JavaOne 2012 - JVM JIT for Dummies

9,521 views

Published on

0 Comments
67 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,521
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
70
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
507
Comments
0
Likes
67
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • \n
  • JavaOne 2012 - JVM JIT for Dummies

    1. 1. JVM JIT for Dummies And the rest of you, too.
    2. 2. Intro• Charles Oliver Nutter • “JRuby Guy” • Sun Microsystems 2006-2009 • Engine Yard 2009-2012 • Red Hat 2012-• Primarily responsible for compiler, perf • Looking inside JVM
    3. 3. What We Will Learn• How the JVM’s JIT works• Monitoring the JIT• Finding problems• Dumping assembly (don’t be scared!)
    4. 4. What We Won’t• GC tuning• GC monitoring with VisualVM • Google ‘visualgc’, it’s awesome• OpenJDK internals• JNI
    5. 5. Caveat• Focusing on OpenJDK (Hotspot)• Other JVMs will do things differently • But base principals usually apply• Flags are specific to Hotspot • Internal, subject to change, etc
    6. 6. JIT• Just-In-Time compilation• Compiled when needed • Maybe immediately before execution • ...or when we decide it’s important • ...or never?
    7. 7. Mixed-Mode• Interpreted • Bytecode-walking • Artificial stack machine• Compiled • Direct native operations • Native register machine
    8. 8. Profiling• Gather data about code while interpreting • Invariants (types, constants, nulls) • Statistics (branches, calls)• Use that information to optimize • Educated guess • Guess can be wrong...
    9. 9. The Golden Rule of Optimization Don’t do unnecessary work.
    10. 10. Optimization• Method inlining• Loop unrolling• Lock coarsening/eliding• Dead code elimination• Duplicate code elimination• Escape analysis
    11. 11. Inlining?• Combine caller and callee into one unit • e.g. based on profile • Perhaps with a guard/test• Optimize as a whole • More code means better visibility
    12. 12. Inliningint addAll(int max) { int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum;}int add(int a, int b) { return a + b;}
    13. 13. Inliningint addAll(int max) { int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; Only one target is ever seen}int add(int a, int b) { return a + b;}
    14. 14. Inliningint addAll(int max) { int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = accum + i; } return accum; Don’t bother making the call}
    15. 15. Loop Unrolling• Works for small, constant loops• Avoid tests, branching• Allow inlining a single call as many
    16. 16. Loop Unrollingprivate static final String[] options = { "yes", "no", "maybe"};public void looper() { for (String option : options) { process(option); }} Small loop, constant stride, constant size
    17. 17. Loop Unrollingprivate static final String[] options = { "yes", "no", "maybe"};public void looper() { process(options[0]); process(options[1]); Unrolled! process(options[2]);}
    18. 18. Lock Coarseningpublic void needsLocks() { for (option : options) { process(option); } Repeatedly locking}private synchronized String process(String option) { // some wacky thread-unsafe code}
    19. 19. Lock Coarseningpublic void needsLocks() { Lock once synchronized (this) { for (option : options) { // some wacky thread-unsafe code } }}
    20. 20. Lock Elidingpublic void overCautious() { Synchronize on List l = new ArrayList(); synchronized (l) { new Object for (option : options) { l.add(process(option)); } }} But we know it never escapes this thread...
    21. 21. Lock Elidingpublic void overCautious() { List l = new ArrayList(); for (option : options) { l.add( /* process()’s code */); }} No need to lock
    22. 22. Escape Analysisprivate static class Foo { public final String a; public final String b; Foo(String a, String b) { this.a = a; this.b = b; }}
    23. 23. Escape Analysispublic void bar() { Foo f = new Foo("Hello", "JVM"); baz(f);}public void baz(Foo f) { Same object all System.out.print(f.a); System.out.print(", "); the way through quux(f);} Never “escapes”public void quux(Foo f) { these methods System.out.print(f.b); System.out.println(!);}
    24. 24. Escape Analysispublic secret awesome inlinedBarBazQuux() { System.out.print("Hello"); System.out.print(", "); System.out.print("JavaOne"); System.out.println(!);} Don’t bother allocating Foo object
    25. 25. Escape Analysis• A bit tweaky on Hotspot • All paths must inline • No external view of object• JRockit was better here? • Now they can fix Hotspot!
