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People management skills

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People management skills_Interpersonal skills, Emotional Intelligence, Employee Engagement, Motivation and Conflict Resolution strategies and techniques

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People management skills

  1. 1. PEOPLE MANAGEMENT SKILLS VOLVO GROUP SOUTHERN AFRICA CHARLES COTTER PhD, MBA, B.A (Hons), B.A www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter 5-6 FEBRUARY 2019
  2. 2. 2-DAY, TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW • People Management Maturity Model • Interpersonal Skills • Emotional Intelligence ------------ • Employee Engagement and -Retention • Motivational Strategies • Conflict Management and -Resolution
  3. 3. INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY •Complete the statement by inserting one (1) word. In order to effectively manage employees at Volvo Group S.A, I need to/to be……………………………………………… •Jot this word down and find other learners who have written down the same word. •Write this word down on the flip-chart. •Each learner will have the opportunity to elaborate on their choice of word.
  4. 4. STAGES OF PEOPLE MANAGEMENT
  5. 5. THE STAGES OF THE PEOPLE MANAGEMENT MATURITY HIERARCHY – THE 4 C’s MODEL (COTTER, 2018)
  6. 6. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  7. 7. JOHARI’S WINDOW • Managers can utilize Johari’s Window, in order to affect openness and interpersonal trust. • Designed to understand the communication process between people and consists of varying degrees of information held in common between two people as well as methods that can be used to increase the size of one’s window. • Communication will be enhanced if the Arena is increased in size by: ❑Exposure of self to others ❑Soliciting feedback from others • Exposure requires an open, candid and trusting approach, while feedback requires an active solicitation of feelings, opinions and values from others. • For these processes to be fully developed, reciprocity is required.
  8. 8. DEFINING RESILIENCE • Resilience in psychology refers to the idea of an individual's tendency to cope with stress and adversity. • This coping may result in the individual "bouncing back" to a previous state of normal functioning, or using the experience of exposure to adversity to produce a "steeling effect" and function better than expected • Resilience is most commonly understood as a process, and not a trait of an individual. • Resilience is a dynamic process whereby individuals exhibit positive behavioural adaptation when they encounter significant adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or even significant sources of stress.
  9. 9. RESILIENCE BUILDING STRATEGIES •Positive (they see life as complex but filled with opportunity) •Focused (they have a clear vision of what they want to achieve) •Flexible (they demonstrate pliability when responding to uncertainty) •Organized (they develop structured approaches to managing ambiguity) •Proactive (they engage with change rather than defending against it)
  10. 10. DEFINING ASSERTIVENESS Assertiveness is the ability to express one’s feelings and assert one’s rights while respecting the feelings and rights of others. Assertive communication is appropriately direct, open and honest and clarifies one’s needs to the other person. People who have mastered the skill of assertiveness are able to greatly reduce the level of interpersonal conflict in their lives, thereby reducing a major source of stress.
  11. 11. THE ASSERTIVENESS CONTINUUM
  12. 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSERTIVE PEOPLE Are firm and direct Don’t blame others but take full responsibility for their own feelings Concentrate on the present Can express their needs and feelings calmly and easily Are confident about who they are Speak firmly and make eye contact Respect others’ rights and expect the same in return
  13. 13. MEASURING YOUR ASSERTIVENESS Do you have difficulty accepting constructive criticism? Do you find yourself saying ‘yes’ to requests that you should really say ‘no’ to, just to avoid disappointing people? Do you have trouble voicing a difference of opinion with others? Do people tend to feel alienated by your communication style when you do disagree with them? Do you feel attacked when someone has an opinion different from your own?
  14. 14. LEARNING TO SAY NO – “WHO’S GOT THE MONKEY?”
  15. 15. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 • Group Discussion: • In the Volvo Group S.A work context, describe how you can build your intra- personal competencies to master Stage 1: Self Awareness – Cognition of the People Management Maturity model.
