Overview• Quick overview of JSC-WSTF• Interesting Projects I have done and a reflection  on the Shuttle Program• Nondestru...
3
Orbiter and transport over the WSTF 300 area                                               4
Unique CapabilitiesSimulated altitude testing of full-scale integrated hypergolicpropulsion systemsLarge-scale explosion t...
WSTF Propulsion Test Activities                                                                    Eight engine/system tes...
WSTF Laboratories Test Activities        • NHB 8060.1 Testing                           • Oxygen Hazards Assessment   • Pr...
Molecular Analysis of Surface Effects Using X-rayPhotoelectron Spectroscopy Instrument                                    ...
Hypervelocity and Low Velocity Impact Test                Facilities                                         Shuttle Windo...
WSTF Nondestructive Evaluation CapabilityTraditional:• Thermography: pressurized, flash, heat soak and through transmissio...
NNWG.org           11
12
Shearography NDT System Schematic Diagram          Shearography        Image Calibration                            Laser ...
Shearography Test Results By Stress Method      Thermal Shearography      Aluminum Honeycomb Panel      Pressure Shearogra...
Carbon Fiber/Nomex Core Shearography NDT Std.        • Double/Single Teflon Inserts        • Milled Flat Bottom Holes     ...
25 Ply Carbon Fiber Laminate Panel With Teflon Insert                                     • Well consolidated             ...
High Definition Shearography• The LTI-5100HD Advanced  Shearography System, equipped with  a TES-200 thermal excitation un...
“Smart COPV” Integrated COPV Structural HealthMonitoring (SHM) Systems That Target  Space Exploration and ISS Needs
Background Cont’d• Future NASA missions may not be successful without SHM (ref. OCT  Roadmaps)• Potential near-term needs ...
GRC AE Analysis Applet      LaRC DIDS AE             DFRC FBG strain measurement  WSTF FR Analysis Tool                   ...
Project Details by Center                            21
WSTF COPV Profilometry and Eddy Current Scanners       Sensor                                 Linear Stage                ...
Second Generation Laser Profilometry                                                                Delivery shaft        ...
Laser Profilometry of COPV interior surface quantifies liner      buckling which is difficult to inspect by other methodsC...
NESC Assisting with Internal EC Scanner Being           Developed (shown deployed)                                        ...
Scans of NNWG Vessel following Stress           Rupture testing    Internal (left) and external (right) radial scans of th...
WSTF: Automated AE for COPV Pass/FailGoal: Develop acoustic emission SHM hardware for ISS                                 ...
GRC: Acoustic Emission Analysis AppletGoal:                                            New Input FY12• Develop an Acoustic...
LaRC - Application of DIDS Hardware to COPVs Goal: •   Demonstrate the ability of flight certified hardware to     perform...
MSFC: Smart Layer for Smart COPVGoals:Define Critical Damage Accumulation (CDA) in Composite OverwrapPressure Vessel (COPV...
DFRC: Embedded Fiber Bragg GratingsObjectives• Perform real-time in-situ structural monitoring of COPVs by  acquiring 100s...
KSC: Magnetic Stress Gages (MSGs)Project Objectives• Design and demonstrate the ability of NDE sensors to measure  stresse...
KSC: Proof of Concept Hydrostatic Test•   Full COPV tested hydrostatically at KSC on February 5, 2011•   Vessel cycled to ...
Backup Slides                34
Example AE Results                             S/N 82 FAILURE.xls 21 December 2006                      1800              ...
Final Week of COPV Test Before Rupture                                 ~6 events / hour              ~2 events / hour     ...
Felicity ratio (FR)• Felicity ratio (FR) coupled with AE feature  analysis, especially peak frequency and energy, shows  p...
Results & DiscussionA 6.3-in. diameter IM-7 COPV was subjected to an ILH pressure                   schedule at LR ≈ 0.3 t...
Example COPV Test                                                Potential Pass/Fail Criteria                             ...
Results & DiscussionFFT (unfiltered) showing concerted failure using De Groot‟s                    frequency ranges       ...
Technique Development     Carbon Stress Rupture Test System                                         Conventional strain ga...
Inspection ChallengesCOPVs used on ISS, the Orion Crew/Service Modules, and most otherexploration spacecraft potentially n...
Nitrogen Tank Assembly                         43
Plasma Contactor Unit                        44
ISS Payloads, Experiments, Systems               Six GBUs in KiboAMS                                  Space DRUMS         ...