    26. 26. Perf Sinks• Memory accesses • By far the biggest expense• Calls • Memory ref + branch kills pipeline • Call stack, register juggling costs• Locks
    27. 27. Volatile?• Each CPU maintains a memory cache• Caches may be out of sync • If it doesn’t matter, no problem • If it does matter, threads disagree!• Volatile forces synchronization of cache • Across cores and to main memory
    28. 28. Call Site• The place where you make a call• Monomorphic (“one shape”) • Single target class• Bimorphic (“two shapes”)• Polymorphic (“many shapes”)• Megamorphic (“you’re screwed”)
    29. 29. Blah.javaSystem.currentTimeMillis(); // static, monomorphicList list1 = new ArrayList(); // constructor, monomorphicList list2 = new LinkedList();for (List list : new List[]{ list1, list2 }) { list.add("hello"); // bimorphic}for (Object obj : new Object[]{ foo, list1, new Object() }) { obj.toString(); // polymorphic}
    30. 30. Hotspot• -client mode (C1) inlines, less aggressive • Fewer opportunities to optimize• -server mode (C2) inlines aggressively • Based on richer runtime profiling
    31. 31. Tiered• Increasing tiers of interp, C1, and C2• Level 0 = Interpreter• Level 1-3 = C1• Level 4 = C2• Kinda sorta works...
    32. 32. system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ (pickjdk 4 ; time jruby -e 1)New JDK: jdk1.7.0_07.jdkreal 0m1.251suser 0m2.128ssys m0.093s 0system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ (pickjdk 5 ; time jruby -e 1)New JDK: jdk1.8.0.jdkreal 0m1.167suser 0m2.767ssys m0.143s 0system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ (pickjdk 5 ; time jruby -J-XX:TieredStopAtLevel=1 -e 1)New JDK: jdk1.8.0.jdkreal 0m0.850suser 0m1.344ssys m0.114s 0
    33. 33. C2 Compiler• Profile to find “hot spots” • Call sites • Branch statistics • Profile until 10k calls• Inline mono/bimorphic calls• Other mechanisms for polymorphic calls
    34. 34. Now it gets fun!
    35. 35. Monitoring the JIT• Dozens of flags• Reams of output• Always evolving• How can you understand it?
    36. 36. public class Accumulator { public static void main(String[] args) { int max = Integer.parseInt(args[0]); System.out.println(addAll(max)); } static int addAll(int max) { int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; } static int add(int a, int b) { return a + b; }}
    37. 37. $ java -versionopenjdk version "1.7.0-b147"OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0-b147-20110927)OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 21.0-b17, mixed mode)$ javac Accumulator.java$ java Accumulator 1000499500
    38. 38. Print Compilation• -XX:+PrintCompilation• Print methods as they JIT • Class + name + size
    39. 39. $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator 1000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes)499500
    40. 40. $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator 1000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes)499500 Where’s our code?
    41. 41. $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator 1000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes)499500 Where’s our code? Remember...10k calls before JIT
    42. 42. 10k loop, 10k calls to add$ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator 10000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes) 64 2 Accumulator::add (4 bytes)49995000 Hooray!
    43. 43. But what’s this?$ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator 10000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes) 64 2 Accumulator::add (4 bytes)49995000 Class loading, security logic, other stuff...
    44. 44. Hotspot is making zombies?1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    45. 45. Hotspot is making zombies?1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes) Not entrant? What the heck?
