HIT forEnduranceTrainingGive your clientstheir lives backCharlie Hoolihan,CSCS
CAVEAT AUDIENS!! The author of this presentation is a sprinter. BUT he has done the Hawaii Ironman, severalhalf Ironmans and marathons. The author of this presentation is a shortattention span coach, athlete andresearcher. BUT it makes him want to do something otherthan watch or participate in hours of mindnumbing workouts. It also makes him want toresearch reviews rather than single studies. The author is an English major. BUT swim coach since 1974, CSCS 2002. Trainedage success age group triathletes, runners andmasters swimmers.
Standard Endurance practice Long slow distance at sub sub maximalefforts to build an “aerobic base” and“aerobic fitness” then tune the anaerobicsystem with two to three weeks of fast stuffbefore a peak event.
Keys to endurance Maximum oxygen uptake by thecardiovascular oxygen transport system. Cardiac output and the ability to achieve alarge stroke volume. The systemic distribution of blood to themuscles. which is improved in two waysthrough training: Increasing capillarizaton of the muscles increasing the efficiency of the blood transportin the arteries and capillaries. Muscle Endurance Economy of movement Lactate Threshold(Lactate.com (2013) Steele (2012)
Early Expert Questions- Astrand“It is an important but unsolved question whichtype of training is most effective: to maintain alevel representing 90 % of the maximal oxygenuptake for 40 min, or to tax 100 % of the oxygenuptake capacity for about 16 min.”Textbook of Work Physiology, Åstrand andRodahl (1986)
Costill„„It is difficult to understand how training atspeeds that are markedly slower thancompetitive pace for 3–4 h/day will prepare(an athlete) for the supramaximal efforts ofcompetition.‟‟ Costill (1991)
Two optionsStrong, fast and powerful Long, slow and tired
Can we Bend the curves?Laursen et al 2010Train the anaerobic systemsand tune the aerobic. Find the “threshold”for different distances and interval workouts.
Why not? The anaerobic system contributes to thedevelopment most of the components ofthe aerobic system. The main arguments for long slowdistance vs. HIT training have to do withdeclining aerobic fitness. Perhaps this is either individual or we justhaven‟t had the right studies Or coaches and individuals who haventyet can figure out the right %
What‟s the difference? Runners divided into HIT and HVT groupshad the same relative improvement intheir 10K times Swimmers divided similarly had the samerelative improvements in events between100 and 400 meters. Research consistently shows similar if notsuperior gains in aerobic capacity(Laursen et al 2010)
Athletic improvements w HITLaursen et al 2010 Improved performance with parallelphysiological improvements in Ventilatory and lacate thresholds Engagement of greater muscle mass. Increased fat oxidation relative tocarbohydrate utilization. Increased muscle buffering capacity
Wingate cycling intervalsGibala et al 2012 Increased skeletal muscle oxidative capacityand content of mitochondrial enzymes Increased resting glycogen content a reduced rate of glycogen utilization Reduced lactate production duringmatched-work exercise Increased capacity for muscle lipid oxidation. Enhanced peripheral vascularstructure and function.All with 60-90% decrease in exercise timecommitments
But Wait there‟s more…..! Improved exercise performance asmeasured by time-to-exhaustion tests ortime trials Increased maximal oxygen uptake Increases compliance in peripheralarteries Increases the value of your 401K Order now and it will improve yourdancing skills!
HIT stimulates mitochondrialgrowth via complexinteractions
Two stimuli for the same switch?RepeatedHigh IntensityContractions??
Resistance training to failure =Acute CV Improvements (Steele, 2012)Improved lactate metabolismIncreased AMPKImproved aerobic glycolisisIncreased motor recruitment
Chronic responses – Steele 2012•Improved VO2 max*•Upregulation of mitochondrial enzymes•Increased mitochondrial proliferation•Increased capillarizaton and other vascularimprovements.•Conversion towards type IIa phenotypes
Resistance training to muscle failure(Mikkola et al. 2006)20% of endurance volume replaced by strength and powertraining with no loss of aerobic capacity. Lactate:velocityimproved slightly in experimental group
Maybe we can change aprogramming paradigm! Most individuals in endurance events aredoing this to become healthier. Most are middle of the pack. At some point most feel the time crunch oftraining for long events. These are your prime candidates. There are elite athletes who are already doingsome version of this. This is also a good model for fast twitch fieldathlete “aerobic” training. RSA – RepeatedSprint Ability.
