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Training Needs Analysis, Skills Auditing & Evaluation

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Training Needs Analysis, Skills Auditing and Training Evaluation/Return on Investment: Best Practice Principles and Process

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Training Needs Analysis, Skills Auditing & Evaluation

  1. 1. TRANSFORMING THE TRAINING FUNCTION: ANALYZING, DESIGNING, DEVELOPING, DELIVERING AND EVALUATING STRATEGIC LEARNING SOLUTIONS CHARLES COTTER EAGLE’S NEST LODGE AND CONFERENCE CENTRE 16-18 NOVEMBER 2016 www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter
  2. 2. 3-DAY, TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW • Understanding and Applying the ADDIE training process/cycle • Applying the Training Needs Analysis process • Applying the Skills Auditing process • Compiling Workplace Skills Plans (WSP) and Annual Training Reports (ATR) • Training Evaluation • Calculating Training Return on Investment (ROI) • Strategic Learning and Development • Case studies
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Skills development through education and training has always been the most powerful lever for improving both individual and institutional competitiveness of companies worldwide. • Governments and employers recognize the critical role a skilled and knowledgeable workforce can play in securing competitive advantages in international markets. • both common sense and economic research support the idea that the quality of a nation’s workforce is important for economic growth and social development. • Two factors are generally considered to be prime determinants of the quality of workforce, namely:  Labour productivity  The flexibility of the workforce
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION • It is of critical importance that management implements training to stimulate productivity. • Management has to realize that there are four (4) main factors in training that will increase the performance and resultant productivity of employees, namely:  Adequate knowledge of tasks  Requisite skills to perform their tasks  Motivation  Opportunity to effectively utilize other production resources • All the production factors are, however, dependent on the skills of workers at all levels – from senior level to competent technicians at the middle level to semi-skilled operators
  5. 5. THE BUSINESS VALUE OF EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT
  6. 6. INTRODUCTORY LEARNING ACTIVITY • Individual activity: • Complete the statement by inserting one (1) word only. As a L&D Manager, in order to optimize the impact and value of training, I need to/to be .…………………………………………………………………………. • Now find other learners with the same word as you. • Jot these words down on the flip-chart. • Each learner will have the opportunity to elaborate on their chosen word.
  7. 7. A-D-D-I-E PROCESS
  8. 8. GENERIC TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS/CYCLE • Step 1: Identify the overall business needs • Step 2: Identify the success criteria • Step 3: Establish individual training needs • Step 4: Design and develop a learning solution • Step 5: Review the learning solution • Step 6: Production of learning and instructional materials • Step 7: Implement the learning solution (delivery of training) • Step 8: Evaluate and Review the impact of training
  9. 9. INTRODUCTORY QUESTIONS • Individual activity: • List the critical success factors for the effective management of the training function. • Prioritize these critical success factors. • Given these critical success factors, what is the overall evaluation of the training function?
  10. 10. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS • Vertical alignment with business strategy and horizontal integration (bundling) • Ensure that the organization is future-proof i.e. sustainable competitive advantage and business continuity in a “business unusual” environment • L&D conducts environmental scanning and is highly attuned, sensitive to and pro-actively responsive of change • Apply metrics and analytics to demonstrate it’s strategic value and impact • Be a change agent and be pivotal and instrumental in transforming core business processes
  11. 11. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS – 6 POINT CHANGE PLAN REQUIRED • Training must re-engineer current functions and processes from: #1: Providing training programmes to providing business valued learning solutions #2: Being a cost centre to being a profit centre #3: Being transactional (administrative) to being transformational (strategic) - training administrators to being a strategic learning partners #4: Being people pleasers and comfort-seekers to making employees competitive and competent #5: Traditional, manual methods to technology-enabled learning #6: Training departments to learning factories (repositories of knowledge)
  12. 12. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR: INTEGRATION AND ALIGNMENT
  13. 13. PERFORMING A TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS (TNA) • The objectives and benefits of a training needs analysis • Levels of training needs • SDF responsibility in TNA • The TNA process
  14. 14. OBJECTIVES AND BENEFITS OF TNA • Provide necessary information on participants • Identify employee difficulties and performance problems • Identify important topic areas • Provide documentation and materials for training • Provide information on attitudes to training • Increase employee involvement • Help establish contact with subject specialists • Help estimate the cost of training • Save time, money and resources • Help tailor the service more accurately • Provide a means of measuring training effectiveness
  15. 15. LEVELS OF TNA • Organizational Needs  Identify key problem areas that affect performance on an organization- wide basis. • Job or Occupational Needs  The knowledge, skills, information, equipment, materials etc. needed to perform to standard in the job and the steps in performing the job • Individual Needs  This level ensures that individuals who need training are the ones who actually get it and that the training introduced bridges the gap between actual, current and desired, future performance.
