esl for the mainstream classroom by Charles Mackenzie-Smith


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esl for the mainstream classroom by Charles Mackenzie-Smith

  2. 2. Some Immersion Do you understand this commercial??? EmqeIWo Do you understand this commercial? n5_OKFw&feature=related
  10. 10. GESTURES(A guide to how we may misinterpret thingsand how ESL students may get the meaningconfused)
  11. 11. Discuss how body language couldinfluence communicationbetween cultures. Beckon with index finger. Point at something in the room using index finger. Make a "V" sign. Smile. Sit with sole of feet or shoe showing. Form a circle with fingers to indicate “O.K.” Pat a student on the head. Pass an item to someone with one hand. Wave hand with palm facing outward to greet someone. Nod head up and down to say “Yes.”
  12. 12. ANSWERS 1. Beckon with index finger. This means “Come here” in the U.S. To motion with the index finger to call someone is insulting, or even obscene, in many cultures. Expect a reaction when you beckon to a student from the Middle or Far East; Portugal, Spain, Latin America, Japan, Indonesia and Hong Kong. It is more acceptable to beckon with the palm down, with fingers or whole hand waving. 2. Point at something in the room using index finger. It is impolite to point with the index finger in the Middle and Far East. Use an open hand or your thumb (in Indonesia) 3. Make a "V" sign. This means "Victory" in most of Europe when you make this sign with your palm facing away from you. If you face your palm in, the same gesture means "Shove it."
  13. 13. ANSWERS CONT. 4. Smile. This gesture is universally understood. However, it various cultures there are different reasons for smiling. The Japanese may smile when they are confused or angry. In other parts of Asia, people may smile when they are embarrassed. People in other cultures may not smile at everyone to indicate a friendly greeting as we do in the United States. A smile may be reserved for friends. It is important not to judge students or their parents because they do not smile, or smile at what we would consider "inappropriate" times. 5. Sit with soles shoes showing. In many cultures this sends a rude message. In Thailand, Japan and France as well as countries of the Middle and Near East showing the soles of the feet demonstrates disrespect. You are exposing the lowest and dirtiest part of your body so this is insulting.
  14. 14. ANSWERS CONT. 6. Form a circle with fingers to indicate “O.K.” Although this means “O.K.” in the U.S. and in many countries around the world, there are some notable exceptions: In Brazil and Germany, this gesture is obscene. In Japan, this means “money.” In France, it has the additional meaning of “zero” or “worthless.” 7. Pat a student on the head. This is very upsetting to students from Asia. The head is the repository of the soul in the Buddhist religion. Children from cultures which are influenced by Buddhism will feel uncomfortable if their head is touched.
  15. 15. ANSWERS 8. Pass an item to someone with one hand. - In Japan this is very rude. Even a very small item such as a pencil must be passed with two hands. In many Middle and Far Eastern countries it is rude to pass something with your left hand which is considered “unclean.” 9. Wave hand with the palm facing outward to greet someone. In Europe, waving the hand back and forth can mean “No.” To wave “good-bye,” raise the palm outward and wag the fingers in unison, This is also a serious insult in Nigeria if the hand is too close to another person’s face. 10. Nod head up and down to say “Yes.” In Bulgaria and Greece, this gesture means “No.”
  16. 16. WHY HAVE THE STUDENT IN MYCLASSROOM? Supported integration of ESL learners into age-appropriate classes is the ideal. ESL students cannot afford to wait until they have fully mastered the language to pursue their development in other spheres.
  17. 17. PROBLEMS OF THE ESLSTUDENT IN AN ALL ENGLISHCURRICULUM bWU238PymM&feature=related Linguistic  1. Difficulty understanding the teacher.  2. Difficulty understanding the materials (texts,films, resource books).  3. Difficulty understanding classroomEnglish.
  18. 18. PROBLEMS OF THE ESLSTUDENTCognitive1. Many ESL students may decode well, butcomprehend less.2. Many ESL students may have concepts,but are unable to articulate.
  19. 19. PROBLEMS : THE ESLSTUDENTAffective  1. Some ESL students may bring low self- conceptsto the classroom.  2. Some ESL students may feel that their languageis both academically and socially unworthy.  3. Many ESL students experience feelings of  frustration and powerlessness.
  20. 20. ABOUT KOREANS Primary school children learn English for four years from years 3 to 6. The phonetic system, the syntactic structure, and semantics of the two languages are so different that the transition from one language to the other requires enormous efforts from the learner.
