The California Central Valley  Groundwater-Surface Water       Simulation Model     Surface Water Processes          CWEMF...
OutlineIWFM Surface Water Process  Stream Reach BudgetIWFM Small-Stream Watersheds Process  Small Watersheds BudgetC2VSim ...
IWFM Surface Water Process
Surface Water Process                         Inflow                             DiversionsRunoff                        R...
IWFM
Stream Flow and Stream-Aquifer            Interaction• Assumption of zero storage at  a stream node in computing  stream f...
Stream Flow•   Assumption of zero storage at a stream node                      Qs − Qsin + Qsout =                       ...
Stream-Groundwater Interaction                                                                    K        Qsint = m...
Stream Diversions• Used to meet agricultural         Non-recoverable  and urban water demands                Loss         ...
Lake-Groundwater Interaction•   One or more elements can be specified    as lake elements•   Lakes are fully coupled with ...
Lake-Groundwater Interaction                                                               K      Qlkint = lk max ( hlk ,...
InflowsMonthly at 38 locations
Inflows File
Inflows FileSacramento River
DiversionsMonthly at 246 locations
Surface Water Diversions• Diversions and imports  – “Diversions” means water taken from a    simulated river node, subject...
Surface Water Imports• Friant-Kern Canal  – Release water from Millerton Lake to canal  – Deliveries to contractors along ...
Surface Water Imports• Friant-Kern Canal deliveries simulated as:  – Imports to individual subregions  – Separate diversio...
Surface Water Exports & Imports• California Aqueduct  – Pump water from Delta to San Luis Reservoir    (outside model area...
Diversion Specification    Diversion source and destination                                       Source River Node       ...
Diversion Specification   Recharge area for recoverable losses
Bypasses• Flood control• Kings River bifurcation• ASR programs
Bypass Specification  Source and destination river nodes
Bypass Specification  Recharge area for recoverable losses
River Parameters
Lake Parameters
Stream Reach BudgetColumn                      Flow   08/31/2004 ProcessUpstream Inflow (+)          IN          2,944Down...
Lake BudgetColumn                          Flow   08/31/2004 ProcessBeginning Storage (+)                      63,418Endin...
Diversions & Imports
Surface Water Destinations
Surface Water Destinations   1922-1929      1960-1969   2000-2009
IWFM Small WatershedsEvapotranspiration   Precipitation                     Notes                                 Surface ...
Small-Stream Watersheds• Calculate monthly ungaged surface water  inflows and groundwater inflows• Areas and flow channels...
Small-Stream Watersheds
Small-Stream Watersheds
Small-Stream Watersheds     Eliminate the gaged watershed
Small-Stream Watersheds    These are the ungaged watersheds
Small-Stream Watersheds       Overland flow paths
Small Watersheds
Small Watershed Parameters
Small Watershed BudgetColumn                            Flow   08/31/2004 ProcessTotal SW Outflow                  OUT    ...
Small-Watershed Inflows
Small Watershed Inflows
END
C2VSim Workshop 5 - C2VSim Surface Water Representation
C2VSim Workshop 5 - C2VSim Surface Water Representation
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C2VSim Workshop 5 - C2VSim Surface Water Representation

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The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model (C2VSim) simulates the monthly response of the Central Valley’s groundwater and surface water flow system to historical stresses, and can also be used to simulate the response to projected future stresses. C2VSim contains monthly historical stream inflows, surface water diversions, precipitation, land use and crop acreages from October 1921 through September 2009. The model dynamically calculates crop water demands, allocates contributions from precipitation, soil moisture and surface water diversions, and calculates the groundwater pumpage required to meet the remaining demand.

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C2VSim Workshop 5 - C2VSim Surface Water Representation

