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PEOPLE MANAGEMENT SKILLS
VOLVO GROUP SOUTHERN AFRICA
CHARLES COTTER PhD, MBA, B.A (Hons), B.A
www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter
5-6 FEBRUARY 2019
2-DAY,
TRAINING
PROGRAMME
OVERVIEW
• People Management Maturity Model
• Interpersonal Skills
• Emotional Intelligence
------------
• Employee Engagement and -Retention
• Motivational Strategies
• Conflict Management and -Resolution
INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY
•Complete the statement by inserting one (1) word. In order
to effectively manage employees at Volvo Group S.A, I
need to/to be………………………………………………
•Jot this word down and find other learners who have
written down the same word.
•Write this word down on the flip-chart.
•Each learner will have the opportunity to elaborate on
their choice of word.
STAGES OF PEOPLE
MANAGEMENT
THE STAGES OF THE PEOPLE MANAGEMENT MATURITY
HIERARCHY – THE 4 C’s MODEL
(COTTER, 2018)
AGREE OR DISAGREE?
WHY?
JOHARI’S WINDOW
• Managers can utilize Johari’s Window, in order to affect openness and interpersonal
trust.
• Designed to understand the communication process between people and consists of
varying degrees of information held in common between two people as well as methods
that can be used to increase the size of one’s window.
• Communication will be enhanced if the Arena is increased in size by:
❑Exposure of self to others
❑Soliciting feedback from others
• Exposure requires an open, candid and trusting approach, while feedback requires an
active solicitation of feelings, opinions and values from others.
• For these processes to be fully developed, reciprocity is required.
DEFINING RESILIENCE
• Resilience in psychology refers to the idea of an individual's
tendency to cope with stress and adversity.
• This coping may result in the individual "bouncing back" to a
previous state of normal functioning, or using the
experience of exposure to adversity to produce a "steeling
effect" and function better than expected
• Resilience is most commonly understood as a process, and
not a trait of an individual.
• Resilience is a dynamic process whereby individuals exhibit
positive behavioural adaptation when they encounter
significant adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or even
significant sources of stress.
RESILIENCE BUILDING STRATEGIES
•Positive (they see life as complex but filled with opportunity)
•Focused (they have a clear vision of what they want to
achieve)
•Flexible (they demonstrate pliability when responding to
uncertainty)
•Organized (they develop structured approaches to managing
ambiguity)
•Proactive (they engage with change rather than defending
against it)
DEFINING
ASSERTIVENESS
Assertiveness is the ability to
express one’s feelings and assert
one’s rights while respecting the
feelings and rights of others.
Assertive communication is
appropriately direct, open and
honest and clarifies one’s needs to
the other person.
People who have mastered the skill
of assertiveness are able to greatly
reduce the level of interpersonal
conflict in their lives, thereby
reducing a major source of stress.
THE ASSERTIVENESS CONTINUUM
CHARACTERISTICS OF
ASSERTIVE PEOPLE
Are firm and direct
Don’t blame others but take full
responsibility for their own feelings
Concentrate on the present
Can express their needs and feelings
calmly and easily
Are confident about who they are
Speak firmly and make eye contact
Respect others’ rights and expect the
same in return
MEASURING
YOUR
ASSERTIVENESS
Do you have difficulty accepting
constructive criticism?
Do you find yourself saying ‘yes’ to
requests that you should really say ‘no’
to, just to avoid disappointing people?
Do you have trouble voicing a difference
of opinion with others?
Do people tend to feel alienated by your
communication style when you do
disagree with them?
Do you feel attacked when someone has
an opinion different from your own?
LEARNING TO SAY NO – “WHO’S GOT THE MONKEY?”
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 1
• Group Discussion:
• In the Volvo Group
S.A work context,
describe how you can
build your intra-
personal
competencies to
master Stage 1: Self
Awareness –
Cognition of the
People Management
Maturity model.
INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
INTERPERSONAL STYLE
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 2
• Group Discussion:
• Part A:
• Individual activity:
• Complete the
Interpersonal Style
Questionnaire
PARENT-ADULT-CHILD (PAC) MODEL
UNDERSTANDING TRANSACTIONS
• According to TA, there are three kinds of transactions:
❑Complementary - effective and successful communication.
Complementary transactions are when two people’s ego states are
sympathetic or complementary to one another.
❑Crossed - Person 1 says something from one ego state and receives a
different response than he/she is expecting.
❑Ulterior - these are the transactions that lead to Games, and a lot of
confusion, miscommunication and conflict in our lives. 2 messages
are conveyed simultaneously – one that is overt (social level) and
other covert (psychological level).