    46. 46. Optimistic Compilers• Assume profile is accurate• Aggressively optimize based on profile• Bail out if we’re wrong • ...and hope that we’re usually right
    47. 47. Deoptimization• Bail out of running code• Monitoring flags describe process • “uncommon trap” - something’s changed • “not entrant” - don’t let new calls enter • “zombie” - on its way to deadness
    48. 48. JRuby red_black perf4s3s2s1s0s
    49. 49. JRuby red_black perf4s Most code not JITed yet3s2s1s0s
    50. 50. JRuby red_black perf4s Most code not JITed yet3s Back off2s1s0s
    51. 51. JRuby red_black perf4s Most code not JITed yet3s Back off Back off2s1s0s
    52. 52. No JIT At All?• Code is too big• Code isn’t called enough
    53. 53. That looks exciting!1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    54. 54. Exception handling in here (boring!)1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    55. 55. Exception Handling• Unroll stack until someone stops us • Handler gets registered in JVM • Different treatment by JIT• Inlined throw + catch = jump • If no stack trace, essentially free
    56. 56. What’s this “n” all about?1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    57. 57. This method is native1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    58. 58. And this one?1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes) Method has been replaced while running (OSR)
    59. 59. On-Stack Replacement• Running method never exits?• But it’s getting really hot? • Generally means loops, back-branching• Compile and replace while running• Not typically useful in large systems • Looks great on benchmarks!
    60. 60. public class Accumulator { public static void main(String[] args) { int max = Integer.parseInt(args[0]); System.out.println(addAll(max)); } addAll never exits... static int addAll(int max) { int accum = 0; loops until end for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; } static int add(int a, int b) { return a + b; }}
    61. 61. system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator1 1000 63 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (55 bytes)499500system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator1 10000 63 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (55 bytes) 74 2 Accumulator1::add (4 bytes)49995000system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation Accumulator1 100000 62 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (55 bytes) 73 2 Accumulator1::add (4 bytes) 74 1 % Accumulator1::addAll @ 4 (23 bytes)704982704
    62. 62. Millis from JVM start1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes) Sequence number of compilation
    63. 63. Compiling1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    64. 64. Backing Off1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    65. 65. OSR1401 70 java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentHashMap::hash (49 bytes)1412 71 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes)1420 72 ! java.io.BufferedReader::readLine (304 bytes)1420 73 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Decoder::decodeArrayLoop (543 bytes)1422 42 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::getBytes (192 bytes) made not entrant1435 74 n java.lang.Object::hashCode (0 bytes)1443 29 ! sun.misc.URLClassPath$JarLoader::getResource (91 bytes) made zombie1443 25 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made zombie1443 36 sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource (74 bytes) made not entrant1443 43 java.util.zip.ZipCoder::encoder (35 bytes) made not entrant1449 75 java.lang.String::endsWith (15 bytes)1631 1 % sun.misc.URLClassPath::getResource @ 39 (74 bytes)1665 76 java.lang.ClassLoader::checkName (43 bytes)
    66. 66. system ~/projects/javaone2012-jit $ java -XX:+PrintCompilation -XX:+TieredCompilation Accumulator1 1000 55 1 3 java.lang.String::charAt (29 bytes) 57 2 3 java.lang.String::hashCode (55 bytes) 57 3 3 java.lang.Object::<init> (1 bytes) 57 4 n 0 java.lang.System::arraycopy (0 bytes) (static) 57 5 3 java.lang.String::indexOf (70 bytes) 57 6 3 java.lang.String::length (6 bytes) 58 7 3 java.lang.AbstractStringBuilder::ensureCapacityInternal (16 bytes) 59 8 3 java.lang.String::equals (81 bytes)... 69 26 3 java.lang.Character::toLowerCase (6 bytes) 69 27 3 java.lang.AbstractStringBuilder::append (48 bytes) 70 28 3 java.lang.String::indexOf (7 bytes) 72 29 4 java.lang.String::charAt (29 bytes) 72 30 3 java.lang.StringBuilder::append (8 bytes) 73 31 1 java.net.URL::getProtocol (5 bytes) 73 32 3 java.lang.String::lastIndexOf (52 bytes) 74 33 3 java.io.UnixFileSystem::normalize (75 bytes) 75 1 3 java.lang.String::charAt (29 bytes) made not entrant 77 36 n 0 java.lang.Thread::currentThread (0 bytes) (static) 77 35 3 Accumulator1::add (4 bytes)49950 Tier we’re at Only called 1k times