  21. 21. MORE ABOUT KOREANS Unlikethe orthography of Korean language in which “each letter corresponds to a sound unit (phoneme)” (Suh, 2003:240), an English letter or grapheme does not have one sound or phoneme, but is pronounced in several different ways, depending on the word
  22. 22. MORE ABOUT KOREANS In English, the word order is SVO (subject- verb-object), while the basic pattern of a Korean sentence is SOV (subject-object- verb). Not only do they have difficulty in understanding and using individual words, idiomatic expressions, allusions and historical contexts, but they also find it hard to adjust to the different teaching methods
  23. 23. MORE ABOUT KOREANS Since many Korean students learn by rote, listening, reading, observing and imitating (Cheng, 1998) and are unaccustomed to discussion and debate, they appear passive, timid, defensive and even shy when they are invited to express their opinions and ideas clearly.
  24. 24. MORE ABOUT KOREANS In contrast to English students, Korean students tend to express themselves in general and indirect ways, even when asked to communicate their ideas. This is because they have been trained to think inclusively and express themselves indirectly in case they might offend others. Such a reserved attitude originates from Confucian thinking, in which moderation is considered the supreme virtue.
  25. 25. MORE ABOUT KOREANS the Family and Society Rank above the Individual. The first cultural difference that Korean learners may notice is the way that English-speaking people say and write their names. Unlike English-speaking people, Koreans put their family name first, followed by their given name, showing the importance of the family.
  26. 26. MORE ABOUT KOREANS Some students may avoid eye contact as a sign of respect to their elders and teachers. Students may frown when they concentrate, not necessarily because they are displeased. The students low tone of voice can often be interpreted as a sign of respect rather than a lack of confidence. Students are afraid of making mistakes and being ridiculed in front of their classmates. Students may look down when approached by a teacher, out of respect or awe and not because of impoliteness or unfriendliness
  27. 27. EVEN MORE ABOUT KOREANS Students may respond in short phrases because they may not feel confident or because they are too shy to respond. At the same time, when they have to elaborate their points, their discourse can become repetitive, redundant or circuitous. This is partly because of their shortage of vocabulary and partly because of their indirect way of expressing themselves. Volunteering information may be considered to be too bold and a form of showing off, and thus inappropriate.
  28. 28. LAST ONE ABOUT KOREANS Wangta syndrome. Wangta is a difficult word to define - perhaps the best English definition would be outcast. However, outcast doesnt really describe the self-imposed nature that often is part of this separation. You might want to ask another pupil you trust whether the other kids consider him to be a wangta or if hes just really shy. There are many reasons why someone might get stuck with this label, and its a very, very difficult thing for a teacher to do anything about.
  29. 29. I HAVE A NEW ESL STUDENT?HELLLLLLP!!!!! familiarise yourself with the student’s individual profiles (cultural background,prior education, current skills in English, etc.) byreviewing their initial assessment records andmeeting with the ESL teacher.  conduct your own quick assessment of student’s knowledge as appropriate for their grade level (e.g., for Primary students, vocabulary related to colours, numbers,shapes, directions, school facilities)
  30. 30. HELP!!! Determine whether your students know the Roman alphabet. If not, you need to allow time for plenty of practice. Those students who do know the Roman alphabet may not know or be able to read in cursive. In some cultures, however, students are taught to write in cursive first.
  31. 31. HELP!!!!! Make up a packet of beginning activities. Newcomer Programs are a source of reproducible materials. This will help you supply students with plenty of productive work. Introduce colours, numbers, shapes, number words, body parts, and survival vocabulary. Once your students know their colour words they can do a variety of activities.
  32. 32. HELP!!!!! acquire visual instructional aids or other materials and supplies that are particularly useful for enhancing or complementing verbal explanations. Experienced teachers have found that ESL students make better, faster, progress in the long run if they are given sufficient time to absorb new input and are not pressured to complete work ormeet the usual age-level performanceexpectations right away.
  33. 33. HELP!!! For a short time each day, have your students practise their English using a computer program. Do not overdo this as students need to interact with peers in order to learn English. Make a picture dictionary. To make a picture dictionary, staple sheets of construction paper together and have students cut pictures out of magazines. Use categories which complement your curriculum (for example, a Healthy Foods section to go with your health unit on nutrition). Encourage students to add to their Dictionary whenever possible. This is an excellent cooperative learning activity that mainstream students can share in.
  34. 34. HELP!!!! Read to your newcomers every day. This reading must be accompanied by pictures, gestures, dramatic voice to convey meaning. What great practice this is for mainstream first and second graders who are learning to read themselves.
  35. 35. The Stats. How long will it take??? Becoming proficient in the use of a second language takes time. Unreasonable expectations of progress (on the part of parents, teachers, or students themselves)can be counterproductive.
