chase, R.H et. al.: “Annual Summary-Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1987”,National Hurricane Center, NWS NOAA, Miami Florida; April 1988: http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/mwr_pdf/1987.pdf • Holland, G.J. (1993): "Ready Reckoner" - Chapter 9, Global Guide to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting, WMO/TC- No. 560, Report No. TCP-31, World Meteorological Organization; Geneva, Switzerland http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/tcfaqREF.html#H • Lawrence, M.B. et al: “Annual Summary – Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1981”, Volume 110, National Hurricane Center, NWS NOAA, Coral Gables Florida. July 1982 http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/mwr_pdf/1981.pdf • Lawrence, M.B. et. al.: “Annual Summary – Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1984” Volume 113, National Hurricane Center, NWS NOAA, Miami Florida. July 1985 http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/mwr_pdf/1984.pdf • Nevins, B. “Nassau Tourists Annoyed By Storm” Sun Sentinel” November 19th, 1985. http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1985-11-19/news/8502210938_1_waite-nassau-tourist • Staff Writer (1987-10-14). "Floyd Nicks Bahamas, Fades Into Oblivion". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2009-07-03. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Floyd_(1987)#cite_note-News2-13 • Staff Writer (September 27, 1984). "Storm Isidore Soaks Nassau, Heads Towards Florida's Coast". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 2009-06-05. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_Storm_Isidore_(1984)#cite_note-12 • Staff Writer (November 10, 1981). "Katrina fizzles out after destructive run". Syracuse Herald-Journal. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurricane_Katrina_(1981)#cite_note-NEWS3-15

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