SAFER        SAFER (9”Lx6.6”D)                            46
Contributing Information•   4th IAASS Conference - Making Safety Matter , Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Results...
Contributing Information•   G.P. Sutton & O. Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New   ...
Relevant Literature (non-inclusive list)1.   AIAA     –        S-080 Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurize...
Background – ASTM E07.10 TG of NDE     of Aerospace Composites• In late 2004, NASA took the lead in initiating efforts to ...
Background – ASTM Standards Developed      Since 2005 and Current Plan20052010                                  NDE of Fla...
52
53
PRCS Thruster Injector Crack NDE
Composite Thickness Measurement                                                                55   Eddy Current System fo...
Pre Burst NDEEpoxy run                                  Black spots are                                  bad pixels from  ...
Nondestructive Testing at NASA WSTF
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Nondestructive Testing at NASA WSTF

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Nondestructive Testing at NASA WSTF

  1. 1. Overview• Quick overview of JSC-WSTF• Interesting Projects I have done and a reflection on the Shuttle Program• Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and related Structural Health Monitoring 2
  2. 2. 3
  3. 3. Orbiter and transport over the WSTF 300 area 4
  4. 4. Unique CapabilitiesSimulated altitude testing of full-scale integrated hypergolicpropulsion systemsLarge-scale explosion testing of hypergolic, cryogenic, Solid,and most new “green” propellantsComponent testing in high temp/high flow gaseous oxygen andhydrogenRepair depot for components in the toxic hypergolic propellant,oxygen, and hydrogen systems aboard Shuttle and ISSWhite Sands Space Harbor (WSSH) Flight testsAgency facility for hypervelocity impact testing, includingaccommodations for hazardous targetsCapability for all materials testing defined by NASA Standard6001 (NHB 8060.1C)Design and hazards analysis of oxygen and hydrogen systems 5
  5. 5. WSTF Propulsion Test Activities Eight engine/system test stands (5 vacuum cells) Long-duration high- altitude simulation Hypergolic and cryogenic liquid rocket systems Flight component repair and refurbishmentRocket Engine Firing Inside Flushing Primary RCS thruster Vacuum Test Cell propellant valve Propulsion Test Area 400 Altitude Simulation System Operation for Rocket Engine Tests
  6. 6. WSTF Laboratories Test Activities • NHB 8060.1 Testing • Oxygen Hazards Assessment • Propellant Characterization • Ignition & Combustion Testing • Material Compatibility • Component Development, Acceptance & QualificationPropellant & Explosion Hazards Assessment Hypervelocity Impact Testing
  7. 7. Molecular Analysis of Surface Effects Using X-rayPhotoelectron Spectroscopy Instrument Other X-ray: • SEM EDAX • CT (up to 450 KV) 8
  8. 8. Hypervelocity and Low Velocity Impact Test Facilities Shuttle Window Pit Caused by Paint Chip .07, .17, .30, .50, and 1 caliber two-stage light gas guns capable of propelling 0.25 to 22 mm 9 projectiles in excess of 7.0 km/s (16,000 mi/h)
  9. 9. WSTF Nondestructive Evaluation CapabilityTraditional:• Thermography: pressurized, flash, heat soak and through transmission• HD Shearography: pressurized, thermal excitation• Radiography• X-ray CT: metals and composites• Ultrasound: A-scan, B-Scan, C-scan, thickness measurement• Handheld eddy current probes and bolt scanner• Certified visual inspection and training classesNew Methods• Laser profilometry: scanning of Composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs)• Eddy current: scanning of COPV liner (inside and out)• Raman Spectroscopy (strain and stress rupture progression)Structural Health Monitoring• Matrix ultrasonic senses (i.e., Acellent and Metis)• Acoustic Emission: Acceptance testing, Damage detection and failure prediction• Surface and embedded Fiber optic health monitoring: strain, acoustic, shape sensing 10
  10. 10. NNWG.org 11
  11. 11. 12
  12. 12. Shearography NDT System Schematic Diagram Shearography Image Calibration Laser : Narrow Line, Variable Diffusion Device/Data Beam Test Part (Honeycomb Panel Shown) CCD Computer & Camera Imaging Software Phase Stepper P1 Phase Stepper Controller P2 Beam Phase Splitter Shift Monitor Mirror 2 Axis TiltImages & Test Part MirrorData Stress Controller & Disbond Sensors Skin to Core Vacuum Thermal Test Part Vibration Stress Device (Thermal Shown)
  13. 13. Shearography Test Results By Stress Method Thermal Shearography Aluminum Honeycomb Panel Pressure Shearography COPV Vacuum Shearography Composite/Nomex Honeycomb Acoustic Shearography Foam Cryogenic Fuel Tank TPS
  14. 14. Carbon Fiber/Nomex Core Shearography NDT Std. • Double/Single Teflon Inserts • Milled Flat Bottom Holes • Representative Foreign Material in composite layers 0.25 0.5 0.875 1.5 inches 0.08 Delamination
  15. 15. 25 Ply Carbon Fiber Laminate Panel With Teflon Insert • Well consolidated Carbon fiber laminate • Round Teflon Insert is seen with Thermal shearography. • Smaller disbond seen on top of insert.