  16. 16. SDF RESPONSIBILITY IN TNA • The role of the SDF is to offer expert advice to management about what training can and cannot achieve • To facilitate the needs assessment process so that it is a participative, transparent and in- house consulting role.
  17. 17. 6-STEP TNA PROCESS • Step One: Performing a situational and problem analysis • Step Two: Envisioning the desired end state • Step Three: Identifying the TNA methods • Step Four: Collecting data • Step Five: Reaching, sharing and presenting TNA findings • Step Six: Compiling an Implementation Plan of Action
  18. 18. STEP ONE: SITUATIONAL AND PROBLEM ANALYSIS • Focuses on getting a clear and realistic understanding of the situation or problem that we think training may address and on defining the starting point for the TNA. • Fundamental questions to ask? • A situational analysis is conducted to assess the unique requirements of a situation when there is a perception that everything is not as it should be. • Indicators (of a problem)? • Three types of problems:  Managerial  System  Job performance • Preferred environmental scanning tools: PESTEL and SWOT Analyses
  19. 19. ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING TOOLS SWOT Analysis PESTEL Analysis
  20. 20. STEP TWO: ENVISIONING THE DESIRED END STATE • Encourages you to ’draw a picture" of what the future will look like once the training needs have been addressed. A vision is a mental picture of a possible future state. Focus on:  What would success look like?  Where do we want to be?  Do we have the whole picture? • Step 2 represents the information that allows you to do a kind of gap analysis - between the present and the future. It becomes possible to work out how to get from now to then. Additional useful questions to ask are:  What are the challenges to getting the desired results?  Who else do we need to involve or convince to get the desired results?
  21. 21. STEP THREE: IDENTIFYING THE TNA METHODS • Who to ask?  Who knows the most?  Who wants to be involved?  Who would have a different perspective, who might derail the process if they are not involved?  Who can provide objective information? • What to ask?  How do you see the situation?  What do you think needs to be done?  What training is needed?  Is there anyone else we should talk to? • What data collection method/s to use?  Job analysis  Performance appraisal  Skills Auditing
  22. 22. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
  23. 23. FOCAL POINTS OF JOB ANALYSIS
  24. 24. JOB ANALYSIS FUNNEL
  25. 25. STEP FOUR: DATA COLLECTION • This step focuses on collecting, interpreting or processing the information so that you can work out what it is really telling you. • You need to: Identify the issues Prioritise the issues Prepare the information to share with others
  26. 26. STEP 5: REACHING, SHARING AND PRESENTING TNA FINDINGS • Your results must be shared in a way that will help you to move forward. • Decide: What you want to share How you want to share it
  27. 27. STEP 6: COMPILE AN IMPLEMENTATION PLAN OF ACTION • Now you must draw up a plan of action. • The objective is to ensure that everything you have done up to now does not go to waste. • Incorporation of findings into Workplace Skills Plan (WSP).
  28. 28. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the TNA process, apply steps 1-6 to a defined organizational context.