Time Eliminating hours of long submaximal distancetraining will provide more time for Family Other responsibilities Recovery and rejuvenationstrategies Sleep Improvement of technique
Genetics:Some people are Kenyanssome are Jamaicans• More than 50% of the peoplein the US have a higher % offast twitch fibers.• In a cardiovascular trainingstudy improvements in VO2max ranged from 0-1000%• In a strength training studyhypertrophy improvementsranged from 0-54%
Enjoyment Continuous cardio is not pleasant forsome (most?). Something to look forward during asession. Goal setting is more manageable andflexible.
Health Catabolic vs. anabolic hormones. Inflammatory conditions begin somewherebetween 60-90 minutes. Illness and Injury Research indicates too much continuousexercise has a negative health association.Heart attacks and marathons
Joint Integrity Most individuals have jointdysfunctions. Continuous exercise tophysical and mental fatigueattacks areas of dysfunction. Strength sessions can improvethe integrity of joints andcreate more stability. Training at higher butcontrolled tempos withmindful technical proficiencyincreases joint stabilization. Bring all the muscles to theparty!
Training programmingGoal and workoutmodality IntensityWorkout duration VolumePerformance
Assessments before Thirty min. aerobic assessments w pace to HR ratio. Resting or ambient heart rate. Heart Rate Variability – Joel Jamisson RPE Reactive tests. Tap test. Vertical jump or split jumps. Agility tests. Exercise Intensity Readiness Inventory. Selective ROMs
Exercise Intensity ReadinessInventory Are you sleeping 7-9 hours per day Are you eating a diet rich in anti-inflammatoryfoods Are your joints pain free at rest and activitieis. Do you generally feel relaxed and energetic. Has your exercise load remained constant forthe past 2-4 weeks. Do you feel like your body is handling thecurrent load well and can increase intenisity Are you allergy or illness free.
EIRI continued Are you relationships at home positive Do you have a generally positive self image. Are your relationships at work positive Do you enjoy most aspects of your work, homeduties and repsonsibilities Has your employment and/or domestic workloadremained constant for the last six weeks. Have you had minimal life changes for the pastthree to six months Has your resting or ambient pulse been consistentfor two to four weeks. If you are under 40 put 1, between 40-50 put 2 andover 60 – 3.
Transforming training: Veterans Begin reorganizing training schedule a few weeksat a time Swap out a session or two Encourage quality above all else. Avoid going long every weekend day and evenevery weekend. Some just go long for the sake of going long. Transfer obsessive compulsions from mileage todata. Post- injury - more receptive. It‟s all about getting faster with a better quality oflife.
Transforming trainingperceptions - Rookies Find a starting point. Galloway‟s Walk/Run/Walk programming 20 to 60 minute sessions 4 or 5 times perweek. Its all about fitness and a better quality oflife. HIT has been proven to be more effectivethat LSD in improving cardiovascular andmetabolic systems.
Sub 9-hour Ironman2.4 Swim 60 min/112 bike 25 mph/26.2 run < 7 min mile avgMonday Tuesday WednesdayThursday Friday Saturday SundayRest oreasyswim60-90min ofbikeintervals60-70 minof runintervals60-90min ofbikeintervalsEZswimor run4-5 hoursof easycyclingw familyRun 90min wintervalsSamiinkin.com
Carmichael Century RidesMonday Tuesday WednesdayThursday Friday Saturday SundayRest day 75-90min wlongintervalsRest Day 75-90min wshort tomedintervalsRestDay90 -120min wmed tolongintervals90 min120 minendurancerideChris Carmichael,Time Challenged Cyclist, 2012)
Run Less, Run Fasteravg time improvements 15 min on marathonsMonday Tuesday Weds Thursday Friday Sat. SundayCrossTrain40-60min wlongintervalsfasterthan 5KCrossTrain40-60 minrun w 20-40 at 5KracepaceCrosstrainor RestDayCrosstrain orrest day90 min – 480min @ 30 secslower thanmarathonpacePierce, Murr and MossRun Less, Run Faster (2007)
Purple Patch People - SF Coached by Matt Dixon, mostly 60-90 min.cycle indoors and train at high intensity Tyler Stewart – holds record of fastest bike atIronman. Meredith Kessler – top female half and fullIronman competitor. Only 10 outdoor rides of 4 hrs or more beforeIronman. Matt Fitzgerald – “(High intensity trainingprovides) adequate endurance withoutdoing so at the expense of pure power andhas minimal risk of burning out or wastingtime.”