EXAMPLE OF A
COMPLEMENTARY
TRANSACTION
EXAMPLE OF A
CROSSED
TRANSACTION
EXAMPLE OF
AN ULTERIOR
TRANSACTION
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 2
• Part B:
• Group Discussion:
• By referring to your
interpersonal style, describe
how you can improve your
communication with the 3
other interpersonal styles of
colleagues and team
members in the Volvo Group
S.A work environment.
• Part C:
• Describe how you can apply
the PAC model with three
kinds of transactions in the
Volvo Group S.A work
context.
EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCE
DEFINING
EMOTIONAL
INTELLIGENCE
(EQ)
EQ is the skill to recognize different
emotions in yourself and the world around
you and to interpret and use these
emotions to enhance your quality of life.
EQ is a set of abilities that helps you
manage your emotions and relate to
others.
EQ is the ability to recognize your emotions,
understand what they're telling you and
realize how your emotions affect people
around you.
EQ is the ability to understand and manage
both your own emotions and those of the
people around you.
IQ vs. EQ
THE VALUE OF EMOTIONS
BUILDING A BUSINESS CASE FOR EQ
• “The single most important factor that distinguished star performers
was EQ.”
THE FIVE (5) COMPETENCIES OF EQ
SELF AWARENESS
SELF AWARENESS
• It must come first because if we don’t know ourselves and what we’re feeling,
how can we possibly know or understand someone else and how they feel?
• Self-awareness is about knowing what drives us and what we’re passionate
about.
• The more we know about ourselves, the better we are able to control and
choose what kind of behaviours we’’ display in a work setting.
• Without self-awareness, our emotions can blind us and guide us to do things or
to become people we really don’t want to be.
• If we are aware of our feelings and thoughts, we can choose how we will act or
react in a given situation or to a certain person.
• With this choice comes power - the kind of intrinsic power that no one can take
away from us.
SELF AWARENESS
• People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware.
• They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don't let
their feelings rule them.
• They're confident – because they trust their intuition and don't let
their emotions get out of control.
• They're also willing to take an honest look at themselves.
• They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these
areas so they can perform better.
SELF REGULATION
• The second step is to regulate those feelings and manage them
so they do more good than harm.
• Our passions can be contagious and energize others, but our
ranting and ravings can damage work relations beyond repair.
• Checking those emotions is what self-regulation is all about. It’s
giving the rational side time to temper our feelings when
needed.
• When we are angry, we cannot make good decisions and often
react inappropriately by blowing an incident out of proportion -
we lose our perspective.
• By learning to manage our emotions, we become more
adaptable and innovative in stressful situations.
SELF REGULATION
• Self-regulation helps us act intentionally rather than
reactively.
• Self-regulation helps us act deliberately and not
destructively.
• Self-Regulation is the ability to control emotions and
impulses.
• People who self-regulate typically don't allow themselves
to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make
impulsive, careless decisions - they think before they act.
• Characteristics of self-regulation are thoughtfulness,
comfort with change, integrity and the ability to say no.
SELF MOTIVATION
• The third step is to direct the power of our emotions towards a purpose that will
motivate and inspire us.
• Self-motivation is about visualizing the achievement of a goal and taking the
necessary steps to get there.
• Athletes use their emotions to psyche themselves up for competition.
• The same technique is effective in the workplace to raise job performance.
• “Self-motivated people can envision reaching the goal which gives meaning to
the mundane.”
• “Stand firm even when you are buffeted by events and emotions.”
SELF MOTIVATION
• The strongly self-motivated workers also accept change and are more flexible.
New twists and unexpected turns don’t bend them out of shape.
• They have better attitudes, take more initiative and do balanced risk taking. But
most of all, self-motivated employees persist toward goals, despite obstacles and
setbacks.
• People with a high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated.
• They're willing to defer immediate results for long-term success.
• They're highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever
they do.
EMPATHY
• Empathy is defined as an outwardly-looking approach to managing relationships that enables people
to see from another person’s perspective.
• It means responding to others appropriately with sensitivity and compassion.
• Empathy begins with listening i.e. with the purpose to understand and respond and display sensitivity
and concern.
• “Nobody in life will listen to us unless they feel we have listened to them.”
• A team leader, who is empathetic, listens and responds and naturally displays sensitivity and concern -
this makes a connection with people.
• It is important for team leaders to be attuned to different people’s needs and emotional responses as
well as reading these cues.
