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Speeding and seat belt use: experiences from the Netherlands


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Speeding and seat belt use: experiences from the Netherlands

  1. 1. Speeding and seat belt use: experiences from the Netherlands Dr. Charles Goldenbeld Senior researcher SWOV Turkey, Ankara, May 8th 2013
  2. 2. Turkey, Ankara, C.Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Introduction SWOV SWOV • is a national institute • covers all relevant fields of road safety • is independent of policy making • is impartial in its results and is authorized to publish • results are used by Parliament, Ministries, regional and local authorities, peer/interest groups, professionals, practitioners, media, etc. Mission to contribute to improving road safety by means of scientific research and dissemination of the results To be achieved by: • promoting and executing scientific research • disseminating knowledge from research to road (safety) professionals • promoting and maintaining (inter)national relations • stimulating exchange of knowledge and experience
  3. 3. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Turkey and Netherlands: some basic statistics Characteristic Turkey Netherlands Population 79,7 mln. 16,7 mln. Land area 769.630 sq. km 33.730 sq. km Length Motorways 2080 km (2010) (Wikipedia) 2400 km (2010) No. Road fataliltes 10.000 (WHO) 650 (2012) No. Cars 7,5 mln. (2010) (Wikipedia) 8,0 mln. (2010) No. Motorcycles 2,4 mln. (2010) (Wikipedia) 0,6 mln. (2010) No. Cyclists ? 1,1 bike per inhabitant
  4. 4. Turkey, Ankara, C.Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Contents presentation • Traffic enforcement • Speeding enforcement • Seat belt enforcement and campaigns • Conclusions
  5. 5. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Traffic enforcement Netherlands Question Answer Police resorts under … Ministry of Safety and Justice No. police regions 10 Active police officers 49.000 Traffic policing is … …. one of several tasks of police officers, about 3% policing task is spent on traffic duties Specialised traffic enfocement 25-27 officers in each region in specialised traffic enforcement teams Spearheads of enforcement Speeding, Alcohol, Seat belt use, Red light running, Helmet use of mopedists Latest developments Combining enforcement of traffic violations and criminal violations (theft, drugs, tax evasion) Use digital technology (cameras, Automatic Nummer Plate Recognition)
  6. 6. Turkey, Ankara, C.Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Why traffic enforcement? • Errors and violations on the road • Improve behaviour, save lives • Maintaining public order • Catching offenders = Justice • It‟s effective, it works • If fair and credible, public support will be high
  7. 7. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Traffic enforcement: balanced approach Finding right balance between: • Engineering, Education and Enforcement • Visible vs. less visible speed enforcement • „Hard‟ approach (enforce, fine) vs. „soft‟ (communication, warning, giving advice) • Use camera technology vs. personal contact
  8. 8. Definition speeding “Speeding encompasses excessive speed (driving above the speed limit) or inappropriate speed (driving too fast for the conditions, but within the limits). . Turkey, Ankara, C.Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Source: OECD/ECMT (2006). Speed management. OECD/ECMT Joint Transport Research Committee, Paris.
  9. 9. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Risks of speeding and speed variation Speed Mechanism Road safety result Higher speeds Less time to observe traffic Less time to detect danger Less time to react to danger Longer braking distance Less time for others to see or react to your vehicle Higher crash risk Higher speeds More energy to be absorbed in crash Higher risk of a serious injury Larger speed differences More overtakings, more conflicts Higher crash risk
  10. 10. Methods speed enforcement Netherlands Method of speed enforcement Where? Fixed speed cameras (≈ 1000), (analog cameras to be replaced by digital) On roads inside and outside urban areas (30/50/80/100/120 km/hr.) Mobile speed cameras (≈ 80) Mostly rural roads (80km/hr.) Section control (15) On highways (100/120 km/hr.) Lasergun checks with stopping offenders In major cities (50/70 km/hr.) Surveillance and stopping (repeat) offenders Mostly on motorways and highways Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  11. 11. Automatic speed enforcement Netherlands, 2011 Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Devices Number Digital speed cameras 180 Analog speed cameras 400 Red light/speed cameras 600 Section control systems 15
  12. 12. Estimated crash reduction speed checks: international research Enforcement practice Crash reduction 95% confidence interval Speed cameras -34% -27; -41 Stationary controls with separate team for stopping offenders -26% -22; -29 Composite controls -8% +5; -19 Moving patrol with marked car -6% +4; -16 Radar laser: same car detects and apprehends -1% +3; -5 Overall -18% -13; -23 Erke, A., Goldenbeld, Ch. & Vaa, T. (2009). Good practice in the selected key areas: Speeding, drink driving and seat belt wearing: Results from meta-analysis. Deliverable 9 of the PEPPER project. European Commission, Brussels. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  13. 13. Speed enforcement strategy: 10 golden rules 1 To maximize the road safety effects, speed enforcement should prevent speeding violations that are proven to be related with the number or severity of crashes 2 Speed enforcement should be part of an integrated speed management approach. 3 Speed enforcement is more effective if it is targeted at prioritised roads, areas, situations & times. 4 The credibility of speed enforcement is important (public perception & support important) 5 Speed camera enforcement is appropriate for a large concentration of traffic crashes at high- volume traffic locations. Physical policing can be a good alternative when crashes are more scattered. 6 Speed enforcement must be supported by setting safe and credible speed limits, by publicity, by legislation facilitating effective enforcement, and by appropriate sanctions. 7 Alternatives to negative sanctions, such as warning letters, educational courses, speed limiters, merit serious consideration by authorities, practitioners and researchers. 8 Speed enforcement is more effective if it has specified objectives and success criteria, and is monitored in terms of both outcomes and outputs. 9 Cooperation and partnerships between police, local authorities and data experts provides the best guarantee for problem-oriented, outcome-focused & evidence-based speed policing. 10 To the extent that new technologies facilitate voluntary speed control, police speed enforcement can direct itself more at detecting extreme or repeated speed offenders Source : DaCoTA (2012). Speed Enforcement, Deliverable 4.8 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA. SWOV, Leidschendam, C.Goldenbeld, 10 April 2013