Triple energy systemsIntervals•Intensivechallenges to toimprovephysiology•Short time efficientworkouts•Intensity withtechnique•20-40 minTempo•Maximize andsustain thephysiologicalimprovement•Increasedperformancetechnique•Supra race pace.•Lactate thresholdtolerance•30-60 minEndurance•Psychology•Recovery•Recreation•Race pace to anextent•30-180 + min•Confidence•Experience•Goal of sessionEliminates the first and fifth “zones” of the classic model
Triple energy systems RPEIntervals• Desperate “sprint”breathing. > 30-40 +BrPM.•Challenges bodyfrom the first effort.•Muscle discomfort theentire interval.•Rest> workTempo•Breathing ratesincrease based onintensity frequencyand duration ofintervals. 20-40 BrPM.•Steady but intensepace that challengesthe body by themiddle of distance orset.•Muscle discomfortthat increasessignificantly over thecourse of the set.•Work > restEndurance•Long controlledbreathing. <20 BrPM•Steady pace•HR that increasesslightly over thecourse of thedistance.•Muscle discomfortthat increasesslightly over thedistance•All this pending goalof session
Workout and Interval variants Start with everything divided into 30-60min work blocks depending on ability andrace goal. Start with a 4-6 day workout cycledepending on goal. Start with workouts that can serve asassessments of progress in 4 to 6 weeks. Build on this pattern with week by weekprogressions. The goal is to get faster over distances.
Sample workout variations Endurance – 30 to 90 minutes at a specific pacewith a specific goal – race pace, recovery, mentalhealth. Tempo – 20 min. 5 min warm-up, then increasepace to focused breathing for 5 min. Thenincrease again to medium breathing for 5 minutes.Then increase pace for 1 to 5 minutes at fast,labored sprint breathing. Note last two 5 minutepaces. Interval – 5 min. warm-up, 1:00 slightly below finalpace from above, 1:30 recovery, 1:00 at pacefrom above, 1:30, 1:00 min at 10% above pace,1:30 recovery etc etc for a total of 20-30 min. See Time Challenged Cyclist or Run Faster Run lessfor other ideas and more detailed periodizationschemes.
Find a baseline reference Average pace, watts held over a 30 to 60minute sustained effort. Race pace from vets. Then build their intervals around this average. Newcomers do 30 min but start out at warm-up pace and increase effort each 10 minblock. Veterans may have a better tune for paceand RPE but should be conservative tillhalfway mark. DIGNITY! Burgomeister – 2:00 @ 50 watts Wup; 2:00@100; 2:00 @ 150; 2:00 @ 175; 2:00 @200 then25 watt increases each minute to failure
Stress/recovery cycleTwo to three month periodization cycle throughout the year with 3 to4 week blocks heading to the top of the curve then 1 week recovery.At the end of the training period – 4 to 6 weeks low intensity.
Combine modalities in oneworkout where possible Bike to run Weights before run-bike-swim-row-ski Swim to bike Anything to myofacial release/flexibilitysessions. Always practice technique drills.
Technique POS, CHI, Natural running and sprinttechnique drills. Walk/Run/Walk – Galloway Total Immersion – Laughlin Bill Boomer concepts Cycling cadence mechanics –Carmichael. Fatigue and training to technical failure. Only financial reward or saving a life isworth working beyond technical failure.
Technique and HIT runningintervals Most high intensity research is conductedon bicycles. Efforts up to 170% VO2 max. Personal concern that runners especiallyamateur runners should not do this. Running injuries occur at start anddeceleration of a sprint. Controlled sprint technique on soft surface. Increase speed gradually to a technicallycorrect sprint that feels strong and controlled.