  16. 16. High Definition Shearography• The LTI-5100HD Advanced Shearography System, equipped with a TES-200 thermal excitation unit, has greatly improved the ability to baseline the received stress state and monitor and identify visually undetectable subsurface impact damage. – The need is to correlate damage to response and do POD studies – Physical defect standards help Composite overwrapped pressure vessel 17 Pressure shearograph of COPV impacts inspection (top) and thermal shearograph of a delivered using a 0.5 in. ball-end tup vessel with delaminations and a void (bottom)
  17. 17. “Smart COPV” Integrated COPV Structural HealthMonitoring (SHM) Systems That Target Space Exploration and ISS Needs
  18. 18. Background Cont’d• Future NASA missions may not be successful without SHM (ref. OCT Roadmaps)• Potential near-term needs include carbon-epoxy (C/Ep) COPVs used on ISS, ISS Nitrogen-Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) if reused, the Orion crew and service modules, and as nearly all future long duration NASA spacecraft missions – Incidental but direct benefits also exist for COPVs used in DOT liquid natural gas and hydrogen storage applications – Other composite structures of interest are load bearing, fracture critical composite materials used in DoD, commercial aerospace and NASA applications (the latter include composite structures being developed under NASA„s Composites for Exploration program plus several precursor programs (i.e., LSSM, both wet and dry structures), especially where cyclic loading is experienced Nitrogen Tank Assembly 19 High Pressure Gas Tank - Oxygen (45”L×19.7”D) HPGT COPV (37.89”D)
  19. 19. GRC AE Analysis Applet LaRC DIDS AE DFRC FBG strain measurement WSTF FR Analysis Tool KSC MSG stress measurement Smart COPV WSTF/LaRC Eddy MSFC FOAE Current & Profilometry FBGs AE AE waveform analysis Las Gatos COPV ResultsWSTF COPV burst prediction
  20. 20. Project Details by Center 21
  21. 21. WSTF COPV Profilometry and Eddy Current Scanners Sensor Linear Stage Upper Vessel Positioning Stage Calibration Fixture Vessel PlugCentering Guide Lower Vessel External Eddy Current (EC) Positioning Stage External Profilometer added to Probe added Original Scanner Figure 1 – WSTF Cylindrical COPV Mapping System Original Internal Profilometer 12-foot Orion Internal Profilometer developed and verified on simulator vessel 7-foot NORS Internal Profilometer developed, verified and actively being used by the Articulated sensor developed to ISS NORS Program 22 X-Y Coupon Scanner inspect COPV domes in NORS developed Internal Profilometer
  22. 22. Second Generation Laser Profilometry Delivery shaft Outrigger arms Laser exit port Laser receiving port 23 Articulated sensor allows scanning of Ellipsoidal ends
  23. 23. Laser Profilometry of COPV interior surface quantifies liner buckling which is difficult to inspect by other methodsCalibration traceable to National Standard and demonstrated better than 240.001 accuracy/repeatability on 26-in and better than 0.002 accuracy/repeatability on 40-in
  24. 24. NESC Assisting with Internal EC Scanner Being Developed (shown deployed) Collapsible internal EC probe deployed for scans (conceptual design) 25Internal EC probe shown interfaced to existing laboratory stage
  25. 25. Scans of NNWG Vessel following Stress Rupture testing Internal (left) and external (right) radial scans of the same vessel. 26
  26. 26. WSTF: Automated AE for COPV Pass/FailGoal: Develop acoustic emission SHM hardware for ISS Felicity Ratio Analysis Tool (FRAT)• Automate FFT batch processing• Implement AE pattern recognition• Promulgate consensus pass/fail criteria for COPVsApproach: Statistical Physics vs. Stochastic model used• Determine „in-family‟ behavior of well-characterized specimens/test articles• Predict behavior of unknown based on population response• Tailor method to actual in-service pressure schedulesStatus: In-house software & AE methods developed• FR analysis software developed – Statistical methods developed – Application of above methods to COPVs demonstrated – EWMA „knee‟ method developed (excellent preliminary results)• Data acquisition parameters optimized C/Ep Comparative Damage Tolerance• Response surfaces for C/Ep materials-of-construction generated 1.3 1.3• Burst pressure for a COPV predicted 1.2 1.2 Felicity Ratio 1.1 1.1 Burst Prediction for COPVs 1.0 1.0 0.9 T1000 carbon/epoxy tow 0.9 IM-7 carbon/epoxy tow Kevlar 49/epoxy tow C/Ep Strand Testing 0.8 IM-7 carbon/epoxy COPV 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 27 Load Ratio