  14. 14. Legislation seat belt use adult drivers Netherlands • January 1971: anchorage points and seat belts in the front of new cars were made compulsory. • June 1975: compulsory to use front seat belts • 1990: Obligatory fitting of rear seatbelts in new cars • April 1992: Obligatory use of seatbelts on rear seats (if present). Obligatory use of seatbelts in busses and lorries (if present) • January 1998: Seatbelts must be present in new commercial vehicles (delivery vans, buses) Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  15. 15. Legislation protective devices children • January 1976: Child on lap on front seat forbidden, children < 12 yrs must travel on rear seat, children between 6-12 yrs can travel on front seat with lap belt • European law 2003: children shorter than 1.35 m or 1.50 m must use a child protection device, in the front, as well as in the back of the car. • EU-legislation obligatory in 2006 in Netherlands Turkey, Ankara, C.Goldenbeld, May 8thl 2013
  16. 16. Importance of seat belt use for road safety in Netherlands • In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. • Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. • When last measured (in 2010), 97% of the front seat occupants in cars used a seat belt, and so did approximately 82% of backseat occupants. • In delivery vans, lorries and buses equipped with seat belts, the use of seat belts is lower. • Circa 68% of Dutch children are transported with sufficient protection. Turkey, Ankara,, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Source: SWOV (2012). SWOV Factsheet Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices.
  17. 17. Development of seat belt use in the Netherlands 1990-2010 Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  18. 18. Explanation increase seat belt use Netherlands 1990-2010 Three main explanatory factors: • Increased police enforcement (e.g. in 2007: 279.000 tickets for not wearing seat belt) • Yearly mass media and local publicity campaigns • Adults • Children • More comfortable seat belt systems in cars Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  19. 19. Example Dutch publicity campaign children: Goochem the Armadillo Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  20. 20. Goochem armadillo child seat belt campaign • The primary target groups were children aged 4 to 12 years and parents. The campaigns were intended to improve and confirm: • knowledge of seat belt regulation • positive attitudes towards correct use of seat belts • proper use of seat belts, especially by rear passengers • SUPREME-report: Goochem campaign is one of the most promising campaigns • The objective that 65% of the target group knows that new regulation for the transport of children by car will come into force per March 1st of 2006, was achieved. Before the campaign started only 28% of parents of children in the age of 4‐12 years knew this; afterwards 90% of them were familiar with the fact that the regulation changed per March 1st 2006. Furthermore after the campaign 87% of the target group knew that children below 135 cm have to use an approved child restraint (before the campaign this was 60%). Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Source: Silverans, P. & Neve, P. de (2007). SUPREME; Thematic Report Education and Campaigns. Directorate-General for Transport and Energy, European Commission, Brussels.
  21. 21. Goochem armadillo seat belt campaign • The campaign was embedded in a larger, over‐all communication strategy and involved all relevant authorities and organisations (integrated approach). • Good creative concept: “Goochem the Armadillo” was especially developed for the age group between 4 and 12 years. A rubber gadget in the shape of an Armadillo is offered to 1‐12 year old children that are fastened correctly. This little animal makes it attractive for children to wear their seat belts. Attached to the seat belt with Velcro, the soft latex toy is the cheerful little children‟s mate for safety on the backseat. • Positively framed message: The toy‟s message is not about the risks of not wearing your seat belt, but emphasizes that it‟s fun to wear your seat belt. • Also: Increased seat belt enforcement Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  22. 22. Goochem child seat belt campaign Elements media campaign targeting parents & children: • TV‐commercial “Goochem the Armadillo” is the main character in this commercial and encourages children to wear their seat belt (with a popular song) and to always „buckle up‟ themselves. • Radio commercial the same song was used as in the tv‐commercial. Five different versions were broadcasted, each with an‐other musical style (hip hop, funk, rock, original and house). The text is the same in each different version. • 185 billboards alongside the highways and national roads The bill‐board has a short and simple message which encourages everybody to wear their seat belt. • Website; The interactive website offers children (and their parents) an opportunity to watch and listen to the commercials, to read a story written by Goochem the Armadillo, to download a colouring picture, and to write a message to Goochem Turkey, Ankara, C.Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013
  23. 23. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013 Conclusions: Speed & seat belt enforcement • Enforcement to be integrated in a wider safe systems approach including Education and Engineering: (Sustainable Safe Vision, Vision Zero) • Speed enforcement: Start with Safe and credible limits to behaviour, present road users with „clear‟ and „right‟ road Environment, & credible enforcement (i.e. fair procedures and appropriate sanctions) • Seat belt enforcement: Teach road users/people where knowledge is lacking, target different road users (parents, children, professional drivers) and use positive messages/fun.
  24. 24. Thank you for your attention Thank the sponsor …. Turkey, Ankara, C. Goldenbeld, May 8th 2013