  16. 16. INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
  17. 17. INTERPERSONAL STYLE
  18. 18. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Group Discussion: • Part A: • Individual activity: • Complete the Interpersonal Style Questionnaire
  19. 19. PARENT-ADULT-CHILD (PAC) MODEL
  20. 20. UNDERSTANDING TRANSACTIONS • According to TA, there are three kinds of transactions: ❑Complementary - effective and successful communication. Complementary transactions are when two people’s ego states are sympathetic or complementary to one another. ❑Crossed - Person 1 says something from one ego state and receives a different response than he/she is expecting. ❑Ulterior - these are the transactions that lead to Games, and a lot of confusion, miscommunication and conflict in our lives. 2 messages are conveyed simultaneously – one that is overt (social level) and other covert (psychological level).
  21. 21. EXAMPLE OF A COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION
  22. 22. EXAMPLE OF A CROSSED TRANSACTION
  23. 23. EXAMPLE OF AN ULTERIOR TRANSACTION
  24. 24. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Part B: • Group Discussion: • By referring to your interpersonal style, describe how you can improve your communication with the 3 other interpersonal styles of colleagues and team members in the Volvo Group S.A work environment. • Part C: • Describe how you can apply the PAC model with three kinds of transactions in the Volvo Group S.A work context.
  25. 25. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE
  26. 26. DEFINING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ) EQ is the skill to recognize different emotions in yourself and the world around you and to interpret and use these emotions to enhance your quality of life. EQ is a set of abilities that helps you manage your emotions and relate to others. EQ is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they're telling you and realize how your emotions affect people around you. EQ is the ability to understand and manage both your own emotions and those of the people around you.
  27. 27. IQ vs. EQ
  28. 28. THE VALUE OF EMOTIONS
  29. 29. BUILDING A BUSINESS CASE FOR EQ • “The single most important factor that distinguished star performers was EQ.”
  30. 30. THE FIVE (5) COMPETENCIES OF EQ
  31. 31. SELF AWARENESS
  32. 32. SELF AWARENESS • It must come first because if we don’t know ourselves and what we’re feeling, how can we possibly know or understand someone else and how they feel? • Self-awareness is about knowing what drives us and what we’re passionate about. • The more we know about ourselves, the better we are able to control and choose what kind of behaviours we’’ display in a work setting. • Without self-awareness, our emotions can blind us and guide us to do things or to become people we really don’t want to be. • If we are aware of our feelings and thoughts, we can choose how we will act or react in a given situation or to a certain person. • With this choice comes power - the kind of intrinsic power that no one can take away from us.
  33. 33. SELF AWARENESS • People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware. • They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them. • They're confident – because they trust their intuition and don't let their emotions get out of control. • They're also willing to take an honest look at themselves. • They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better.
  34. 34. SELF REGULATION • The second step is to regulate those feelings and manage them so they do more good than harm. • Our passions can be contagious and energize others, but our ranting and ravings can damage work relations beyond repair. • Checking those emotions is what self-regulation is all about. It’s giving the rational side time to temper our feelings when needed. • When we are angry, we cannot make good decisions and often react inappropriately by blowing an incident out of proportion - we lose our perspective. • By learning to manage our emotions, we become more adaptable and innovative in stressful situations.
  35. 35. SELF REGULATION • Self-regulation helps us act intentionally rather than reactively. • Self-regulation helps us act deliberately and not destructively. • Self-Regulation is the ability to control emotions and impulses. • People who self-regulate typically don't allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make impulsive, careless decisions - they think before they act. • Characteristics of self-regulation are thoughtfulness, comfort with change, integrity and the ability to say no.
  36. 36. SELF MOTIVATION • The third step is to direct the power of our emotions towards a purpose that will motivate and inspire us. • Self-motivation is about visualizing the achievement of a goal and taking the necessary steps to get there. • Athletes use their emotions to psyche themselves up for competition. • The same technique is effective in the workplace to raise job performance. • “Self-motivated people can envision reaching the goal which gives meaning to the mundane.” • “Stand firm even when you are buffeted by events and emotions.”