  27. 27. GRC: Acoustic Emission Analysis AppletGoal: New Input FY12• Develop an Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet to produce a „Smart‟ real-time analysis capability to support NASA missionsApproach:• Use consensus AE waveform characterization parameters, e.g., amplitude, counts, rise time, duration, centroid and peak frequencies, etc., to differentiate composite damage eventStatus:Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet derived•from AEAA software:data set size Rewrote for UNLIMITED• All events available for viewing in Applet using slider control• Translator from .WAVE  NDF incorporated into Applet• Can subset and threshold events for analysis• Time/Event File generated• AE Statistics vs. Time generated/saved to spreadsheet file• User Manual written• Currently being beta-tested by WSTF 28
  28. 28. LaRC - Application of DIDS Hardware to COPVs Goal: • Demonstrate the ability of flight certified hardware to perform AE measurements in COPVs Approach: • Evaluate the ability of the Distributed Impact Detection DIDS system with sensors and System (DIDS) to capture AE events during testing short cables • Evaluate system‟s throughput vs. the requirements of a measuring a COPV • Assess the DIDS‟ ability to function as an IVHM system Status: • DIDS hardware has been certified for on-orbit application and is currently on orbit, being used to support the SDTO project UBNT DIDS system installed behind rack in Node 2 29
  29. 29. MSFC: Smart Layer for Smart COPVGoals:Define Critical Damage Accumulation (CDA) in Composite OverwrapPressure Vessel (COPV) before stress rupture occurs and corroborate FBG(CDA) with a know NDE inspection standard: AE Felicity ratio; sAdditional, damage severity and location is desired.Approach:1. Perform cycle testing of COPV until Keizer effect is violated. COPV integrated At reduced loading, damage index will be measured. Smart layers2. Leverage funding from OCT and Composite for ExplorationStatus: Impacts on sandwich1. Tested composite laminate with foam core. foam. Damage was2. Currently have three 18‟” COPV that will be located and quantified tested at MSFC and possibly one at WSTF. by Acellent Smart Patch.
  30. 30. DFRC: Embedded Fiber Bragg GratingsObjectives• Perform real-time in-situ structural monitoring of COPVs by acquiring 100s of fiber Bragg grating measurements from sensors Theoretical embedded within the composite structure of the COPV development• Develop analytical and experimental methods to reliably interpret Coupon testing strain measurements from embedded FBG sensors• Develop a robust “early-warning” indicator of COPV catastrophic failureApproach• Analytically model the embedded FBG sensors Analysis and Modeling• Attach 100s of FBG sensors to outer COPV surface• Conduct baseline testing of surface FBGs• Overwrap bottle (surface FBGs become embedded)• Instrument new sensors on new outer surface• Test to failure; correlate data at each stepStatus:• Hypercomp COPV Testing Complete Sensor Installation • Instrumented COPV with 1600 FBGs (800 embedded and 800 surface mounted)• GD T1000 Bottle – Surface sensor testing complete• Bottle being overwrapped this week (4/27)• Final burst tests planned for June 2012 at WSTF Embedding / Fabrication Failure Testing 31
  31. 31. KSC: Magnetic Stress Gages (MSGs)Project Objectives• Design and demonstrate the ability of NDE sensors to measure stresses on the inner diameter of a COPV overwrap.• Results will be correlated with other NDE technologies such as acoustic emission (AE)• Project will build upon a proof-of-concept study performed at KSC which demonstrated the ability of MSGs to measure stresses at internal overwraps and upon current AE research being performed at WSTF• Ultimate goal is to utilize this technology as a key element of health monitoring under the “Smart COPV” Program – Applicable to essentially all future flight programs 32