  29. 29. SKILLS AUDITING
  30. 30. FUNDAMENTALS OF SKILLS AUDITING • Costs and Benefits of Skills Audits • Understanding the concept, “competence”  “Applied Competence is the union of practical, foundational and reflexive competence” • Types of evidence • Techniques and Approaches for Conducting a Skills Audit  Panel approach  Consultant approach  One-on-one approach  Alternative approaches
  31. 31. INTRODUCTORY QUESTIONS • Q1: For any business manager, what is their most crucial financial and business risk mitigation tool? • Q2: For any Learning & Development Manager/Skills Development Facilitator, what is their most under-utilized people/skills risk mitigation tool?
  32. 32. ORIGIN OF THE WORD, “AUDIT” • The word audit originates from the Latin word ‘audire’ which means to “listen”. • An audit is a systematic, objective risk management tool for how well the workplace is complying with regulatory and policy requirements.
  33. 33. DEFINITION, PURPOSE AND OUTCOME OF SKILLS AUDITING • A skills audit is a snapshot that allows an organization to determine the level of skills and knowledge of the workforce. • It is compared against the competencies that are required in order to determine the gaps and to focus training and development accordingly. • Skills audits are conducted to determine training needs within an organization in order for that organization to improve its skills and knowledge. • A skills audit establishes an individual’s current competence against the skills matrix for a particular position. • A skills audit gathers more information than current qualifications levels. • The outcome of the skills audit process is a skills gap analysis.
  34. 34. V-I-P SKILLS AUDITING • Valid (accurate & correct Measurement) • Interrogative (3rd degree) • Protective (against skills & reputational risks)
  35. 35. BEST PRACTICE CRITERIA: SKILLS AUDITING • #1: A job analysis must be used as a basis for the skills audit • #2: Definitive performance standards must be developed, written, and provided to all stakeholders, regardless of the type of rating • #3: Raters are trained to use the rating instrument properly • #4: Formal appeal mechanisms must be in place and assessment results need to be reviewed to ensure fairness and reliability • #5: Multiple techniques/approaches are utilized and ratings are supported with documented examples of behaviour
  36. 36. BEST PRACTICE CRITERIA: SKILLS AUDITING • #6: Employees are given a chance to improve their skills through targeted development opportunities • #7: The 6 E’s - the Skills Auditing process is efficient, effective, economical, educational, ethical and evidentiary • #8: Compliance with the following principles of Skills Audits:  Fairness  Validity  Reliability  Transparency/ Openness  Constructive feedback  Objective • #9: The outcome of the skills audit generates predictive analytics and business intelligence, providing the organization with a strategic competitive advantage • #10: Skills Auditing must be a holistic, systematic, integrated and aligned approach
  37. 37. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Individual activity: • Review and evaluate your organization’s current skills audit process against the ten (10) best practice criteria. • Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies to address these process gaps.
  38. 38. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS FOR SKILLS AUDITS
  39. 39. STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE OF SKILLS AUDITING • The key piece of information an organization needs to improve and to deliver to its Mission Statement and strategy is to know what skills and knowledge the organization requires and what skills and knowledge the organization currently has. This information is essential for a number of reasons:  Without this information you don't know where to improve.  With this information your training and development will be better planned and more focused.  Recruiting needs are better defined and more likely to result in the most appropriate candidate.  Placement decisions are easier with knowledge of current competence levels.  Career pathing and succession planning is assisted with accurate information on individuals. • Meyer, Mabaso & Lancaster (2001) recommend proactive needs identification and a more futuristic approach to the assessment of training needs.
  40. 40. KEY BENEFITS OF A SKILLS AUDIT • Valid and valuable Workplace Skills Plans (WSP) • Improved skills and knowledge • Lower training and development costs because development efforts are more focused • Business intelligence - acquisition and use of information that can be used for purposes such as internal employee selection and placement • Increased productivity as people are better matched to their positions • The results of a skills audit can be reported for each division to show individual and divisional competency gaps against competency needs. • This assists with the collation of a WSP that complies with the provisions of the Skills Development Act and Seta regulations. • Lancaster, Mabaso & Meyer (2001, p86) claim that “the skills plan can only be produced after the organization has conducted a skills audit and a comprehensive needs analysis” • Certain SETA’s have included skills auditing as one of the requirements for the discretionary grant. Organizations that conduct skills audits in a structured manner, may submit levy claims against Grant D of the skills development regulations.