EMPATHY
“Empathy is the glue that will bind
the group together to work
successfully.”
The ability to model empathy is the
best way to motivate others.
Empathetic people are usually
excellent at managing relationships,
listening and relating to others.
They avoid stereotyping and judging
too quickly and they live their lives in
a very open, honest way.
THE VALUE OF SOCIAL AND RELATIONAL CAPITAL
• “The new business currency
is human (social) and
relational capital, not
financial capital. Given the
economic downturn, the
value of financial capital is
depreciating, whereas social
and relational capital is
exponentially appreciating
and yields a significant
positive return-on-
investment (ROI).”
Charles Cotter (2016)
RELATIONSHIP/SOCIAL SKILLS
• This fifth competency is about interacting with people
successfully and being adept at managing emotions in others.
• With heightened social skills, leaders are better
communicators and better collaborators.
• It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social
skills, another sign of high emotional intelligence.
• Those with strong social skills are typically team players.
• Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others
develop and shine.
• They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and
are masters at building and maintaining relationships.
SUMMARY OF EQ COMPETENCIES
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 3
• Individual activity:
• Complete the
Emotional Intelligence
Self-Evaluation survey
i.e. Parts I (Rating) and
II (Scoring).
• Analyze the
results/findings and
identify your strengths
and shortcomings i.e.
Part III (Interpreting).
HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR
EQ – GENERAL ADVICE
• Observe how you react to people
• Look at your work environment
• Do a self-evaluation
• Examine how you react to stressful situations
• Take responsibility for your actions
• Examine how your actions will affect others – before you
take those actions
• With appropriate education and training, you can develop
EQ throughout your life
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES – 5 COMPETENCIES
TARGETED EQ
DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES – SELF
AWARENESS
• Learn the difference between thoughts
or feelings
• Ask yourself how you’re feeling
throughout the day and be honest
• Be open to input from other
• Keep a journal
• Slow down
TARGETED EQ
DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES –
SELF CONTROL
Use Use humour
Reframe Reframe an irritating situation into a problem-
solving exercise
Anticipate Anticipate emotional “triggers” and prepare to
manage them
Accept Accept responsibility for your emotional
responses in the workplace
Monitor Monitor your self-talk
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES – SELF CONTROL
• Never underestimate the power of taking
deep breaths
• Remove yourself from the situation and
keep moving
• Know your values
• Hold yourself accountable
• Practice being calm
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF
MOTIVATION
• Be aware of how you explain
setbacks to yourself - stay
realistic
• Connect your goals with
your values to get energized
• Strive for reaching a “flow”
state while working on
projects
• Visualization
• Keep learning
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES – SELF MOTIVATION
•Re-examine why you're doing this
•Make sure that your goal
statements are fresh and
energizing
•Know where you stand
•Be hopeful and find something
good
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES - EMPATHY
•Look for nonverbal cues as well as
listening for verbal
•Pay attention to body language
•Share and be honest about your
feelings
•Be consistent so that your spoken
and unspoken messages match
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES - EMPATHY
• Take the kinder road whenever possible
• Try to see from the other person’s
perspective
• Respond to feelings
• Put yourself in someone else's position
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES –
SOCIAL SKILLS
•Share your passion and enthusiasm for your job and the
organization’s vision – it’s contagious!
•Create an inspiring work environment
•Engage in creative brainstorming
•Be willing to coach or mentor other and be open to
being coached yourself
TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES – SOCIAL SKILLS
•Learn conflict resolution
•Improve your
communication skills
•Learn how to praise
others
TRUST
ENHANCING
STRATEGIES
Open and transparent
communication
Mutual respect and tolerance
for individual differences
Demonstrated care and
sincere interest
Recognition for the value of
each individual team member
Co-operation and shared
commitment
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 4
• Group Discussion:
• By referring to the
outcomes/ratings of
your EQ Self-
Evaluation survey,
identify strategies to
improve your two
most deficient EQ
competencies.
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
AND -RETENTION
FOUR STAGES OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
• How can I grow?
• Do I belong?
• What do I give?
• What do I get?
COTTER’S 5 C’S OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
• Are employees COMMITTED to the organization?
• Are employees proud to work for the organization – company/brand
ambassadors? CITIZEN
• Do employees put forth extra/discretionary effort to help the
organization and their colleagues achieve business objectives?
COMRADE
• Are employees enthusiastic and passionate about their work/jobs?
CREATOR
• Are employees CONNECTED (intellectually and emotionally) to their
work/jobs – offer value add?