  32. 32. KSC: Proof of Concept Hydrostatic Test• Full COPV tested hydrostatically at KSC on February 5, 2011• Vessel cycled to 8,000 psi and back to zero stopping at 2,000 psi increments – Pressure chosen to mimic MEOP – Estimated design burst pressure of COPV is 16,000 psi• Based on coupon tests 3 sensor configurations were chosen – Different wavelength to obtain various depth of penetration• Tests were performed with 3 sensor orientations – 90º, 60º and 17º to align sensor drive with fiber orientations 33
  33. 33. Backup Slides 34
  34. 34. Example AE Results S/N 82 FAILURE.xls 21 December 2006 1800 1600 RUPTURE TIME: 91 hrsNumber of AE Events 1400 1200 1000 800 600 ADVANCE NOTICE: 1.98 hrs 400 200 0 52000 53000 54000 55000 56000 57000 58000 59000 60000 AE indications begin to accumulate well before rupture occurs. Time (sec) The synchronization of these data to strain and temperature indications will be accomplished in the next phase of our project 35
  35. 35. Final Week of COPV Test Before Rupture ~6 events / hour ~2 events / hour 36
  36. 36. Felicity ratio (FR)• Felicity ratio (FR) coupled with AE feature analysis, especially peak frequency and energy, shows promise as analytical pass/fail criteria 37
  37. 37. Results & DiscussionA 6.3-in. diameter IM-7 COPV was subjected to an ILH pressure schedule at LR ≈ 0.3 to 0.9 Pressure & Events vs. Time 0 to 17500 s 17500 to 37500 s (cont.) AE due to significant composite damage LR below autofrettage P = 0.89 Event No. (filtered data) Event No. (filtered data) Potential Pass/Fail Criteria Lower load hold AE indicative of severe accumulated damage same test 38 38 continued
  38. 38. Example COPV Test Potential Pass/Fail Criteria FR < 1; The true limit is structurally dependant (0.95-0.99).Felicity ratio results for an IM7 composite overwrapped pressure vessel pressurized to 6800 psi and then to burst at 7870 psi 39
  39. 39. Results & DiscussionFFT (unfiltered) showing concerted failure using De Groot‟s frequency ranges fiber breakage matrix cracking pull-out debonding 40
  40. 40. Technique Development Carbon Stress Rupture Test System Conventional strain gauges installed near fiber Bragg gratings, relative to laser profilometry map20 Carbon Vessels and real-time NDE in 41WSTF Lexan protective enclosure allowsinspection while at test pressure
  41. 41. Inspection ChallengesCOPVs used on ISS, the Orion Crew/Service Modules, and most otherexploration spacecraft potentially need inspection under various scenarios,but they are often inaccessible – If it can be implemented, monitoring may address most needs – The concept of snakes/endoscopic NDE may help if provisions are made for in-space inspection or ports can be made • Explore micro-meteoroid & orbital debris (MMOD) strike site and through to COPV surface if structure is penetrated • Must be qualified to work in a space environment if used for EVA – Imaging of composite through the metal structure and insulation may help if adequate sensitivity is demonstrated 42
  42. 42. Nitrogen Tank Assembly 43
  43. 43. Plasma Contactor Unit 44
  44. 44. ISS Payloads, Experiments, Systems Six GBUs in KiboAMS Space DRUMS 45
  45. 45. SAFER SAFER (9”Lx6.6”D) 46
  46. 46. Contributing Information• 4th IAASS Conference - Making Safety Matter , Nondestructive Evaluation and Monitoring Results from COPV Accelerated Stress Rupture Testing, NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) (No. 1878627)• Use of Modal Acoustic Emission to Monitor Damage Progression in Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Tows and Implications for Composite Structures, ASNT Fall Conference & Quality Testing Show, NASA NDE II Houston, TX• New ASTM Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Aerospace Composites, ASNT Fall Conference & Quality Testing Show, NASA NDE II Houston, TX Jess M. Waller and Regor L. Saulsberry NASA-JSC White Sands Test Facility 48th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, AIAA-2007-2324 , Overview: Nondestructive Methods and Special Test Instrumentation Supporting NASA Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Assessments• NDE Methods for Certification and Production/Performance Monitoring of Composite Tanks, David McColskey, Marvin Hamstad, Regor Saulsberry, Jess Waller• Shearography NDE of Composite Over-Wrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs), ASNT Fall Conference 2007 Survey of Nondestructive Methods Supporting Shuttle and ISS Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel (COPV) Testing, Aging Aircraft Conference , 2006 47