  37. 37. SELF MOTIVATION • The strongly self-motivated workers also accept change and are more flexible. New twists and unexpected turns don’t bend them out of shape. • They have better attitudes, take more initiative and do balanced risk taking. But most of all, self-motivated employees persist toward goals, despite obstacles and setbacks. • People with a high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated. • They're willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. • They're highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever they do.
  38. 38. EMPATHY • Empathy is defined as an outwardly-looking approach to managing relationships that enables people to see from another person’s perspective. • It means responding to others appropriately with sensitivity and compassion. • Empathy begins with listening i.e. with the purpose to understand and respond and display sensitivity and concern. • “Nobody in life will listen to us unless they feel we have listened to them.” • A team leader, who is empathetic, listens and responds and naturally displays sensitivity and concern - this makes a connection with people. • It is important for team leaders to be attuned to different people’s needs and emotional responses as well as reading these cues.
  39. 39. EMPATHY “Empathy is the glue that will bind the group together to work successfully.” The ability to model empathy is the best way to motivate others. Empathetic people are usually excellent at managing relationships, listening and relating to others. They avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly and they live their lives in a very open, honest way.
  40. 40. THE VALUE OF SOCIAL AND RELATIONAL CAPITAL • “The new business currency is human (social) and relational capital, not financial capital. Given the economic downturn, the value of financial capital is depreciating, whereas social and relational capital is exponentially appreciating and yields a significant positive return-on- investment (ROI).” Charles Cotter (2016)
  41. 41. RELATIONSHIP/SOCIAL SKILLS • This fifth competency is about interacting with people successfully and being adept at managing emotions in others. • With heightened social skills, leaders are better communicators and better collaborators. • It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social skills, another sign of high emotional intelligence. • Those with strong social skills are typically team players. • Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others develop and shine. • They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are masters at building and maintaining relationships.
  42. 42. SUMMARY OF EQ COMPETENCIES
  43. 43. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Individual activity: • Complete the Emotional Intelligence Self-Evaluation survey i.e. Parts I (Rating) and II (Scoring). • Analyze the results/findings and identify your strengths and shortcomings i.e. Part III (Interpreting).
  44. 44. HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR EQ – GENERAL ADVICE • Observe how you react to people • Look at your work environment • Do a self-evaluation • Examine how you react to stressful situations • Take responsibility for your actions • Examine how your actions will affect others – before you take those actions • With appropriate education and training, you can develop EQ throughout your life
  45. 45. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – 5 COMPETENCIES
  46. 46. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF AWARENESS • Learn the difference between thoughts or feelings • Ask yourself how you’re feeling throughout the day and be honest • Be open to input from other • Keep a journal • Slow down
  47. 47. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF CONTROL Use Use humour Reframe Reframe an irritating situation into a problem- solving exercise Anticipate Anticipate emotional “triggers” and prepare to manage them Accept Accept responsibility for your emotional responses in the workplace Monitor Monitor your self-talk
  48. 48. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF CONTROL • Never underestimate the power of taking deep breaths • Remove yourself from the situation and keep moving • Know your values • Hold yourself accountable • Practice being calm
  49. 49. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF MOTIVATION • Be aware of how you explain setbacks to yourself - stay realistic • Connect your goals with your values to get energized • Strive for reaching a “flow” state while working on projects • Visualization • Keep learning
  50. 50. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF MOTIVATION •Re-examine why you're doing this •Make sure that your goal statements are fresh and energizing •Know where you stand •Be hopeful and find something good
  51. 51. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES - EMPATHY •Look for nonverbal cues as well as listening for verbal •Pay attention to body language •Share and be honest about your feelings •Be consistent so that your spoken and unspoken messages match
  52. 52. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES - EMPATHY • Take the kinder road whenever possible • Try to see from the other person’s perspective • Respond to feelings • Put yourself in someone else's position
  53. 53. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SOCIAL SKILLS •Share your passion and enthusiasm for your job and the organization’s vision – it’s contagious! •Create an inspiring work environment •Engage in creative brainstorming •Be willing to coach or mentor other and be open to being coached yourself
  54. 54. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SOCIAL SKILLS •Learn conflict resolution •Improve your communication skills •Learn how to praise others
  55. 55. TRUST ENHANCING STRATEGIES Open and transparent communication Mutual respect and tolerance for individual differences Demonstrated care and sincere interest Recognition for the value of each individual team member Co-operation and shared commitment
  56. 56. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the outcomes/ratings of your EQ Self- Evaluation survey, identify strategies to improve your two most deficient EQ competencies.