  36. 36. The Stats. How long will it take??? Thosestudents who were between 8-11 years old and had 2-3 years of native language education took 5-7 years to test at grade level in English. These were the lucky ones.
  37. 37.  Students with little or no formal schooling who arrived before the age of eight, took 7-10 years to reach grade level norms in English language literacy.
  38. 38. ESL Students have 3 major things that they are trying to develop simultaneously to grasp the knowledge, skills, and attitudes specific to various subjects to have a better command of the English language to develop an ability to interact with others and function within the social environment of the school.
  39. 39. ESL LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS/ STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT and the Silent Period If your new English language learner is not speaking, dont worry. Most newcomers go through a stage during which they do not produce language. This doesnt mean they are not learning. According to Stephen Krashen, most new learners of English will go through a “silent period” which is an interval of time during which they are unable or unwilling to communicate orally in the new language. The silent period may last for a few days or a year depending on a variety of factors:
  40. 40. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTCONT. Thesilent period occurs before ESL students are ready to produce oral language and is generally referred to as the “Pre-production” stage of language learning. They should not be forced to speak before they are ready and we don’t want to embarrass students by putting them on the spot.
  41. 41. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTCONT. ESLstudents need time to listen to others talk, to digest what they hear, to develop receptive vocabulary, and to observe their classmates’ interactions. When they do speak, we want the speech to be real and purposeful instead of contrived. This does not mean your students are not learning. They may understand what is being said, but they are not yet ready to talk about it.
  42. 42. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTCONT. What determines the length of the" silent period?" There are several factors involved. First, personality plays a key role. A normally shy and quiet youngster in native language is usually going to take longer before they feel comfortable speaking. Native culture will also play a role. In many cultures, for example, girls are not expected to speak out. They play a more passive role in family and classroom dynamics.
  43. 43. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTCONT.Teacher instruction is also an important factor inthe length of the silent period. If the teacherprovides "hands-on" activities and has studentsinteract in small groups, ESL students will be ableto participate in the life of the classroom a lotsooner. They will feel more confident in riskingoral language. It should not be assumed thatyoung learners of English do not feelembarrassment or shyness when attempting tospeak in a second language.
  44. 44. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTCONT.The Pre-production Stage of Language Learning  Your students are learning during this silent, pre-production stage. They are acquiring language every day.  They may have up to 500 words in their receptive vocabulary.  New learners of English can listen attentively and they may even be able to copy words from the board.  They will be able to respond to pictures and other visuals.  They can understand and duplicate gestures and movements to show comprehension.  Choral reading and Total Physical Response methods will work well with them.
  45. 45. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTCONT. English language learners at this stage will need much repetition of English. They will benefit from a “buddy” who speaks their language. Teachers should focus attention on listening comprehension activities and on building a receptive vocabulary.
  46. 46. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTStage II: Early production This stage may last up to six months and students will develop a receptive and active vocabulary of about 1000 words. During this stage, students can usually speak in one- or two-word phrases. They can use short language chunks that have been memorized although these chunks may not always be used correctly.
  47. 47. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTHere are some suggestions for working with students in this stageof English language learning: Ask yes/no and either/or questions. Accept one or two word responses. Give students the opportunity to participate in some of the whole class activities. Use pictures and realia to support questions. Modify content information to the language level of ELLs. Build vocabulary using pictures. Provide listening activities. Simplify the content materials to be used. Focus on key vocabulary and concepts. When teaching elementary age ELLs, use simple books with predictable text. Support learning with graphic organizers, charts and graphs. Begin to foster writing in English through labeling and short sentences. Use a frame to scaffold writing.
  48. 48. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTStage III: Speech emergence Students have developed a vocabulary of about 3,000 words and can communicate with simple phrases and sentences. They will ask simple questions, that may or may not be grammatically correct, such as “ May I go to bathroom? ” ELLs will also initiate short conversations with classmates. They will understand easy stories read in class with the support of pictures.
  49. 49. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Here are some simple tasks they can complete: Sound out stories phonetically. Read short, modified texts in content area subjects. Complete graphic organizers with word banks. Understand and answer questions about charts and graphs. Match vocabulary words to definitions. Study flashcards with content area vocabulary. Participate in duet, pair and choral reading activities. Write and illustrate riddles. Understand teacher explanations and two-step directions. Compose brief stories based on personal experience.
