Robyn alders one_health_approach_to_health_and_food_security

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From the Food Security Forum 2014: Good food, good health: delivering the benefits of food
security in Australia and beyond - 17 March 2014

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Robyn alders one_health_approach_to_health_and_food_security

  1. 1. One Health approach to food and nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia Associate Professor Robyn Alders, AO Faculty of Veterinary Science Charles Perkins Centre Good food, good health: delivering the benefits of food security in Australia and beyond University of Sydney: 17 March 2014
  2. 2. Acknowledgements › Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) › Australian International Food Security Research Centre (AIFSRC) › Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade › Crawford Fund › Project partners in Tanzania, Zambia, Lao PDR, Timor Leste, UK and Australia › Forum sponsors: CPC, MBI and SSEAC 2
  3. 3. One Health One Health is a comprehensive approach to health that focuses on: A. Improving health and well-being through the prevention of risks and the mitigation of effects of crises that originate at the interface between humans, animals and their various environments. B. Promoting multi (cross) sectoral collaborations and a “whole of society” treatment of health hazards, as a systemic change of perspective in the management of risk.
  4. 4. Types of undernutrition Normal Wasting Low weight for height Underweight Low weight for age Stunting Low height for age Micronutrient deficiencies (iron, vitamin A, iodine, zinc, etc)
  5. 5. Agriculture and human nutrition › Recent reviews have shown little impact of agricultural interventions on childhood nutrition (Masset et al. 2012) › Stunting remains high in many countries despite increases in agricultural production › Stunting affects health, physical and cognitive development capacity in children as well as productivity in adulthood › 11% of gross national product in Africa and Asia lost annually due to malnutrition 5
  6. 6. Current undernutrition data - Stunting in Tanzania in children <5 years 42% - Stunting in Zambia in children <5 years 45% - Stunting in Lao PDR in children < 5 years 48% - Stunting in Timor-Leste in children < 5 years 58% 6
  7. 7. Distribution of stunting in Zambia 7 N.B. Central Province: *2nd highest rate of stunting * High maize producing area (NFNCZ 2012)
  8. 8. Tackling the most critical period 8(NFNCZ 2012)
  9. 9. Challenges: local conditions Nutritional information for breastfeeding women Project environment in dry season where breastfeeding women live The One Health paradigm can help to connect theory with practice to deliver beneficial change to food and nutrition security N.B. No electricity … no mobile phone network
  10. 10. In utero dietary requiements Trimester Nutrient requirements Protein Micronutrients Energy First +++ +++ + Second ++ ++ ++ Third + + +++ Women reluctant to disclose pregnancy during first trimester Therefore: crucial to ensure good nutrition for women of reproductive age
  11. 11. Challenges: seasonal variations 11 Event Children's age as of March 2014 in Central Tanzania 0-6 mths 7-12 mths 13-18 mths 19-24 mths Period of birth Sept'13-Mar'14 Mar-Sept'13 Sept'12-Mar'13 Mar-Sept'12 Period of conception Jan-Jun'13 Jul-Dec'12 Jan-Jun'12 Jul-Dec'11 Experienced hunger period Jan-Mar'12 No No Yes - in utero Yes - in utero Experienced hunger period Jan-Mar'13 Yes - in utero Yes - in utero Yes Yes Experienced hunger period Jan-Mar'14 Yes Yes Yes Yes
  12. 12. A quick tour of some examples Of taking a One Health approach to improve food and nutrition security demonstrating the benefits of collaboration across the USyd campus and beyond 12
  13. 13. Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia Research aim To reduce childhood undernutrition by analysing and testing opportunities to enhance the key role that women play in improving poultry and crop integration and efficiency to strengthen household nutrition.