  57. 57. EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT AND -RETENTION
  58. 58. FOUR STAGES OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • How can I grow? • Do I belong? • What do I give? • What do I get?
  59. 59. COTTER’S 5 C’S OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • Are employees COMMITTED to the organization? • Are employees proud to work for the organization – company/brand ambassadors? CITIZEN • Do employees put forth extra/discretionary effort to help the organization and their colleagues achieve business objectives? COMRADE • Are employees enthusiastic and passionate about their work/jobs? CREATOR • Are employees CONNECTED (intellectually and emotionally) to their work/jobs – offer value add?
  60. 60. ❖#1 Role clarity and expectations ❖#2 Resources – materials and equipment ❖#3 Role optimization and opportunities ❖#4 Receipt of recognition and praise ❖#5 Managerial care and interest ❖#6 Encouragement of personal and professional development GALLUP Q12
  61. 61. ❖#7 Opinions and inputs are valued ❖#8 Job/task significance ❖#9 Fellow employee commitment to performance excellence/quality ❖#10 Collegial and harmonious working relationships ❖#11 Managerial interest in career progression and development ❖#12 Ample opportunities to learn and grow GALLUP Q12
  62. 62. DEGREE OF USA EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT (GALLUP 2013) • 71% of employees are disengaged: ❖45% are not engaged (BASICS) ❖26% are actively disengaged (BREAKERS) • 29% of the workforce are engaged (BUILDERS)
  63. 63. DEGREE OF S.A EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT (GALLUP 2013)
  64. 64. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  65. 65. BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
  66. 66. THE STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
  67. 67. KEY FINDINGS: GALLUP (2013) • $11 billion is lost annually due to employee turnover • Highly engaged employees are 26% more productive than disengaged employees • Employees are not prepared to engage customers. When organizations successfully engage their customers and their employees, they experience a 240% performance boost. • Managers and leaders play a critical role • 90% of leaders think an engagement strategy will impact business success
  68. 68. KEY FINDINGS: GALLUP (2013) • Different types of workers need different engagement strategies • Engagement makes a difference to the bottom line - companies earned 13% greater total returns for shareholders over a 5-year financial period • Companies with engaged employees perform 202% better than those without • Engagement has a greater impact on performance than corporate policies and perks • The most compelling evidence of the benefits of an engaged workforce is the identification of a positive impact on 9 business performance indicators.
  69. 69. ENGAGEMENT’S EFFECT ON 9 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
  70. 70. STRATEGIES
  71. 71. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  72. 72. CIPD STRATEGIES (2013) • “Giving employees meaningful voice: facilitating upwards feedback, having respectful, adult to-adult conversations and responding to employee views • Effective communications that keep employees well informed and reinforce the organisation’s purpose • Role modelling: employees need to see that managers are committed to the organisation and uphold the values of employee engagement in how they act • Fair and just management processes for dealing with problems and supporting employee well-being.”