    67. 67. Print Inlining• -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions -XX:+PrintInlining• Display hierarchy of inlined methods• Include reasons for not inlining• More, better output on OpenJDK 7
    68. 68. $ java -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions > -XX:+PrintInlining > Accumulator 1000049995000
    69. 69. $ java -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions > -XX:+PrintInlining > Accumulator 1000049995000 Um...I don’t see anything inlining
    70. 70. public class Accumulator { public static void main(String[] args) { int max = Integer.parseInt(args[0]); System.out.println(addAll(max)); } static int addAll(int max) { Called only once int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; } static int add(int a, int b) { return a + b; }}
    71. 71. public class Accumulator { public static void main(String[] args) { int max = Integer.parseInt(args[0]); System.out.println(addAll(max)); } static int addAll(int max) { Called only once int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; Called 10k times } static int add(int a, int b) { return a + b; }}
    72. 72. public class Accumulator { public static void main(String[] args) { int max = Integer.parseInt(args[0]); System.out.println(addAll(max)); } static int addAll(int max) { Called only once int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; Called 10k times } static int add(int a, int b) { JITs as expected return a + b; }}
    73. 73. public class Accumulator { public static void main(String[] args) { int max = Integer.parseInt(args[0]); System.out.println(addAll(max)); } static int addAll(int max) { Called only once int accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = add(accum, i); } return accum; Called 10k times } static int add(int a, int b) { JITs as expected return a + b; }} But makes no calls!
    74. 74. static double addAllSqrts(int max) { double accum = 0; for (int i = 0; i < max; i++) { accum = addSqrt(accum, i); } return accum;}static int addSqrt(double a, int b) { return a + sqrt(b);}static double sqrt(int a) { return Math.sqrt(b);}
    75. 75. $ java -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions > -XX:+PrintInlining > -XX:+PrintCompilation > Accumulator 10000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes) 65 2 Accumulator::addSqrt (7 bytes) @ 3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) inline (hot) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes) (intrinsic) 65 3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes) (intrinsic)666616.4591971082
    76. 76. $ java -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions > -XX:+PrintInlining HOT HOT HOT!> -XX:+PrintCompilation > Accumulator 10000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes) 65 2 Accumulator::addSqrt (7 bytes) @ 3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) inline (hot) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes) (intrinsic) 65 3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes) (intrinsic)666616.4591971082
    77. 77. $ java -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions > -XX:+PrintInlining > -XX:+PrintCompilation > Accumulator 10000 53 1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes) 65 2 Accumulator::addSqrt (7 bytes) @ 3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) inline (hot) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes) (intrinsic) 65 3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes) (intrinsic)666616.4591971082 Calls treated specially by JIT
    78. 78. Intrinsic?• Known to the JIT • Don’t inline bytecode • Do insert “best” native code • e.g. kernel-level memory operation • e.g. optimized sqrt in machine code
    79. 79. Common Intrinsics• String#equals• Most (all?) Math methods• System.arraycopy• Object#hashCode• Object#getClass• sun.misc.Unsafe methods
    80. 80. LogCompilation• -XX:+LogCompilation• Dumps compiler events to hotspot.log• Tons and tons of output
    81. 81. scopes_pcs_offset=1384 dependencies_offset=1576 handler_table_offset=1592 nul_chk_table_offset=1736oops_offset=992 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource$ByteArrayCursor read ()I bytes=49count=5296 backedge_count=1 iicount=10296 stamp=0.412/><writer thread=4425007104/><nmethod compile_id=21 compiler=C2 entry=4345862528 size=1152 address=4345862160relocation_offset=288 insts_offset=368 stub_offset=688 scopes_data_offset=840 scopes_pcs_offset=904dependencies_offset=1016 handler_table_offset=1032 oops_offset=784 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource forward (I)I bytes=111 count=5296 backedge_count=1 iicount=10296 stamp=0.412/><writer thread=4300214272/><task_queued compile_id=22 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource read ()I bytes=10count=5000 backedge_count=1 iicount=10000 stamp=0.433 comment=count hot_count=10000/><writer thread=4426067968/><nmethod compile_id=22 compiler=C2 entry=4345885984 