  14. 14. Our Project Team 14 Tanzania Tanzania Veterinary Laboratory Agency Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives Sokoine University of Agriculture Dar es Salaam University Muhumbili University of Health and Allied Sciences Zambia Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Ministry of Health (Public Health) National Commission for Food and Nutrition University of Zambia Australia USyd School of Public Health Nutritional epidemiologist Biostatistician USyd Faculty of Agriculture and Environment Post harvest specialist USyd Faculty of Veterinary Science Vet Public Health Epidemiologist Village poultry health and production specialist International Royal Veterinary College, London One Health Economist Veterinary Ecologist KYEEMA Foundation Social Anthropologist Veterinary Laboratory and cold chain specialist Charles Perkins Centre Food and Nutrition Security Project Node
  15. 15. Why village poultry? In mixed farming systems in Southern Africa: › very few households own cattle (~10-20%) › some own small ruminants (~30-40%), but › most own village poultry (70-80%) Credit: Kyeema/Alders
  16. 16. Vital role in rural families … › Village poultry provide: - petty cash - bioavailable protein & micronutrients - pest control (of both plant & animal pests) - manure for vegetable gardens - social credit – ceremonies & rituals, & - assets for women & children Credit: Kyeema/Alders
  17. 17. Eggceptional value! › One egg contains: - Energy - 315 kilojoules - High quality protein – rich in essential amino acids - Vitamins including Vit. A, B12, K & choline - Minerals › Sterile inside (usually) › Easy to store › Available most of year › Easy & quick to cook Credit: FAO/Alders
  18. 18. Gender Research indicates that resources under the control of women are more likely to be used to support the education and nutrition of children
  19. 19. Focusing on sorghum, millet and indigenous vegetables Credit: Kyeema/Bagnol [rather than high energy, low nutrient diversity hybrid maize]
  20. 20. Collaborative work in Lao PDR › Honorary Prof Lester Burgess › Improving durian production, and › Improving village poultry production to support: - manure as a biofumigant - food and nutrition security Funding: Crawford Fund 20
  21. 21. Collaborative work in Timor-Leste › Improved poultry and human health › Timorese Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries; Ministry of Health; and Ministry of Education › USyd Public Health; Education and Vet Science › Australian Department of Agriculture › Funding: USyd School of Public Health, Department of Foreign Affairs and Crawford Fund 21
  22. 22. Our challenges going forward › How to achieve nutrition-sensitive agriculture in a sustainable manner to meet a growing human population? › How to achieve ecologically-sensitive human nutrition? › How to encourage food value chains to support good nutrition?
  23. 23. 23 Thank you for your attention Thank you for your attention.
  24. 24. References AVMA. 2008. One Health Initiative Task Force. "One Health: A New Professional Imperative". The American Veterinary Medical Association. July 15, 2008. https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/Reports/Documents/onehealth_final.pdf NFNCZ. 2012. The first 1000 most critical days: three year program. National Food and Nutrition Commission of Zambia. Lusaka. 2013-2015FAO. 2009. The State of Food Insecurity in the World: Economic crises – impacts and lessons learned. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Rome. Girard A, Self J, McAuliffe C, Oludea O. 2012. The Effects of Household Food Production Strategies on the Health and Nutrition Outcomes of Women and Young Children: A Systematic Review. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 26 (Suppl. 1), 205–222. Hawkes, C., Turner, R. and Waage, J. 2012. Current and planned research on agriculture for improved nutrition: a mapping and a gap analysis. A report to the Department for International Development, UK. Kimboka, S. 2014. Child undernutrition in Tanzania. Strengthening food and nutrition security through family poultry and crop integration in Tanzania and Zambia: Project Inception Workshop. Dar es Salaam, 11-12 February 2014. Masset E, Lawrence Haddad L, Cornelius A, Isaza-Castro, J. 2012. Effectiveness of agricultural interventions that aim to improve nutritional status of children: systematic review. The British Medical Journal 344:d8222. Turk, J.M. (2013): Poverty, Livestock and Food Security in Developing Countries. CAB Reviews. 8, 033, 1-8. 24

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