  50. 50. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTStage IV: Intermediate fluency  English language learners at the intermediate fluency stage have a vocabulary of 6000 active words. They are beginning to use more complex sentences when speaking and writing and are willing to express opinions and share their thoughts. They will ask questions to clarify what they are learning in class. These English language learners will be able to work in grade level maths and science classes with some teacher support. Comprehension of English literature and social studies content is increasing. At this stage, students will use strategies from their native language to learn content in English.
  51. 51. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Student writing at this stage will have many errors as ESL students try to master the complexity of English grammar and sentence structure. Many students may be translating written assignments from native language. They should be expected to synthesize what they have learned and to make inferences from that learning. This is the time for teachers to focus on learning strategies. Students in this stage will also be able to understand more complex concepts.
  52. 52. STAGES OF DEVELOPMENTStage V: Advanced Fluency It takes students from 4-10 years to achieve cognitive academic language proficiency in a second language. Student at this stage will be near-native in their ability to perform in content area learning. Most ESL students at this stage have been exited from ESL and other support programs. At the beginning of this stage, however, they will need continued support from classroom teachers especially in content areas such as history/social studies and in writing.
  53. 53. WHAT CAN I DO?? Essentially, there are three components to modify for an ESL student:• Content (the curriculum, essential ideas,key understandings, vocabulary, terms, etc.)• Instruction (the method of presentation,classwork expected of the student, andmaterials provided to the student)• Assessment (the manner in which studentknowledge is evaluated and graded)
  54. 54. MODIFYING CONTENT Early Beginner: identify two or three essential ideas for students to learn and several background words that would be helpful for students. For example, if you are teaching a unit on the properties of fluids, these new students might be able to learn words such as: water, solid, fluids, liquid, soft, hard, wet, and so on. High Beginner / Intermediate: Identify several essential ideas for students to learn and a concentrated list of core vocabulary. These ESL students would benefit from a shortened list of the vocabulary that youve identified as important for this unit. Advanced: These ESL students should be expected to learn the majority or all of the content that you teach to regular education students. However, they may need more time to complete assignments, demonstrate their knowledge, and more support and structure during lessons and assignments.
  55. 55. WHAT CAN I DO ?InstructionTip: ESL students need modified instruction tolearn both English and content.  Modifying instruction is critical to ESL students’ success.  However, modifying instruction doesn’t mean creating a second lesson plan or curriculum; it just means changing some of the ways you do things. Most of your native English- speaking students can benefit from modifications as well.
  57. 57. MODIFYING ASSESSMENT EarlyBeginner / Beginner students: Alternate assessments High Beginner / Intermediate students: Simplified and/or Modified assessments Advanced Students: Modified and/or Accommodated assessments
  58. 58. WHAT IS AN ALTERNATEASSESSMENT?Alternate: Allow the ESL student to demonstrate theirknowledge in a completely different format. Generally, forbeginning students with limited proficiency in English, pictures,drawing, and short verbal explanations work best. At thisstage, the student is generally only graded on content, andnot on spelling, grammar, or stylistics.  • Label a picture or diagram  • Draw a picture that demonstrates a key idea  • Explain an idea orally  • Answer a few questions orally  • Draw lines between vocabulary terms and pictures  • Allow students to submit a project in lieu of an in-class test. The project might take a week or more for the student to complete.
  59. 59. WHAT IS A SIMPLIFIEDASSESSMENT?Simplified: Develop a short assessment thatevaluates only the essential ideas and corevocabulary that the ESL student wasrequired to learn.• True/false• Multiple choice with two answers• Matching with a limited number ofchoices• Word bands provided
  60. 60. WHAT IS MODIFIEDASSESSMENT?Modified: Use the same test that youve prepared for regulareducation students, but shorten it and focus on essential ideasand core vocabulary.• Cross out half of the questions• Require students to complete only certain portions of the test• Provide a word bank (write it on the test)• Allow students to choose to answer 5 of 10 questions• Provide multiple choice answers for questions that wouldnormally require students to create an answer• Turn short answer into multiple choice• Shorten the length of the required answer• For multiple choice, cross out one or two of the incorrectanswers
  61. 61. WHAT IS ACCOMMODATEDASSESSMENT?Accommodated: Use the same test as usedfor regular education students, but alsoallow ESL accommodations such asextended time and the use of bilingualtranslators/dictionaries.
  62. 62. MORE WAYS TO MODIFYASSESSMENT A/Resource2.htm
  63. 63. THE KEY TRICK*****The trick to working with these studentsis to continually check in with themregarding how much they understand.Because these students have strong sociallanguage skills, it is easy to assume that theyunderstand much more than they doand/or that they have the backgroundknowledge needed to make good progress.