  1. 1. The California Central Valley Groundwater-Surface Water Simulation Model Surface Water Processes CWEMF C2VSim Workshop January 23, 2013 Charles Brush Modeling Support Branch, Bay-Delta OfficeCalifornia Department of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA
  2. 2. OutlineIWFM Surface Water Process Stream Reach BudgetIWFM Small-Stream Watersheds Process Small Watersheds BudgetC2VSim Results
  3. 3. IWFM Surface Water Process
  4. 4. Surface Water Process Inflow DiversionsRunoff Return Flows Groundwater Outflow
  5. 5. IWFM
  6. 6. Stream Flow and Stream-Aquifer Interaction• Assumption of zero storage at a stream node in computing stream flows; i.e. total inflow equals total outflow• Fully coupled stream and groundwater conservation equations• Simultaneous solution of stream and groundwater equations results in the computation of stream-aquifer interaction
  7. 7. Stream Flow• Assumption of zero storage at a stream node Qs − Qsin + Qsout = 0 Qs = stream flow, (L3/T) Qsin = inflows into stream (flow from upstream nodes, return flow, rainfall runoff, tributary inflows, tile drain, lake outflow, bypass, user specified flows), (L3/T) Qsout = outflows from stream (diversions, bypass flows, stream- aquifer interaction), (L3/T)• Assumption requires simulation time step to be large enough for stream flow to travel from upstream to downstream in a single time step
  8. 8. Stream-Groundwater Interaction      K Qsint = max hs,h − max h,h C  s   b    b    ; Cs =s LW       ds Qsint =stream-aquifer interaction, (L3/T) stream groundwater surface h = groundwater head, (L) table hs = stream surface elevation, (L) ds hb = stream bottom elevation, (L) W Ks = stream bed hydraulic h hb hs conductivity, (L/T) ds = stream bed thickness, (L) datum L = length of stream segment, (L) W = channel width, (L)
  9. 9. Stream Diversions• Used to meet agricultural Non-recoverable and urban water demands Loss Diversion• User-specified fractions of Delivery diversion become recoverable (recharge to groundwater) and non- Stream recoverable (evaporation) Recoverable losses Loss• May be used to simulate spreading basins (100% recoverable and non- Groundwater recoverable losses)
  10. 10. Lake-Groundwater Interaction• One or more elements can be specified as lake elements• Lakes are fully coupled with groundwater• Lake storage is a function of precipitation, evaporation, inflows, lake- aquifer interaction and lake outflow ∆Slk − Qlkin + Qlkout = 0 ∆t∆Slk = change in lake storage, (L3)Qlkin = lake inflow (precipitation, inflows from streams and upstream lakes), (L3/T)Qlkout = lake outflow (evaporation, lake spill, lake-aquifer interaction), (L3/T)
  11. 11. Lake-Groundwater Interaction K Qlkint = lk max ( hlk ,hblk ) − max ( h,hblk )  ; Clk = lk Alk C   dlk Qlkint =lake-aquifer interaction, (L3/T) lake surface h = groundwater head, (L) hlk = lake surface elevation, (L) hblk = lake bottom elevation, (L) d lk i hlkmax Klk = lake bed hydraulic conductivity, hlk h blk i (L/T) dlk = lake bed thickness, (L) datum Alk = area of lake, (L)• Lake outflow is computed when lake surface elevation exceeds maximum lake elevation• Lake outflow can be directed to a stream node or a downstream lake
  12. 12. InflowsMonthly at 38 locations
  13. 13. Inflows File
  14. 14. Inflows FileSacramento River
  15. 15. DiversionsMonthly at 246 locations
  16. 16. Surface Water Diversions• Diversions and imports – “Diversions” means water taken from a simulated river node, subject to availability – “Imports” generally means water taken from a source that is not modeled • Reservoirs outside the model area serving canals • Reservoirs inside the model area that are not modeled (for example Black Butte and Camanche) • Complex delivery systems (California Aqueduct)
  17. 17. Surface Water Imports• Friant-Kern Canal – Release water from Millerton Lake to canal – Deliveries to contractors along canal – Wasteway flows to river beds for delivery to down-stream customers – Flows to Kern River
  18. 18. Surface Water Imports• Friant-Kern Canal deliveries simulated as: – Imports to individual subregions – Separate diversions for • Agricultural • Urban • Refuges • Spreading (Aquifer Storage) – Diversions to some districts via river channels • Inflow “FKC Wasteway Deliveries to Tule River” • Diversion from river
  19. 19. Surface Water Exports & Imports• California Aqueduct – Pump water from Delta to San Luis Reservoir (outside model area) – Release water from San Luis Reservoir for use inside model area – Release water from San Luis Reservoir for use outside model area• Simulated as exports and imports – Too complex to incorporate in a regional model
  20. 20. Diversion Specification Diversion source and destination Source River Node (0 = import) Allocation to losses and delivery Destination subregion Land use (23 = Ag, 22 = urban)
  21. 21. Diversion Specification Recharge area for recoverable losses
  22. 22. Bypasses• Flood control• Kings River bifurcation• ASR programs
  23. 23. Bypass Specification Source and destination river nodes
  24. 24. Bypass Specification Recharge area for recoverable losses
  25. 25. River Parameters
  26. 26. Lake Parameters
  27. 27. Stream Reach BudgetColumn Flow 08/31/2004 ProcessUpstream Inflow (+) IN 2,944Downstream Outflow (-) OUT 781Tributary Inflow (+) IN 0 SWSTile Drain (+) IN 0 GWRunoff (+) IN 0 LSReturn Flow (+) IN 2 LSGain from Groundwater (+) +/- -1,593 GWGain from Lake (+) +/- 0Diversion (-) OUT 0 LSBy-pass Flow (-) OUT 573Discrepancy (=) 0.00Diversion Shortage 0
  28. 28. Lake BudgetColumn Flow 08/31/2004 ProcessBeginning Storage (+) 63,418Ending Storage (-) 51,052Flow from Upstream Lake (+) IN 0Flow from By-passes (+) IN 799Precipitation (+) IN 0Gain from Groundwater (+) +/- 1,939 GWLake Evaporation (-) OUT 15,104Lake Outflow (-) OUT 0Discrepancy (=) 0.30Lake Surface Elevation (FEET) 185
  29. 29. Diversions & Imports
  30. 30. Surface Water Destinations
  31. 31. Surface Water Destinations 1922-1929 1960-1969 2000-2009
  32. 32. IWFM Small WatershedsEvapotranspiration Precipitation Notes Surface Water Groundwater
  33. 33. Small-Stream Watersheds• Calculate monthly ungaged surface water inflows and groundwater inflows• Areas and flow channels from CalWater watershed coverage• Grouped with nearest boundary node• Resulted in 210 small-stream watersheds• Approximately 5% of surface water inflow
  34. 34. Small-Stream Watersheds
  35. 35. Small-Stream Watersheds
  36. 36. Small-Stream Watersheds Eliminate the gaged watershed
  37. 37. Small-Stream Watersheds These are the ungaged watersheds
  38. 38. Small-Stream Watersheds Overland flow paths
  39. 39. Small Watersheds
  40. 40. Small Watershed Parameters
  41. 41. Small Watershed BudgetColumn Flow 08/31/2004 ProcessTotal SW Outflow OUT 6,049GW Base Outflow OUT 90,386Base Flow + Surface Percolation OUT 90,456Net Surface Outflow to Streams OUT 5,979
  42. 42. Small-Watershed Inflows
  43. 43. Small Watershed Inflows
  44. 44. END

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