  47. 47. Contributing Information• G.P. Sutton & O. Biblarz, Rocket Propulsion Elements, 7th Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2001, ISBN 0-471-32642-9. 2. D.K. Huzel & D.H. Huang, Modern Engineering for Design of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines, Vol 147, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Published by AIAA, Washington DC., 1992, ISBN 1-56347-013-6. 3. V. Yang, T. B. Brill, W.-Z. Ren, Solid Propellant Chemistry, Combustion, and Motor Interior Ballistics, Published by AIAA, Washington DC, 2000, ISBN 1-56347-442-5 4. F.-K. Chang, ed., Structural Health Monitoring 2005, DEStech Publications, 2005, ISBN 1-932078-51-7 48
  48. 48. Relevant Literature (non-inclusive list)1. AIAA – S-080 Space Systems - Metallic Pressure Vessels, Pressurized Structures, and Pressure Components – S-081A Space Systems - Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs)2. ASME – STP-PT-021 Non Destructive Testing and Evaluation Methods for Composite Hydrogen Tanks3. ASTM – E 1419 Test Method for Examination of Seamless, Gas-Filled, Pressure Vessels Using Acoustic Emission – E 1736 Practice for Acousto-Ultrasonic Assessment of Filament-Wound Pressure Vessels – E 2191 Test Method for Examination of Gas-Filled Filament-Wound Composite Pressure Vessels Using Acoustic Emission – E 2581 Practice for Shearography of Polymer Matrix Composites, Sandwich Core Materials and Filament- Wound Pressure Vessels in Aerospace Applications4. ISO – 14623 Space Systems - Pressure Vessels and Pressurized Structures - Design and Operation (similar to AIAA S-080 and -081, and NASA-STD-5009)5. NASA – MSFC-RQMT-3479 Fracture Control Requirements for Composite and Bonded Vehicle and Payload Structures – NASA-STD-5007 General Fracture Control Requirements for Manned Spaceflight Systems – NASA-STD-5009 Nondestructive Evaluation Requirements For Fracture Control Programs • JSC Special Addendum Physical Crack Standard – NASA-STD-5019 Fracture Control Requirements for Spaceflight Hardware – NASA-STG-5014 Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Implementation Handbook for Fracture Control Programs (draft)6. Miscellaneous – AFSPCMAN 91-710 – CSA NGV2-2000 Basic Requirements for Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Fuel Containers – KHB 1710.2D – MIL-STD-1522 Standard General Requirements for Safe Design and Operation of Pressurized Missile 49 and Space Systems
  49. 49. Background – ASTM E07.10 TG of NDE of Aerospace Composites• In late 2004, NASA took the lead in initiating efforts to develop national voluntary consensus standards for NDE of aerospace composite materials, components and structures• ASTM Task Group (TG) for NDE of Aerospace Composites formed in January 2005 (under ASTM E07.10)• The TG has been meeting twice a year since formation: – currently comprised of 116 members – chaired by George Matzkanin from TRI/Austin – other principals include Jess Waller and Regor Saulsberry, NASA-JSC White Sands Test Facility; and Tom Yolken, TRI/Austin• Initial focus was on polymer matrix composite material with relatively simple geometries such as flat panel laminates• Current focus is on composite components with more complex inspection geometries, specifically COPVs – metallic liner (WK 29068) – composite overwrap (WK 29034) – liner/overwrap interface 50 – Guide (TBD)
  50. 50. Background – ASTM Standards Developed Since 2005 and Current Plan20052010 NDE of Flat Panel Composite Standard Practices and Guide2011 5-year re-approval2012 of E2580, E2580 and E25812013 NDE of COPV Standard Practices, Feasibility of NDE of COPV Guide 51
  51. 51. 52
  52. 52. 53
  53. 53. PRCS Thruster Injector Crack NDE
  54. 54. Composite Thickness Measurement 55 Eddy Current System for Real-time COPV Composite Thickness
  55. 55. Pre Burst NDEEpoxy run Black spots are bad pixels from imager Void Indications Thermography Image 56

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