size=1888 address=4345885584relocation_offset=288 insts_offset=400 stub_offset=912 scopes_data_offset=1104scopes_pcs_offset=1496 dependencies_offset=1704 handler_table_offset=1720 nul_chk_table_offset=1864oops_offset=1024 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource read ()I bytes=10 count=5044backedge_count=1 iicount=10044 stamp=0.435/><writer thread=4300214272/><task_queued compile_id=23 method=java/util/HashMap hash (I)I bytes=23 count=5000 backedge_count=1iicount=10000 stamp=0.442 comment=count hot_count=10000/><writer thread=4425007104/><nmethod compile_id=23 compiler=C2 entry=4345887808 size=440 address=4345887504relocation_offset=288 insts_offset=304 stub_offset=368 scopes_data_offset=392 scopes_pcs_offset=400dependencies_offset=432 method=java/util/HashMap hash (I)I bytes=23 count=5039 backedge_count=1iicount=10039 stamp=0.442/><writer thread=4300214272/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/>
    82. 82. scopes_pcs_offset=1384 dependencies_offset=1576 handler_table_offset=1592 nul_chk_table_offset=1736oops_offset=992 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource$ByteArrayCursor read ()I bytes=49count=5296 backedge_count=1 iicount=10296 stamp=0.412/><writer thread=4425007104/><nmethod compile_id=21 compiler=C2 entry=4345862528 size=1152 address=4345862160relocation_offset=288 insts_offset=368 stub_offset=688 scopes_data_offset=840 scopes_pcs_offset=904dependencies_offset=1016 handler_table_offset=1032 oops_offset=784 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource forward (I)I bytes=111 count=5296 backedge_count=1 iicount=10296 stamp=0.412/><writer thread=4300214272/><task_queued compile_id=22 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource read ()I bytes=10count=5000 backedge_count=1 iicount=10000 stamp=0.433 comment=count hot_count=10000/><writer thread=4426067968/><nmethod compile_id=22 compiler=C2 entry=4345885984 size=1888 address=4345885584relocation_offset=288 insts_offset=400 stub_offset=912 scopes_data_offset=1104scopes_pcs_offset=1496 dependencies_offset=1704 handler_table_offset=1720 nul_chk_table_offset=1864oops_offset=1024 method=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource read ()I bytes=10 count=5044backedge_count=1 iicount=10044 stamp=0.435/><writer thread=4300214272/><task_queued compile_id=23 method=java/util/HashMap hash (I)I bytes=23 count=5000 backedge_count=1iicount=10000 stamp=0.442 comment=count hot_count=10000/><writer thread=4425007104/><nmethod compile_id=23 compiler=C2 entry=4345887808 size=440 address=4345887504relocation_offset=288 insts_offset=304 stub_offset=368 scopes_data_offset=392 scopes_pcs_offset=400dependencies_offset=432 method=java/util/HashMap hash (I)I bytes=23 count=5039 backedge_count=1iicount=10039 stamp=0.442/><writer thread=4300214272/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/><dependency_failed type=abstract_with_unique_concrete_subtype ctxk=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/LexerSourcex=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/ByteArrayLexerSource witness=org/jruby/lexer/yacc/InputStreamLexerSourcestamp=0.456/>
    83. 83. Worst XML Evar• Relational structure in hierarchical form• Hotspot guys can read it...I cannot• <JDK>/hotspot/src/share/tools/LogCompilation • or http://github.com/headius/logc
    84. 84. No flags, like PrintCompilation$ java -jar logc.jar hotspot.log1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes)2 Accumulator::addSqrt (7 bytes)3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes)
    85. 85. -i flag, PrintCompilation and PrintInlining$ java -jar logc.jar -i hotspot.log1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes)2 Accumulator::addSqrt (7 bytes) @ 2 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) (end time: 0.0660 nodes: 36) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes)3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes)
    86. 86. -i flag, PrintCompilation and PrintInlining$ java -jar logc.jar -i hotspot.log1 java.lang.String::hashCode (67 bytes)2 Accumulator::addSqrt (7 bytes) @ 2 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) (end time: 0.0660 nodes: 36) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes)3 Accumulator::sqrt (6 bytes) @ 2 java.lang.Math::sqrt (5 bytes)
    87. 87. 8 sun.nio.cs.UTF_8$Encoder::encode (361 bytes)6 uncommon trap null_check make_not_entrant @8 java/lang/String equals (Ljava/lang/Object;)Z6 make_not_entrant9 java.lang.String::equals (88 bytes)10 java.util.LinkedList::indexOf (73 bytes)
    88. 88. Hotspot sees it’s 100% String 10 java.util.LinkedList::indexOf (73 bytes) @ 52 java.lang.Object::equals (11 bytes) type profile java/lang/Object -> java/lang/String (100%) @ 52 java.lang.String::equals (88 bytes) 11 java.lang.String::indexOf (87 bytes) @ 83 java.lang.String::indexOfSupplementary too big Too big to inline! Could be bad?