  73. 73. STRATEGIES TO ACCELERATE EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • According to Gallup (2013), three (3) strategies to accelerate employee engagement are: ❖Select the Right People and Managers ❖Develop employees’ strengths ❖Enhance employees’ well-being
  74. 74. BEST PRACTICE EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • According to Gallup (2013) research, the best organizations deeply integrate employee engagement into the following four (4) areas: ❖Strategy and Leadership Philosophy ❖Accountability and Performance ❖Communication and Knowledge Management ❖Development and on-going Learning Opportunities
  75. 75. ARMSTRONG’S EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES ❑Leadership ❑The work environment ❑Job design ❑Opportunities for personal growth ❑Performance Management
  76. 76. TINYpulse (2014) STRATEGIES • Showing employee appreciation and recognition • Fostering a positive work culture • Mapping professional growth plans • Recruiting collegial, hard-working colleagues • Hiring managers that are truly leaders • Empowering employees with tools to succeed • Enabling peer recognition
  77. 77. MOST IMPACTFUL EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT DRIVERS (HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW – 2014)
  78. 78. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  79. 79. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group Discussion: • Critically review the Employee Engagement strategies. Indicate which strategies are most viable, feasible and sustainable at Volvo Group S.A. • Evaluate the current degree of Volvo Group S.A employee retention by gauging against the Irresistible Organization factors and sub- factors. • In the Volvo Group S.A work context, describe how you can leverage employee voice strategies to promote workplace democracy and stimulate innovation.
  80. 80. MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES
  81. 81. MOTIVATION • Defining employee motivation • Performance Potential Score (PPS) • Benefits of motivated workforce • Motivation strategies
  82. 82. PERCEPTUAL GAP – EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
  83. 83. PERFORMANCE EQUATION
  84. 84. BENEFITS OF A MOTIVATED WORKFORCE • Quality performance • High levels of productivity (“a team member is a productive team member”) • High levels of commitment (to both the team and organization) • High levels of team cohesion
  85. 85. THE PIVOTAL MOTIVATIONAL ROLE OF THE MANAGERS
  86. 86. MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES • Set specific goals for employees • Goals should be realistic and attainable • Job must suit the employee’s personality • Respect and recognise individual differences • Provide immediate feedback to employees on their performance • Rewards should be individualistic • Link rewards to performance • Honour the principle of internal equity (i.e. fairness for all employees) • Motivational theories should be regarded as cultural bound
  87. 87. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Group discussion • By referring to the performance equation, compute the PPS of your Volvo Group S.A work team. Develop strategies to improve any of the deficient variables. • As a Manager at Volvo Group S.A, describe how you can motivate and inspire your team members.
  88. 88. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND -RESOLUTION
  89. 89. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT • Functional conflict leads to open discussion, a better understanding of differences, innovative solutions and greater commitment. • Functional conflict contributes to the achievement of organizational goals and enhances relationship-building. • Dysfunctional conflict tends be more focused on emotions than on the goal/task at hand known as affect conflict/interpersonal conflict, it is destructive when a solution is not reached, energy is diverted away from the core problem and morale is negatively affected. • Dysfunctional conflict is detrimental to relationships within the team and team performance.
  90. 90. CAUSES/SOURCES OF CONFLICT •Intra-personal •Interpersonal •Intra-group •Inter-group
  91. 91. OPTIMAL LEVELS OF CONFLICT
  92. 92. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES •Shark (Competing) •Turtle (Avoiding) •Fox (Compromising) •Teddy-bear (Accommodating) •Owl (Collaborating)
  93. 93. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 •Individual activity: •Complete the 30 question/item Thomas- Kilmann Conflict Mode instrument/questionnaire and by using the scoring sheet, determine your predominant conflict management style. •Follow the instructions.