  41. 41. 5 C’S – THE KEY BENEFITS OF A SKILLS AUDIT • Compliance + • Competitive + • Cash + • Credibility + • Competence = Clean Skills Audit
  42. 42. COSTS OF SKILLS AUDITS • Training • Time • Administrative expenses (e.g. stationery) • Information system/software • Communication • Use of consultants (where necessary)
  43. 43. POTENTIAL REPERCUSSIONS OF NOT CONDUCTING A VALID SKILLS AUDIT • Invalid and unreliable training plans • Training plans that are not specific to individual, departmental and organizational needs • Little or no commitment to training & development by management and staff, as plans are not seen as value-adding • Little or no alignment of training and development to organizational strategy and objectives • Non-implementation of the Workplace Skills Plan and therefore the organization will not be able to claim reporting grants
  44. 44. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Group activity: • Develop a business case for Skills Auditing i.e.do the benefits outweigh the costs? • Do skills audits comply with: Viability Feasibility Sustainability
  45. 45. SUB-COMPONENTS OF COMPETENCE
  46. 46. COMPETENCE • “Applied Competence is the union of practical, foundational and reflexive competence” • Practical Competence - the demonstrated ability to perform a set of tasks in an authentic context. A range of actions or possibilities is considered and decisions are made about which actions to follow and to perform the chosen action. • Foundational Competence - the demonstrated understanding of what the learner is doing and why. This underpins the practical competence and therefore the actions taken. • Reflexive Competence - the learner demonstrates the ability to integrate or connect performance with understanding so as to show that s/he is able to adapt to changed circumstances appropriately and responsibly, and to explain the reason behind an action. • Thus competence is understood as including the individual’s learning, understanding and ability to transfer and apply learned skills and knowledge across a wide range of work contexts.
  47. 47. MEASURING COMPETENCE
  48. 48. PERFORMANCE-BASED TRAINING PROGRAMMES
  49. 49. TECHNIQUES/APPROACHES TO A SKILLS AUDIT • Panel approach • Consultant approach • One-on-one approach • Alternative approaches:  Competence-based self-assessment with validation by direct manager or supervisor  360 degree reviews  Focus groups  Assessment centres  Assessment by subject matter experts
  50. 50. EVIDENCE • Types of evidence: Direct Indirect Historical • Evaluation of evidence (VACCS): Validity Authenticity Consistency Currency Sufficiency
  51. 51. SKILLS AUDITING PROCESS – ILLUSTRATED
  52. 52. SKILLS AUDITING PROCESS • Step 1: Determine Skills Requirements • Step 2: Audit actual skills • Step 3: Determine development needs and plan for training/restructuring
  53. 53. STEP 1: DETERMINE SKILLS REQUIREMENTS • In order to determine skills requirements, an organization should identify current and future skills requirements per job. • The end result is a skills matrix with related competency definitions. Definitions can be allocated against various proficiency levels per job, such as basic, intermediate and complex. • Objective: Determine the critical or required skills (elicited from job profiles, your strategy, or competency matrix). • Skills matrix process:  Step 1: Workshop with a project team (include Subject Matter Experts)  Step 2: Use outcomes analysis to derive skills/knowledge factors and unit standard titles  Step 3: Use results of outcomes analysis and value chain process to develop a skills matrix and titles matrix  Step 4: Verify matrices with SMEs and finalise
  54. 54. SAMPLE OF SKILLS MATRIX
  55. 55. SAMPLE OF SKILLS MATRIX
  56. 56. STEP 2: AUDIT ACTUAL SKILLS • Step 2 involves an individual self-audit and skills audit • Results are collated into reporting documents that may include statistical graphs, qualitative reports and recommendations • A skills audit includes auditing qualifications, experience and training (knowledge) • Conducting a Skills Gap Analysis
  57. 57. HIERARCHY OF SKILLS
  58. 58. SKILLS AUDIT RATING SCALE Rating Description Definition 0 No evidence of competence An individual does not currently display any form or level of competence in the skill listed. He or she may require formal training and exposure to the skill in the workplace. 0.25 Some evidence of competence The individual may demonstrate part competence, but definitely needs formal training and exposure to the skill in the workplace. 0.5 Evidence of competence, needs further training An individual is competent, but needs to improve. Training is the most effective solution. The individual may be at a lower level than the position requires, i.e. at linear, instead of complex level. 0.75 Evidence of competence, needs more exposure to the skill The individual is competent and has undergone training. Further exposure in the workplace would ensure improvement and full competence. The individual may be at a lower level than the position requires, i.e. at linear, instead of intermediate level. 1 Full evidence of competence The individual is competent in the skills at the level allocated to his/ her position.
  59. 59. STEP 3: DETERMINE DEVELOPMENT NEEDS AND PLAN FOR TRAINING/RESTRUCTURING • Once skills audit information has been collected, an analysis of the results may be used for planning purposes relating to training and development and other Human Resource interventions. • Recommendations are then discussed and agreed actions are implemented. • This skill shortfall forms the basis of a Training Needs Analysis (TNA) so that the company can reach the desired skill base amongst its employees. • A gap analysis is the outcome of the skills audit process. • Information that is provided through the skills audit can be used for the multiple HRM and business purposes.
  60. 60. REPORTING SKILLS AUDIT RESULTS • The reporting framework is generated according to the purpose you want to use the skills data for. • These reports are vital as they may be used to inform organizational training and development strategy, Workplace Skills Plans, individual development plans and performance management interventions etc. • These reports must be stored in a manner that respects the confidentiality of individual employees. • It is therefore important to agree on and communicate who has access to skills audit results, and how these people may use the results upfront. • Skills audit reports may take on a number of forms:  Individual competency profiles  Divisional radar report  Organizational pie chart
  61. 61. INFORMATION EXTRACTION FROM REPORTS Individual name & employee number 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% C om m unication Interpersonal C ontrolling Adm inistration Planning C om puter D rafting legal docs Property law Interview ing Department name - Divisional Radar Report 0 20 40 60 80 100 Communication Skills (B) Interpersonal Skills (B/E) Administration skills (D) Planning Skills (D) Management Skills (G) Marketing (B/C) Loans Processing (A/B/C/D) Computer skills (D) Company name ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGIC COMPETENCY PROFILE 66% 73% 75% 69% 75% 71%69% A. Strategic competency listing B. C. D. E. F. G.
  62. 62. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group Discussion: • Apply steps 1-3 of the skills audit process, to a defined organizational context.
  63. 63. WORKPLACE SKILLS PLAN (WSP) • The purpose of a WSP • Objectives and scope of a WSP • The value and importance of a WSP • Alignment with the Business and HRM strategy • Compiling a WSP
  64. 64. COMPILING A WSP • Step 1: Develop an occupation classification matrix • Step 2: Populate the occupation classification matrix • Step 3: Establish the company’s skills development priorities • Step 4: Define the education and training required for achieving the strategic skills development priorities • Step 5: Define the number and characteristics of training beneficiaries that will be trained in the Levy-Grant Year • Step 6: Define the quality assurance measures for each of the planned education and training activities
  65. 65. STEP 3: ESTABLISH THE COMPANY’S SKILLS DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES • Know-how • Up-skilling • Re-skilling • Multi-skilling • Refresher training • Initial training
  66. 66. ANNUAL TRAINING REPORT (ATR) • Defining an Annual Training Report (ATR)  Basically this report consists of all attendance registers, proof of expenditure, training provider used in this report the SETA can establish whether training was done or is in the process of being done. • Submission requirements  This report reflects the education, training and development activities of the organisation that were implemented.  The annual training report does exactly what it says; it basically tells the SETA what training has taken place in the organisation in the previous 12 months, and which employees received training.  It also contains information to the type, cost and delivery method of the training it goes further to assess whether the training that the employees received is in line with the planned training for the organisation, industry and critical skills identified by the SETA.  The ATR allows employers to monitor the achievement of the skills priorities and skills development objectives that were outlined in the WSP.
  67. 67. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the process of compiling a WSP, describe the efficiency and effectiveness of this process in a defined organizational context. • By referring to the process of compiling an ATR, describe the efficiency and effectiveness of this process in a defined organizational context. • Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies.
  68. 68. TRAINING EVALUATION – KIRKPATRICK (4- LEVELS) AND PHILLIPS (5-LEVELS)
  69. 69. LEVELS OF LEARNING EVALUATION
  70. 70. DIAGNOSTIC ACTIVITY 6 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the 6 levels, determine your organization’s level of training proficiency.
  71. 71. DIAGNOSIS OF CURRENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES • How efficient is the training process; is the attendance of scheduled training programmes good and are learners satisfied post-training? – LEVEL 1: EFFICIENT • What is the submission rate of PoE’s and is there a good success rate? – LEVEL 2: EDUCATIONAL • What is the degree of transfer and application of learning to the workplace and improved behavioural change and performance? – LEVEL 3: EFFECTIVE
  72. 72. DIAGNOSIS OF CURRENT TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES • What is the impact of training programmes on organizational business results and metrics e.g. productivity; competence; customer service etc. – LEVEL 4: VALUABLE • What is the Return-on-Investment (ROI) of the training programmes? Do the benefits exceed the costs? – LEVEL 5: ECONOMICAL • To what extent do training programmes directly contribute to the achievement of strategic objectives; drive innovation; generate business solutions and create sustainable competitive advantages for the organization? – LEVEL 6: STRATEGIC
  73. 73. DEFINING TRAINING ROI FORMULA ROI is a key financial metric of the value of training investments and costs. It is a ratio of net benefits to costs, expressed as a percentage. The formula can be expressed as: [(monetary benefits – cost of the training) / cost of the training] x 100
  74. 74. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 • Individual activity: • Complete the Training ROI Scorecard, 16- point checklist. Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies.
  75. 75. ILLUSTRATION: TRAINING ROI PROCESS
  76. 76. 4-PHASE, TRAINING ROI PROCESS • The calculation of training ROI should be approached in an iterative, 4-phase approach: Phase 1: Preparatory Phase 2: Initiation Phase 3: Analysis Phase 4: Consolidatory
  77. 77. PHASE 1: PREPARATORY • Creating sufficient awareness, insight and general understanding of training ROI within the organization • Communicating and “selling” the benefits of ROI and the importance of training accountability to your training staff • Enabling and capacitating your training staff with the requisite knowledge and skills to measure ROI • Allocate sufficient resources for the calculation of training ROI • Aligning and integrating the ROI implementation into the strategic HRM/D planning process • Partnering and building relationships with line management as a means of garnering support and assistance for the ROI implementation process • Creating a synergistic link between training and other HR systems like performance management, skills development etc. as a means of accurately identifying performance problems/gaps
  78. 78. PHASE 2: INITIATION • Introducing and utilizing pre-and post-assessment i.e. quantify information before the training in order to establish a baseline • Start with only one course as a pilot programme to practice ROI skills • Using ROI measurement as both a predictive and evaluative instrument • Data collection of the total expenditure (cost items) throughout the entire training cycle • Data collection of the attributable benefits of the training programme • Converting and monetizing these benefits and value to metrics and money, respectively
  79. 79. PHASE 3: ANALYSIS • Evaluating the efficiency and effectiveness of your training programmes at the 4 levels proposed by Kirkpatrick • Managing and measuring the overall training performance as well as that of individual training programmes i.e. using HRD metrics such as activity, results and efficiency • Calculating the ROI ratio of your training programmes
  80. 80. PHASE 4: CONSOLIDATORY • Auditing and verifying your ROI measurements to increase authenticity, accuracy and credibility thereof • Implementing improvement plans and other remedial interventions i.e. scrapping training with a negative/low ROI, as a result of the ROI measurement process • Compiling, communicating and marketing benefits and value of training in a ROI Report/Scorecard to management and other relevant stakeholders.
  81. 81. What aboutTraining?
  82. 82. L&D METRICS • Measures of training activity (concerning how much training and development occurred with the focus on formalised, structured learning) • Measures of training results (concerning how well training and development achieved its goals) • Measures of training efficiency (concerning the extent to which training and development maximises resources in pursuit of its mission) • Refer to the specific L&D metrics (pages 83-84)
  83. 83. TRAINING ROI SCORECARD/REPORT • Executive Summary • Introduction and Contextualization • Analysis and Results • Recommendations and Training Improvement Plan • Conclusion • Reference to Attachments
  84. 84. LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 • Group Discussion: • Indicate what L&D metrics are currently utilized. Describe the credibility and the effectiveness of these metrics to accurately measure the impact and value of training and development. • By referring to the 4-step ROI process, describe how the measurement of the impact of training can be measured at your organization.
  85. 85. DEFINITION OF STRATEGIC TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
  86. 86. STRATEGIC TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  87. 87. STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE OF LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT • Deloitte (2014): The Nine Critical Talent Imperatives inter alia:  Accelerating Time to Competency  Driving Performance & Development  Improving Management & Leadership • Building a leading L&D function will likely not only drive performance, but also improve employee engagement. • “For far too long, training has been a passive, organizational back- seat driver. It should come to prominence by enabling and ultimately, driving strategy and it’s achievement.” (Cotter, 2015) • If skills shortages are seen as a top threat to business expansion, leadership will turn to learning managers for a response (justification).
  88. 88. FACTORS OF STRATEGIC L&D (COTTER, 2016) • #1: Strategic mind-set and alignment with business goals • #2: Evidence-based, business metrics and predictive analytics • #3: Learning architecture and design • #4: Learning structures and roles • #5: Enhanced skills set of L&D professionals
  89. 89. FACTORS OF STRATEGIC L&D (COTTER, 2016) • #6: Extended learning, knowledge management and change to “skills building” L&D approach • #7: Utilisation of social and e-learning (70-20-10 model) • #8: Learning organization culture • #9: Top management support and line manager engagement, contribution and involvement
  90. 90. 10 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF TRAINING TO A STRATEGIC LEARNING SOLUTION • #1: Top management support and ownership • #2: Vibrant and effective Performance Management System (PMS) • #3: Direct and active engagement, consultation and participation of line management in all learning processes • #4: Training Managers need to adopt and apply a strategic mind-set (conceptual thinking) • #5: Establishment of a learning organizational culture
  91. 91. CULTURE IS CRITICAL • L&D should be a poster child of “people investment” in your company—creating not only great training, but also reinforcing the culture of learning. • Research on learning culture shows that, among all of the different investments in learning that can be made, creating a culture of learning is the most important of all.
  92. 92. 10 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF TRAINING TO A STRATEGIC LEARNING SOLUTION • #6: Holding individuals accountable for application of learning by means of e.g. learner contracts/agreements • #7: When utilizing outsourced training providers ensure performance-directed, Service Level Agreements are in place • #8: Learning and Development must be embedded in the business strategy • #9: Learning strategy must precede structure • #10: Commitment to training as an investment and not cost item
  93. 93. BACK TO BASICS – THE BALANCED SCORECARD
  94. 94. • Strategy maps are communication tools used to tell a story of how value is created for the organization. • They show a logical, step-by-step connection between strategic objectives (shown as ovals on the map) in the form of a cause-and-effect chain. • Generally speaking, improving performance in the objectives found in the Learning & Growth perspective (the bottom row) enables the organization to improve its Internal Process perspective Objectives (the next row up), which in turn enables the organization to create desirable results in the Customer and Financial perspectives (the top two rows). STRATEGY MAPPING
  95. 95. ILLUSTRATION: STRATEGY MAP
  96. 96. EXAMPLE: STRATEGY MAP
  97. 97. EXAMPLE: STRATEGY MAP
  98. 98. LEARNING ACTIVITY 9 • Group Discussion: • Evaluate the current degree of compliance to the 10 best practice criteria. Identify gaps and recommend improvement strategies.
  99. 99. ANALYSIS • Required Thinking – Laboratory Scientist • Accurate sourcing of training needs by means of properly performed and scientifically reliable and valid skills audits • Accurate sourcing of performance gaps by means of a vibrant performance management system/process • “Training is not the Alpha and Omega and the cure for all organizational ills.” • (Vertical) Alignment with Strategic Business Plan and Strategic Workforce Plan and horizontal integration (bundling) with other key HRM functions/processes
  100. 100. DESIGN • Required Thinking – Architect • O-R-C-A – Outcomes; Resources; Capabilities and Activities • Contract learning curriculum design specialists • Ensure quality assurance of all learning materials and assessment tools • Transform to a technology-driven or web-based methodology e.g. e- or m-learning, MOOC’s or gamification • “Organizations should redesign their learning architecture” (Deloitte, 2015)
  101. 101. PROBLEM: TOO MUCH LEARNING CONTENT (OVERLOADING)
  102. 102. EFFECTIVE LEARNING CONTENT
  103. 103. LEARNING DESIGN ALIGNMENT
  104. 104. DEVELOPMENT • Required Thinking – Construction Manager • Applied Competency-based methodology (SAQA definition: foundational; practical and reflexive) • Contract a diverse, task team of subject matter and development experts • Review, pilot and consult with line management to determine relevance, compatibility and value of learning offering • “Companies should focus on building a complete learning experience.” (Deloitte, 2015)
  105. 105. IMPLEMENTATION • Required Thinking – Postman, because they always deliver • Due diligence to verify competence of trainers • SAPTA – Certified Professional Trainers (CPT) www.saptaonline.org
  106. 106. EVALUATION • Required Thinking – Engineer • Develop policy, processes, systems and learning analytics to measure the impact of learning beyond levels 1-3 • Revision of formative and summative assessment practices • Training ROI
  107. 107. LEARNING ACTIVITY 10 • Group Discussion: • Describe how strategic principles can be applied to the ADDIE training cycle to transform to a strategic impact and level.
  108. 108. LEARNING INTEGRATION – CASE STUDIES • Apply the theoretical principles to the following two (2) case studies: Chubb Portakabin
  109. 109. CASE STUDY 1: CHUBB • Questions: • 1. Outline the 4-step process of the strategic learning model/cycle. • 2. Would you regard Chubb as a Learning Organization? Substantiate your reasoning. • 3. Would you regard the organizational culture at Chubb as a critical success factor of strategic learning? Substantiate your reasoning. • 4. Identify the strategic drivers of learning, innovation and growth at Chubb. • 5. Would you regard HRM as a strategic business/learning partner at Chubb? Substantiate your reasoning. • 6. Explain your understanding of the strategic concept, “learning and adapting.” • 7. Identify the benefits (outcomes) of the application of the strategic learning model/cycle. • 8. What are some of the key strategic learning and development lessons that can be extracted from this case study?
  110. 110. CASE STUDY 2: PORTAKABIN • Questions: • 1. By reviewing Portakabin’s learning and development principles, would you regard the company’s approach as strategic? Substantiate your reasoning. • 2. How would you rate Portakabin’s learning and development quality assurance and continuous improvement processes? Substantiate your reasoning. • 3. How instrumental have the company values been in driving the learning and development success? Substantiate your reasoning. • 4. How would you rate the performance of the learning and development function at Portakabin? Substantiate your reasoning. • 5. Identify the benefits (outcomes) of the application of their learning and development approach. • 6. What are some of the key strategic learning and development lessons that can be extracted from this case study?
  111. 111. CONCLUSION • Key points • Summary • Questions
  112. 112. CONTACT DETAILS • Charles Cotter • (+27) 84 562 9446 • charlescot@polka.co.za • LinkedIn • Twitter: Charles_Cotter • http://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter
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Training Needs Analysis, Skills Auditing and Training Evaluation/Return on Investment: Best Practice Principles and Process

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