    89. 89. Tuning Inlining• -XX:+MaxInlineSize=35 • Largest inlinable method (bytecode)• -XX:+InlineSmallCode=# • Largest inlinable compiled method• -XX:+FreqInlineSize=# • Largest frequently-called method...
    90. 90. Tuning Inlining• -XX:+MaxInlineLevel=9 • How deep does the rabbit hole go?• -XX:+MaxRecursiveInlineLevel=# • Recursive inlining
    91. 91. Did someone sayMACHINE CODE?!
    92. 92. The Red Pill• Knowing code compiles is good• Knowing code inlines is better• Seeing the actual assembly is best!
    93. 93. Caveat• I don’t really know assembly.• But I fake it really well.
    94. 94. Print Assembly• -XX:+PrintAssembly• Google “hotspot printassembly”• https://wikis.oracle.com/display/ HotSpotInternals/PrintAssembly• Assembly-dumping plugin for Hotspot
    95. 95. Alternative• -XX:+PrintOptoAssembly• Only in debug/fastdebug builds• Not as pretty
    96. 96. Wednesday, July 27, 2011 ~/oscon ! java -XX:+UnlockDiagnosticVMOptions > -XX:+PrintAssembly > Accumulator 10000 OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM warning: PrintAssembly is enabled; turning on DebugNonSafepoints to gain additional output Loaded disassembler from hsdis-amd64.dylib ...
    97. 97. Decoding compiled method 11343cbd0:Code:[Disassembling for mach=i386:x86-64][Entry Point][Verified Entry Point][Constants] # {method} add (II)I in Accumulator # parm0: rsi = int # parm1: rdx = int # [sp+0x20] (sp of caller) 11343cd00: push %rbp 11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp 11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16) 11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax 11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16) 11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp 11343cd0e: pop %rbp 11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return} 11343cd15: retq
    98. 98. Woah there buddy...
    99. 99. x86_64 Assembly 101 add Two’s complement add sub ...subtract mov* Move data from a to b jmp gotoje, jne, jl, jge, ... Jump if ==, !=, <, >=, ... push, pop Call stack operations call*, ret* Call, return from subroutineeax, ebx, esi, ... 32-bit registersrax, rbx, rsi, ... 64-bit registers
    100. 100. Register Machine• Instead of stack moves, we have “slots” • Move data into slots • Trigger operations that manipulate data • Get new data out of slots• JVM stack, locals end up as register ops
    101. 101. Native Stack?• Native code has a stack too • Preserves registers from call to call• Various calling conventions • Caller preserves registers? • Callee preserves registers?
    102. 102. Decoding compiled method 11343cbd0: <= address of new compiled codeCode:[Disassembling for mach=i386:x86-64] <= architecture[Entry Point][Verified Entry Point][Constants] # {method} add (II)I in Accumulator <= method, signature, class # parm0: rsi = int <= first parm to method goes in rsi # parm1: rdx = int <= second parm goes in rdx # [sp+0x20] (sp of caller) <= caller’s pointer into native stack
    103. 103. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq rbp points at current stack frame, so we save it off.
    104. 104. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Two args, so we bump stack pointer by 0x10.
    105. 105. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Do nothing, e.g. to memory-align code.