  94. 94. SHARK CHARACTERISTICS • Sharks use a forcing or competing conflict management style • Sharks are highly goal-oriented • Relationships take on a lower priority • Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behaviour to resolve conflicts • Sharks can be autocratic, authoritative, and uncooperative; threatening and intimidating • Sharks have a need to win; therefore others must lose, creating win-lose situations • Advantage: If the shark's decision is correct, a better decision without compromise can result • Disadvantage: May breed hostility and resentment toward the person using it
  95. 95. TURTLE CHARACTERISTICS • Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict management style • Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than resolve it; this leads them uncooperative and unassertive • Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display passive behaviour creating lose-lose situations • Advantage: may help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by conflict resolution • Disadvantage: Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of the style leads to others walking over them
  96. 96. FOX CHARACTERISTICS • Foxes use a compromising conflict management style; concern is for goals and relationships • Foxes are willing to sacrifice some of their goals while persuading others to give up part of theirs • Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is either win-lose or lose-lose • Advantage: relationships are maintained and conflicts are removed • Disadvantage: compromise may create less than ideal outcome and game playing can result
  97. 97. TEDDY-BEAR CHARACTERISTICS • Teddy bears use a smoothing or accommodating conflict management style with emphasis on human relationships • Teddy bears ignore their own goals and resolve conflict by giving into others; unassertive and cooperative creating a win-lose (bear is loser) situation • Advantage: Accommodating maintains relationships • Disadvantage: Giving in may not be productive, bear may be taken advantage of
  98. 98. OWL CHARACTERISTICS • Owls use a collaborating or problem confronting conflict management style valuing their goals and relationships • Owls view conflicts as problems to be solved finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win- win) • Advantage: both sides get what they want and negative feelings eliminated • Disadvantage: takes a great deal of time and effort
  99. 99. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES
  100. 100. THE 4-STEP CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESS – THERAPEUTIC MODEL • Step 1: Identify sources of potential and actual conflict (DIAGNOSIS) • Step 2: Develop conflict resolution strategies/techniques (EXAMINATION) • Step 3: Apply conflict resolution strategies/techniques (REMEDY) • Step 4: Control and review the effectiveness of the conflict resolution strategy/technique (FOLLOW-UP)
  101. 101. STEP 1: DIAGNOSIS • Identify the sources/causes of conflict: ❑Intra-personal ❑Interpersonal ❑Intra-group or Inter- group • The best approach to manage conflict effectively is to be proactive.
  102. 102. STEP 2: EXAMINATION • Develop conflict resolution strategies/techniques: ❑Shark (Competing) ❑Turtle (Avoiding) ❑Fox (Compromising) ❑Teddy-bear (Accommodating) ❑Owl (Collaborating) • There is no one best way to deal with conflict. It is dependent on the current situation as well as the team members involved in the conflict. • The golden rule is that managers should take prompt action in resolving conflict. • By failing to act, it may result in the conflict escalating beyond control and “spreading like a cancer” negatively affecting team performance and relationships.