Gunnarson (2012) 18 recreational runners – Interval groupand control group. 7 weeks. Interval group reduced volume by 54%while control maintained. 3 to 5 rounds of a 5 min set consisting of 30sec of running at 30%, 20 sec at 60% and10 sec at 90%. (Fast twitch field athletes) Interval group improved VO2 max 4% and1500 meter and 5000 meter times 21 and48 seconds respectively over controls.
Recovery patternsCarmichael 2012Endurance Tempo IntervalsLow intensity – 12hoursLactate thresholdfor 15-45 min – 24hrs10-20 min abovethreshold – 24-36hrsHigher intensity –24 hrsLonger efforts –24-36Longer efforts36 -48 hours
Recovery by perception Training by feel – Fitzgerald Rhythm and elasticity if you feel good. Central Governor Theory – Noakes Brain generated sensations of fatigue placea moveable limit on performance. When in doubt rest. This may be therecovery week. Rest is an investment in the future. VO2max‟s vary
Assessments During HIT Thirty min. aerobic assessments w pace to HR ratio. Resting or ambient heart rate. Heart Rate Variability RPE Reactive tests. Tap test. Vertical jump or split jumps. Agility tests. Positive sensory feel during workouts. Exercise Intensity Readiness Inventory. Selective ROMs Aches pains and energy after workouts This is supposed to be good for you
What about overtraining? Just like LSD to excess, there is a danger ofovertraining in HIT but my guess is the risk isno greater for either. LSD are usually in group sessions and endup becoming competitive events whichfoment overtraining. Just like LSD, it is critical to monitor vitalsigns before increasing intensity levels. Ten percent rule.
Overtraining/overreachingStage 1: Functional Overtraining Fine line between optimal preparedness and thebeginning of overtraining May include a seemingly minor plateau or slightregression in training performance most easilyobserved when measuring heart rate vs. pace on a30 min. max aerobic effort. Sometimes accompanied by a sudden or dramaticimprovement in competitive performance. may be due to an abnormal overactive sympatheticnervous system. Followed by a physical injury which may mark the startof the second stage of overtraining.(Maffetone 2007)
Overtraining/overtrainingStage 2: Systemic Overtraining As overtraining progresses, imbalance betweenaerobic and anaerobic worsens. the sympathetic part of the nervous systembecomes overactive resulting in the classic signof an increased resting heart rate.
Overtraining/overtrainingStage 2: Systemic Overtraining Common in athletes training speed and power toexcess, train too often AND have contributinginflammatory lifestyle stressors. Poor sleep and nutrition patterns Mental and emotional stressors (work, financial,relationships) Joint issues (Maffetone 2007)
Overtraining/Trainingover Serious hormonal, neurological and mechanicalimbalances and adrenal dysfunction and aerobicdeficiencies.(Maffetone 2007)
J. Jamison: 8 weeks out (MMA)Junior dos Passos – 2 hrs twice per day to 75 min twice per day
Inflammation management Sleep. Anti-inflammatory foods. Workout recovery nutrition Joint alignment and flexibility techniques. Emotional and mental stressmanagement techniques. Workout intensity – 20-30 min of HIT or < 60– 90 min of ET.
Burgomeister, Gibala et al.2005 Two weeks of training – six sessions Four to seven 30 second sprints with 4minutes rest. Improved Resting muscle glycogen Citrate synthase production Endurance ride at 80% VO2max to failureby 81-169% 25 min average to a 50 min average
Tabata (Kouichi Irisawa ) andHIT 5 days per week, 60 min@70% VO2max vs 4 daysper week 3-4 min of 20/10sec Improved VO2 max 7 mlvs 5 ml for sustainedaerobics. Improved anaerobicpower 28% vs 0 % Small subject N=7 Speed skaters for eventslasting < 2 min.
Mikkola (2007) and Esteve-Lanao (2008) Mikkola replaced 20% of running volumewith plyometrics and drills in distancerunners with no falloff of eventperformance as compared to runningonly group. Lactate curve moved a bitmore than controls. Esteve-Lanao showed that a periodizedstrength training program preventedstride length decrements over the seasonas compared to non-periodized or controlstrength training
It‟s possible, just takes a littleleap of faith based on science email@example.com Charlie Hoolihan on FB. Slideshare.net