  64. 64. TIPS Technique: Use various teaching styles and tricks of the trade. Teach to varied learning styles be conscious of the vocabulary you use teach the language of the subject Give students more wait time: at least 15-20 seconds Use cooperative learning and put students in groups with English-speaking students Use lots of visuals, like graphic organizers and pictures
  65. 65. TIPS Use physical activity: model, role-play, act out Repeat and rephrase often Emphasize the 5-8 most important vocabulary words of a lesson Focus on the 2-3 key concepts of a lesson Give students an outline of the lesson that highlights the key concepts
  66. 66. TIPS Let ESL students copy your or someone else’s notes Write in print unless specifically teaching the manuscript alphabet Give simple instructions Use concrete language and questions Simplify complex questions rephrase idioms or teach their meaning
  67. 67. TIPS CONTSENSITISE YOUR STUDENTS- students a bilingual or English-speaking study buddyThings your peer buddies can do with your newcomers:  Help them learn the classroom routine.  Take them to ESL class and back again.  Sit with them at lunch.  Learn how to communicate with them using gestures and short phrases.  Teach them the ABCs, numbers and beginning vocabulary.  Include them in games on the playground.  Play student-made vocabulary games with them.  Listen to taped books with them.  Walk home with them or sit with them on the bus.  Learn a few words of the newcomers language.
  68. 68. ESSENTIALS Technique: Allow for flexibility in the tasks you assign. Reduce assignments Simplify complex tasks Give ESL students extra time to do work or complete projects Adapt the task to the students’ skill levels Ignore spelling or grammar errors except for when explicitly taught Allow students to take breaks when working: their brains tire quickly! clearly mark transitions during classroom activities
  69. 69. LISTENING TIPSListening  Make your lectures more accessible  Record them (demonstrate)  Make copies of your outline  Build word banks  Write key words and phrases on board/overhead  Write out as much as you can what you are saying  Avoid whole-class lectures. ESL students cannot follow a lecture without a lot of structure and intervention.
  71. 71. SPEAKING TIPS CONT. Add contextual clues Use gestures, speak with your hands--to make things easier Use concrete referents, like props and visuals Negotiate meanings Use confirmation checks . “What am I saying?” ,not, “Do you understand?.” Use expansions--synonyms or antonyms Use repetition and review Keep cooperative groups small--no more than 3 per group
  72. 72. READING TIPS Record the readings (or have a student record them) Summarize the readings Let ESL students pre-read in the first language (if you have access to material) Pre-teach vocabulary QUIZLET flash-cards/ Modify or shorten reading assignments Give ESL students a highlighted text Give ESL students review outlines Let them use bilingual dictionaries--This doesn’t give away answers.
  73. 73. WRITING TIPS Use manuscript or typed instructions on tests (They don’t read cursive well.) Let ESL students make a glossary Have them make flash cards Write every assignment on the board Use partially complete notes or outlines Ask fewer questions Number the paragraphs with the questions citing the paragraph number Take a photocopy from a student who takes good notes Label diagrams Use consistent sentence patterns
  74. 74. ENVIRONMENT TIPS Be very careful of your body language. Don’t shut them out.  Language is acquired much more rapidly in a safe environment.  You should have an atmosphere wherestudents realize it is okay to make mistakes(saving face)
  75. 75. 20 QUICK TIPS 1. Increase your own knowledge . Learn as much as you can about the language and culture. 2. Simplify your language Repetition and speaking information and speaking louder doesn’t help; rephrasing, accompanied body language, does
  76. 76. 20 Tips3. Announce the lesson’s objectives andactivities4. Write legibly.5. Demonstrate; use manipulative.6. Make sure of all senses.7. Bring realia into lessons.8. Adapt the materials. Don’t water downthe content.
  77. 77. 20 TIPS Pair or group language minority students with native speakers Develop a student-centered approach List and review instructions step-by-step. Build on the student’s prior knowledge. Increase wait time. Don’t force reticent students to speak.
  78. 78. TIPS CONTINUEDRespond to the message. If a student has the answer correct and you can understand it, don’t correct his or her grammar. The exact word and correct grammatical response will develop with time, especially with young children. Instead, repeat his or her answer, putting it into standard English, and let the student know that you are pleased with his or her response.
  79. 79. TIPS CONTINUED Supportthe student’s home language and culture; bring into the classroom.
  83. 83.  Functioning all day in a second language is exhausting and demanding. Homework can take these students two to three times longer to complete.
  84. 84.  Relax! ESL students have a specific need but not an insurmountable disability. With a little patience, kindness and determination on your part, you can play a large role in the ESL student’s successful integration into the school and his or her language development!