  103. 103. STEP 3: REMEDY • Apply conflict resolution strategies/techniques • The key is to match strategies to situations • Influential considerations: ❑Time pressure ❑Issue importance ❑Relationship importance ❑Relative power
  104. 104. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: SHARK • When conflict involves personal differences that are difficult to change • When fostering intimate or supportive relationships is not critical • When others are likely to take advantage of non-competitive behaviour • When conflict resolution is urgent; when decision is vital and when in a crisis • When unpopular decisions need to be implemented • Use when you have a very strong conviction about your position • If time is precious and if you have enough power to impose your will
  105. 105. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: TURTLE • When the stakes are not high or issue is trivial • When confrontation will hurt a working relationship • When there is little chance of satisfying your wants • When disruption outweighs benefit of conflict resolution • When gathering information is more important than an immediate decision • When others can more effectively resolve the conflict • When time constraints demand a delay • Use it when it simply is not worth the effort to argue
  106. 106. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: FOX • When important/complex issues leave no clear or simple solutions • When all conflicting people are equal in power and have strong interests in different solutions • When there are no time restraints • Use when the goal is to get past the issue and move on
  107. 107. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: TEDDY-BEAR • When maintaining the relationship outweighs other considerations • When suggestions/changes are not important to the accommodator • When minimizing losses in situations where outmatched or losing • When time is limited or when harmony and stability are valued • Use this approach very sparingly and infrequently, for example, in situations when you know that you will have another more useful approach in the very near future
  108. 108. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: OWL • When maintaining relationships is important • When time is not a concern • When peer conflict is involved • When trying to gain commitment through consensus building • When learning and trying to merge differing perspectives • Use when the goal is to meet as many current needs as possible by using mutual resources. This approach sometimes raises new mutual needs. • Use when the goal is to cultivate ownership and commitment
  109. 109. STEP 4: FOLLOW-UP • Managers will need to confirm whether this technique has adequately resolved the conflict. • In the event that this dysfunctional conflict persists, managers may have to resort to alternative (third party) strategies: ❑Mediation ❑Counseling ❑Organizational development (OD) interventions
  110. 110. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT GUIDING PRINCIPLES – TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
  111. 111. WE HAVE TO TALK: A STEP-BY-STEP CHECKLIST FOR DIFFICULT CONVERSATIONS (Judy Ringer) • https://www.judyringer.com/resources/articles/we-have-to-talk-a-stepbystep-checklist-for-difficult-conversations.php • Working on Yourself: How to Prepare for the Conversation • Before going into the conversation, ask yourself some questions • 4 Steps to a Successful Outcome ❑ Step #1: Inquiry ❑ Step #2: Acknowledgment ❑ Step #3: Advocacy ❑ Step #4: Problem-Solving • Practice, Practice, Practice • Some additional tips and suggestions • How Do I Begin? • Write a possible opening for your conversation
  112. 112. LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 • Group discussion • As a Manager, identify a current conflict situation in the Volvo Group S.A work environment. Apply the 4-step conflict resolution process, to find a solution for this conflict. • Review the article (Ringer) and extract the most relevant lessons within the Volvo Group S.A work environment.
  113. 113. LIST OF SOURCES • CIPD. (2013). Employee Engagement: Fact Sheet. Updated August 2013. • Cotter, C.A (2008-2019). Various People Management Learner Manuals. Rantsane Mario Training Solutions in-house and public training programmes: RMT: Randburg. • Covey, S. R. (1989). The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Franklin Covey Company: New York. • Gallup Research. (2013). State of the American Workplace: Employee Engagement Insights for U.S Business Leaders. Gallup Inc. 2013. • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence Workbook. Learning Resources. • Nienaber, H., Martins, N. (2014). Developing an employee engagement measurement instrument for a South African context. UNISA. Submitted for publication, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 2014. • Robbins, S.P & Coulter, M. (2009). Management. 10th edition. Pearson: Prentice Hall. New Jersey
  114. 114. LIST OF SOURCES • SABPP. (2014). Fact sheet: Employee Engagement. Prepared by Penny Abbott. October 2014. No. 2014/9. Parktown. • TINYpulse. (2014). The 7 key trends impacting today’s workplace. TINYpulse. • https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/deloitte-review/issue-16/employee-engagement- strategies.html (accessed 8 January 2018) • http://www.digitalistmag.com/future-of-work/2016/09/30/5-employee-engagement-ideas-that-make- difference-04504075 (accessed 2 November 2016) • https://www.judyringer.com/resources/articles/we-have-to-talk-a-stepbystep-checklist-for-difficult- conversations.php (accessed 7 January 2018) • https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/conflict-management-and-communication-skills (accessed 3 February 2019) • https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/emotional-intelligence-and-personal-effectiveness (accessed 3 February 2019) • https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/employee-engagementbest-practice-principles-and-strategies (accessed 3 February 2019)
  115. 115. CONCLUSION • Key points • Summary • Questions • Training Administration

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