    106. 106. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq At the “-1” instruction of our add() method... i.e. here we go!
    107. 107. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Move parm1 into eax.
    108. 108. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Add parm0 and parm1, store result in eax.
    109. 109. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq How nice, Hotspot shows us this is our “iadd” op!
    110. 110. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Put stack pointer back where it was.
    111. 111. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Restore rbp from stack.
    112. 112. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq Poll a “safepoint”...give JVM a chance to GC, etc.
    113. 113. 11343cd00: push %rbp11343cd01: sub $0x10,%rsp11343cd05: nop ;*synchronization entry ; - Accumulator::add@-1 (line 16)11343cd06: mov %esi,%eax11343cd08: add %edx,%eax ;*iadd ; - Accumulator::add@2 (line 16)11343cd0a: add $0x10,%rsp11343cd0e: pop %rbp11343cd0f: test %eax,-0x1303fd15(%rip) # 1003fd000 ; {poll_return}11343cd15: retq All done!
    114. 114. Things to Watch For• CALL operations • Indicates something failed to inline• LOCK operations • Cache-busting, e.g. volatility
    115. 115. CALL 1134858f5: xchg %ax,%ax 1134858f7: callq 113414aa0 ; OopMap{off=316} ;*invokespecial addAsBignum ; - org.jruby.RubyFixnum::addFixnum@29 (line 348) ; {optimized virtual_call} 1134858fc: jmpq 11348586dRuby integer adds might overflow into Bignum, leading toaddAsBignum call. In this case, it’s never called, so Hotspot emits callq assuming we won’t hit it.
    116. 116. LOCKCode from a RubyBasicObject’s default constructor.11345d823: mov 0x70(%r8),%r9d ;*getstatic NULL_OBJECT_ARRAY ; - org.jruby.RubyBasicObject::<init>@5 (line 76) ; - org.jruby.RubyObject::<init>@2 (line 118) ; - org.jruby.RubyNumeric::<init>@2 (line 111) ; - org.jruby.RubyInteger::<init>@2 (line 95) ; - org.jruby.RubyFixnum::<init>@5 (line 112) ; - org.jruby.RubyFixnum::newFixnum@25 (line 173)11345d827: mov %r9d,0x14(%rax)11345d82b: lock addl $0x0,(%rsp) ;*putfield varTable ; - org.jruby.RubyBasicObject::<init>@8 (line 76) ; - org.jruby.RubyObject::<init>@2 (line 118) ; - org.jruby.RubyNumeric::<init>@2 (line 111) ; - org.jruby.RubyInteger::<init>@2 (line 95) ; - org.jruby.RubyFixnum::<init>@5 (line 112) ; - org.jruby.RubyFixnum::newFixnum@25 (line 173)Why are we doing a volatile write in the constructor?
    117. 117. LOCKpublic class RubyBasicObject ... { private static final boolean DEBUG = false; private static final Object[] NULL_OBJECT_ARRAY = new Object[0]; // The class of this object protected transient RubyClass metaClass; // zeroed by jvm protected int flags; // variable table, lazily allocated as needed (if needed) private volatile Object[] varTable = NULL_OBJECT_ARRAY; Maybe it’s not such a good idea to pre-init a volatile?
    118. 118. LOCK~/projects/jruby ! git log 2f935de1e40bfd8b29b3a74eaed699e519571046 -1 | catcommit 2f935de1e40bfd8b29b3a74eaed699e519571046Author: Charles Oliver Nutter <headius@headius.com>Date: Tue Jun 14 02:59:41 2011 -0500 Do not eagerly initialize volatile varTable field in RubyBasicObject;speeds object creation significantly. LEVEL UP!
    119. 119. What Have We Learned? • How Hotspot’s JIT works • How to monitor the JIT • How to find problems • How to fix problems we find
    120. 120. What We Missed• Tuning GC settings in JVM• Monitoring GC with VisualVM • Google ‘visualgc’...it’s awesome
    121. 121. You’re no dummy now! ;-)
    122. 122. Thank you!• headius@headius.com, @headius• http://blog.headius.com• “java virtual machine specification”• “jvm opcodes”

    ×