❖#1 Role clarity and expectations
❖#2 Resources – materials and equipment
❖#3 Role optimization and opportunities
❖#4 Receipt of recognition and praise
❖#5 Managerial care and interest
❖#6 Encouragement of personal and
professional development
GALLUP Q12
❖#7 Opinions and inputs are valued
❖#8 Job/task significance
❖#9 Fellow employee commitment to
performance excellence/quality
❖#10 Collegial and harmonious working
relationships
❖#11 Managerial interest in career
progression and development
❖#12 Ample opportunities to learn and grow
GALLUP Q12
DEGREE OF USA EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT (GALLUP 2013)
• 71% of employees are
disengaged:
❖45% are not engaged (BASICS)
❖26% are actively disengaged
(BREAKERS)
• 29% of the workforce are
engaged (BUILDERS)
DEGREE OF S.A EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT (GALLUP 2013)
AGREE OR DISAGREE?
WHY?
BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
THE STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE OF EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
KEY FINDINGS: GALLUP (2013)
• $11 billion is lost annually due to employee turnover
• Highly engaged employees are 26% more productive than disengaged
employees
• Employees are not prepared to engage customers. When organizations
successfully engage their customers and their employees, they
experience a 240% performance boost.
• Managers and leaders play a critical role
• 90% of leaders think an engagement strategy will impact business
success
KEY FINDINGS: GALLUP (2013)
• Different types of workers need different engagement strategies
• Engagement makes a difference to the bottom line - companies earned 13%
greater total returns for shareholders over a 5-year financial period
• Companies with engaged employees perform 202% better than those without
• Engagement has a greater impact on performance than corporate policies and
perks
• The most compelling evidence of the benefits of an engaged workforce is the
identification of a positive impact on 9 business performance indicators.
ENGAGEMENT’S EFFECT ON 9 KEY PERFORMANCE
INDICATORS
STRATEGIES
AGREE OR DISAGREE?
WHY?
CIPD STRATEGIES (2013)
• “Giving employees meaningful voice: facilitating upwards feedback,
having respectful, adult to-adult conversations and responding to
employee views
• Effective communications that keep employees well informed and
reinforce the organisation’s purpose
• Role modelling: employees need to see that managers are committed
to the organisation and uphold the values of employee engagement in
how they act
• Fair and just management processes for dealing with problems and
supporting employee well-being.”
STRATEGIES TO ACCELERATE
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
• According to Gallup (2013), three
(3) strategies to accelerate
employee engagement are:
❖Select the Right People and
Managers
❖Develop employees’ strengths
❖Enhance employees’ well-being
BEST PRACTICE
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
• According to Gallup (2013) research, the
best organizations deeply integrate
employee engagement into the following
four (4) areas:
❖Strategy and Leadership Philosophy
❖Accountability and Performance
❖Communication and Knowledge
Management
❖Development and on-going Learning
Opportunities
ARMSTRONG’S
EMPLOYEE
ENGAGEMENT
STRATEGIES
❑Leadership
❑The work environment
❑Job design
❑Opportunities for
personal growth
❑Performance
Management
TINYpulse (2014)
STRATEGIES
• Showing employee appreciation and
recognition
• Fostering a positive work culture
• Mapping professional growth plans
• Recruiting collegial, hard-working colleagues
• Hiring managers that are truly leaders
• Empowering employees with tools to succeed
• Enabling peer recognition
MOST IMPACTFUL EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
DRIVERS (HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW – 2014)
AGREE OR DISAGREE?
WHY?
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 5
• Group Discussion:
• Critically review the Employee
Engagement strategies. Indicate
which strategies are most viable,
feasible and sustainable at Volvo
Group S.A.
• Evaluate the current degree of Volvo
Group S.A employee retention by
gauging against the Irresistible
Organization factors and sub-
factors.
• In the Volvo Group S.A work
context, describe how you can
leverage employee voice strategies
to promote workplace democracy
and stimulate innovation.
MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES
MOTIVATION
• Defining employee
motivation
• Performance
Potential Score (PPS)
• Benefits of
motivated workforce
• Motivation
strategies
PERCEPTUAL GAP – EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
PERFORMANCE EQUATION
BENEFITS OF A
MOTIVATED WORKFORCE
• Quality performance
• High levels of productivity (“a team
member is a productive team
member”)
• High levels of commitment (to both
the team and organization)
• High levels of team cohesion
THE PIVOTAL MOTIVATIONAL ROLE OF THE MANAGERS
MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES
• Set specific goals for employees
• Goals should be realistic and attainable
• