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The Everyday Life of Jeepney
Drivers in Iligan City and their
perspectives toward Jeepney
Modernization Program
Presenters:
Charlie D.Agravante Jr.
Rosemarie Toyco Flor
Ruelyn Queen Jumawan Ragasi
Most studies reviewed focused mainly on jeepney background, contracts,
operations and values. One study that was conducted by C. Dominik Güss and Ma.
Teresa G. Tuason (2008) ‘jeepneys : values in the streets’, where we could identify
the daily life of the jeepney drivers.
Jeepney is used as a tool for livelihood of one of the marginalized sectors in our
society and they explained the daily life of jeepney drivers consist of their problems
at work, their goals, wishes and dreams. In our present times, modernization is at a
fast pace but how the jeepney drivers understand this program which could affect
their daily lives?
Rationale
This study aimed to examine the every day life of Jeepney drivers
in Iligan City.
The socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age,
address, educational attainment, mode of operations and years as a
Jeepney driver.
The views of Jeepney drivers such as young adult, middle-age, and
late-adulthood on Jeepney modernization program through their life
stories and how they perceived advantages and disadvantages, and
circumstances that disapprove phasing-out, and how the respondents
understand the government financial institutions and interventions.
Statement of the ProblemStatement of the Problem
This research aimed to examine the following statements:
• To identify the socio-demographic profile of the respondents
• To determine the views of different age-groups of Jeepney drivers
toward modernization through their life stories
• To explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the
implementing Jeepney modernization program to the respondents.
Objectives of the StudyObjectives of the Study
This research aimed to examine the following statements:
• To determine the circumstances that make respondents disapprove of
phasing out old Jeepneys.
• To explain how the respondents understand the government financial
institutions and interventions.
Objectives of the StudyObjectives of the Study
This study reinforced one of the theories on
Sociology of everyday life, particularly,
Habermas’ Lebenswelt or lifeworld
Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework
Habermas (1987[1981]) recognizes that in practice the lifeworld
increasingly surrenders to regulation in which private life, the family,
and intimate relations are distorted by rules imposed by the expanding
power of bureaucracy, the influence of corporate capitalism and mass
consumption.
Particularly on the notion of the jeepney modernization program
that was imposed by the power of bureaucracy, and influence by
capitalism and mass consumption distorting the private life such as the
problems of the jeepney drivers in their daily life, and the financial
problems towards their family that belong to intimate relations.
Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework
1.) Socio-demographic profile of the selected Jeepney drivers
– this refers to the information about the personal background of the
respondents in terms of name, age, educational attainment, mode of
operations and years of driving as a Jeepney driver.
2.) Young Adulthood
– According to Boeree (2006) it refers to those whose ages is in the 18-
30years or in the 20’s based on the chart adapted from Erikson’s 1959
Identity and Life Cycle. In terms of behavior, they achieve some
degree of intimacy, as opposed to remaining in isolation.
Operational Definition
3.) Middle Adulthood
- According to Boeree (2006) refers to those whose ages range from
somewhere between the (25) middle twenties and the (50) late fifties
based on Erikson’s stages of pyschosocial development. In terms of
behavior, this is the period during which we are actively involved in
raising children.
4.) Late Adulthood
- According to Boeree (2006) refers to the last stage or maturity, it
begins sometime around retirement, somewhere around 60, Erikson’s
stages of pyschosocial development. In terms of behavior, they
develop ego integrity with a minimal amount of despair.
Operational Definition
4.) Late Adulthood
- According to Boeree (2006) refers to the last stage or maturity, it
begins sometime around retirement, somewhere around 60, Erikson’s
stages of pyschosocial development. In terms of behavior, they
develop ego integrity with a minimal amount of despair.
5.) Jeepney Modernization Program
- According to Merueñas (2016) , the DOTC or Department of
Transportation and Communication, they proposed the jeepney
modernization program which is the plan to modernize the country’s
public transport system by phasing out old jeepneys (15 years old
above age of manufacured)
Operational Definition
6.) Advantages and Disadvantages of modernization to jeepneys
- this measures the benefits and negative results which respondents
perceive to have experience in modernization to jeepneys
7.) Problems encountered in Jeepney modernization
– refers to the troubles or harm that respondents perceive to have
encountered in modernization to jeepneys
Operational Definition
8.) Government initiatives
- this refers to the government program or policies to support the
economic burden of the jeepney drivers towards modernization
Operational Definition
• Research Design
This study used qualitative in nature as it employs the life history
research method for gathering and analyzing data from the
respondents.
Particular in sociology, life story interviews has been taught as a
method for capturing people’s own perceptions of their lives (Goodson
and Sikes, 2001).
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Research Locale
This study was conducted in the city of Iligan (Filipino: Lungsod ng
Iligan) is a highly urbanized city in the Northern Mindanao region,
Philippines.
One of the researchers had a close neighbour who was a former
president of Upper Hinaplanon Drivers Association and a Jeepney driver
who is one of our key informant in understanding the Jeepney
modernization program.
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Respondents
This study selected a total of nine (9) Jeepney drivers such as three
(3) young adult, three (3) middle-age, three (3) elderly.
• Sampling Selection and Technique
The sample was selected by purposive sampling method with a
criteria of more than 5 years as a Jeepney driver and they will be
interviewed through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and in-depth
individual interview
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Data Analysis Instrument
In gathering data, the researchers used Focus Group Discussion
(FGD) , individual interviews and an in-depth interview guide mainly
consists of open-ended questions translated into Cebuano language.
Probing and follow-up questions was raised to clarify answers that
either vague or incomplete.
Master Record Notebook compiled all the relevant information about
the respondents
Audio Recording was used to record and transcribe the statements of
most of the respondents
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Data Analysis Techniques
This study used master record to store the information that was
gathered through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and individual
interviews.
Content Analysis was used for qualitative data derived through open-
ended questions.
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Research Ethics
The respondents was asked individually about their socio-
demographic profile, their views on Jeepney modernization. As a
gesture of courtesy and at the same time to observe professional
research ethics and to make full cooperation, the actual data gathering
from the respondents was conducted after their available time and
consent.
FGD (Focus Group Discussions) and individual interviews was done
by the researchers in places convenient to the respondents inside the
parameters of Iligan City.
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Experiences in the Field
It was on October 17 - November 11, 2017, when the researchers
have the determination to finish gathering the necessary data for this
thesis.
We went Hinaplanon to interview one of our respondents very close to
the one researcher. Furthermore, we went to Kiwalan interview again
the drivers.
When researchers finish the data they gathered, we experience a nice
feeling because our respondents were very approachable, respectful
and helpful.
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
• Experiences in the Field
They even called co-drivers just to complete our number of respondents
to be interviewed. As the interview went on, we felt some genuine
heartaches feeling of disagreeing this so called JMP or phase out of
Jeepney. We can feel the sadness of every words they said, the tone of
their voice asking for justice and they even hoped us to bring this issue
that the bottom’s concerns must be heard first before implementing
any other policy.
Chapter 3 (Methodology)
oThe Jeepney drivers were selected based on criteria of more than 5
years of experience as PUJ drivers.
oThe following age-groups such as the elderly-age ranges from 50 to
more than 60 years old and the middle-age ranges from 30-50 years
old and the young-adult ranges from 18-30 years old.
Chapter 4
(PRESENTATION OF LIFE STORY NARRATIVES)
3 late adulthood represents:
•Peter Abad Lazarte (62 years old);
• Fredericko B. Nacua (60 years old) and ;
• Max Managing (52 years old)
3 middle adulthood represents:
•Michael Mugawan (37 years old);
•Freddie Dejaresco (47 years old) and;
•Isidro Velasquez (46 years old)
Respondents
3 young adulthood represents:
•Denis Acas (26 years old)
•Junrey Diliman (30 years old)
•Reden Serina (29 years old)
Respondents
• The views of the most respondents on modernization particularly refers
to disagreement on phasing out the old vehicles. Similarly on the
requiring new units to drivers and operators, they have a financial
problems particularly on rental drivers and small operators. Other
concerns were gas stations and repair shops.
• Most of them are high school graduate but did not proceed to attain a
degree in universities or colleges.
• 7 out of 9 drivers shows that they are involved in leasehold contracts
which means they do not own any Public Utility Jeepney.
Chapter 5
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• The most experienced years is having more than 40 years of driving
and the minimum years of experience is more than 5 years. Most of
them are high school graduate but did not proceed to attain a degree in
universities or colleges.
• Most of the respondents from late adulthood did not agreed with the
phasing out of 15 years old model. While their responses is similar to
the respondent from middle adulthood but adding job uncertainties
after phased-out vehicles.
• On the other hand, most of the young-adulthood responses is
concerned more on the agreement towards modernization because of
the durability of the new units.
Chapter 5
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• 2 out of 9 gave clear responses when asked about institutions and
interventions. They showed uncertainty on financial institutions and
government interventions such as modernizing the old Jeepneys. On
the other hand, one stated the need to providing proper training on
Jeepney drivers to prevent accidents and ensure safety of the
consumers.
Chapter 5
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• 4 out of 9 gave their remarks on the advantages of modernization
concerning on less maintenance because it is brand new, being road-
worthy, convenient , environmental-friendly, and high durability
• 5 out of 9 gave their clear remarks on the common disadvantage of
modernization will be the loss of their livelihood.
• Circumstances of the most of the respondents that disagreed is on
having low education rate, the concern of the former investment and
expensive to buy a new unit.
Chapter 5
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
• We researchers also suggest for further exploration in this study
particularly on how the government should finance a small time
operator which him/her can practically afford an expensive modern
unit.
• A practical budget for aspiring Jeepney drivers and operators who
wanted to be involved in modernization for them to understand the
directions and support of our national government.
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Everyday life of Jeepney Drivers

  • 1. The Everyday Life of Jeepney Drivers in Iligan City and their perspectives toward Jeepney Modernization Program Presenters: Charlie D.Agravante Jr. Rosemarie Toyco Flor Ruelyn Queen Jumawan Ragasi
  • 2. Most studies reviewed focused mainly on jeepney background, contracts, operations and values. One study that was conducted by C. Dominik Güss and Ma. Teresa G. Tuason (2008) ‘jeepneys : values in the streets’, where we could identify the daily life of the jeepney drivers. Jeepney is used as a tool for livelihood of one of the marginalized sectors in our society and they explained the daily life of jeepney drivers consist of their problems at work, their goals, wishes and dreams. In our present times, modernization is at a fast pace but how the jeepney drivers understand this program which could affect their daily lives? Rationale
  • 3. This study aimed to examine the every day life of Jeepney drivers in Iligan City. The socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, address, educational attainment, mode of operations and years as a Jeepney driver. The views of Jeepney drivers such as young adult, middle-age, and late-adulthood on Jeepney modernization program through their life stories and how they perceived advantages and disadvantages, and circumstances that disapprove phasing-out, and how the respondents understand the government financial institutions and interventions. Statement of the ProblemStatement of the Problem
  • 4. This research aimed to examine the following statements: • To identify the socio-demographic profile of the respondents • To determine the views of different age-groups of Jeepney drivers toward modernization through their life stories • To explore the perceived advantages and disadvantages of the implementing Jeepney modernization program to the respondents. Objectives of the StudyObjectives of the Study
  • 5. This research aimed to examine the following statements: • To determine the circumstances that make respondents disapprove of phasing out old Jeepneys. • To explain how the respondents understand the government financial institutions and interventions. Objectives of the StudyObjectives of the Study
  • 6. This study reinforced one of the theories on Sociology of everyday life, particularly, Habermas’ Lebenswelt or lifeworld Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework
  • 7. Habermas (1987[1981]) recognizes that in practice the lifeworld increasingly surrenders to regulation in which private life, the family, and intimate relations are distorted by rules imposed by the expanding power of bureaucracy, the influence of corporate capitalism and mass consumption. Particularly on the notion of the jeepney modernization program that was imposed by the power of bureaucracy, and influence by capitalism and mass consumption distorting the private life such as the problems of the jeepney drivers in their daily life, and the financial problems towards their family that belong to intimate relations. Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical Framework
  • 8.
  • 9. 1.) Socio-demographic profile of the selected Jeepney drivers – this refers to the information about the personal background of the respondents in terms of name, age, educational attainment, mode of operations and years of driving as a Jeepney driver. 2.) Young Adulthood – According to Boeree (2006) it refers to those whose ages is in the 18- 30years or in the 20’s based on the chart adapted from Erikson’s 1959 Identity and Life Cycle. In terms of behavior, they achieve some degree of intimacy, as opposed to remaining in isolation. Operational Definition
  • 10. 3.) Middle Adulthood - According to Boeree (2006) refers to those whose ages range from somewhere between the (25) middle twenties and the (50) late fifties based on Erikson’s stages of pyschosocial development. In terms of behavior, this is the period during which we are actively involved in raising children. 4.) Late Adulthood - According to Boeree (2006) refers to the last stage or maturity, it begins sometime around retirement, somewhere around 60, Erikson’s stages of pyschosocial development. In terms of behavior, they develop ego integrity with a minimal amount of despair. Operational Definition
  • 11. 4.) Late Adulthood - According to Boeree (2006) refers to the last stage or maturity, it begins sometime around retirement, somewhere around 60, Erikson’s stages of pyschosocial development. In terms of behavior, they develop ego integrity with a minimal amount of despair. 5.) Jeepney Modernization Program - According to Merueñas (2016) , the DOTC or Department of Transportation and Communication, they proposed the jeepney modernization program which is the plan to modernize the country’s public transport system by phasing out old jeepneys (15 years old above age of manufacured) Operational Definition
  • 12. 6.) Advantages and Disadvantages of modernization to jeepneys - this measures the benefits and negative results which respondents perceive to have experience in modernization to jeepneys 7.) Problems encountered in Jeepney modernization – refers to the troubles or harm that respondents perceive to have encountered in modernization to jeepneys Operational Definition
  • 13. 8.) Government initiatives - this refers to the government program or policies to support the economic burden of the jeepney drivers towards modernization Operational Definition
  • 14. • Research Design This study used qualitative in nature as it employs the life history research method for gathering and analyzing data from the respondents. Particular in sociology, life story interviews has been taught as a method for capturing people’s own perceptions of their lives (Goodson and Sikes, 2001). Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 15. • Research Locale This study was conducted in the city of Iligan (Filipino: Lungsod ng Iligan) is a highly urbanized city in the Northern Mindanao region, Philippines. One of the researchers had a close neighbour who was a former president of Upper Hinaplanon Drivers Association and a Jeepney driver who is one of our key informant in understanding the Jeepney modernization program. Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 16. • Respondents This study selected a total of nine (9) Jeepney drivers such as three (3) young adult, three (3) middle-age, three (3) elderly. • Sampling Selection and Technique The sample was selected by purposive sampling method with a criteria of more than 5 years as a Jeepney driver and they will be interviewed through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and in-depth individual interview Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 17. • Data Analysis Instrument In gathering data, the researchers used Focus Group Discussion (FGD) , individual interviews and an in-depth interview guide mainly consists of open-ended questions translated into Cebuano language. Probing and follow-up questions was raised to clarify answers that either vague or incomplete. Master Record Notebook compiled all the relevant information about the respondents Audio Recording was used to record and transcribe the statements of most of the respondents Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 18. • Data Analysis Techniques This study used master record to store the information that was gathered through Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and individual interviews. Content Analysis was used for qualitative data derived through open- ended questions. Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 19. • Research Ethics The respondents was asked individually about their socio- demographic profile, their views on Jeepney modernization. As a gesture of courtesy and at the same time to observe professional research ethics and to make full cooperation, the actual data gathering from the respondents was conducted after their available time and consent. FGD (Focus Group Discussions) and individual interviews was done by the researchers in places convenient to the respondents inside the parameters of Iligan City. Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 20. • Experiences in the Field It was on October 17 - November 11, 2017, when the researchers have the determination to finish gathering the necessary data for this thesis. We went Hinaplanon to interview one of our respondents very close to the one researcher. Furthermore, we went to Kiwalan interview again the drivers. When researchers finish the data they gathered, we experience a nice feeling because our respondents were very approachable, respectful and helpful. Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 21. • Experiences in the Field They even called co-drivers just to complete our number of respondents to be interviewed. As the interview went on, we felt some genuine heartaches feeling of disagreeing this so called JMP or phase out of Jeepney. We can feel the sadness of every words they said, the tone of their voice asking for justice and they even hoped us to bring this issue that the bottom’s concerns must be heard first before implementing any other policy. Chapter 3 (Methodology)
  • 22. oThe Jeepney drivers were selected based on criteria of more than 5 years of experience as PUJ drivers. oThe following age-groups such as the elderly-age ranges from 50 to more than 60 years old and the middle-age ranges from 30-50 years old and the young-adult ranges from 18-30 years old. Chapter 4 (PRESENTATION OF LIFE STORY NARRATIVES)
  • 23. 3 late adulthood represents: •Peter Abad Lazarte (62 years old); • Fredericko B. Nacua (60 years old) and ; • Max Managing (52 years old) 3 middle adulthood represents: •Michael Mugawan (37 years old); •Freddie Dejaresco (47 years old) and; •Isidro Velasquez (46 years old) Respondents
  • 24. 3 young adulthood represents: •Denis Acas (26 years old) •Junrey Diliman (30 years old) •Reden Serina (29 years old) Respondents
  • 25. • The views of the most respondents on modernization particularly refers to disagreement on phasing out the old vehicles. Similarly on the requiring new units to drivers and operators, they have a financial problems particularly on rental drivers and small operators. Other concerns were gas stations and repair shops. • Most of them are high school graduate but did not proceed to attain a degree in universities or colleges. • 7 out of 9 drivers shows that they are involved in leasehold contracts which means they do not own any Public Utility Jeepney. Chapter 5 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 26. • The most experienced years is having more than 40 years of driving and the minimum years of experience is more than 5 years. Most of them are high school graduate but did not proceed to attain a degree in universities or colleges. • Most of the respondents from late adulthood did not agreed with the phasing out of 15 years old model. While their responses is similar to the respondent from middle adulthood but adding job uncertainties after phased-out vehicles. • On the other hand, most of the young-adulthood responses is concerned more on the agreement towards modernization because of the durability of the new units. Chapter 5 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 27. • 2 out of 9 gave clear responses when asked about institutions and interventions. They showed uncertainty on financial institutions and government interventions such as modernizing the old Jeepneys. On the other hand, one stated the need to providing proper training on Jeepney drivers to prevent accidents and ensure safety of the consumers. Chapter 5 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 28. • 4 out of 9 gave their remarks on the advantages of modernization concerning on less maintenance because it is brand new, being road- worthy, convenient , environmental-friendly, and high durability • 5 out of 9 gave their clear remarks on the common disadvantage of modernization will be the loss of their livelihood. • Circumstances of the most of the respondents that disagreed is on having low education rate, the concern of the former investment and expensive to buy a new unit. Chapter 5 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION OF DATA, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 29. • We researchers also suggest for further exploration in this study particularly on how the government should finance a small time operator which him/her can practically afford an expensive modern unit. • A practical budget for aspiring Jeepney drivers and operators who wanted to be involved in modernization for them to understand the directions and support of our national government. Recommendations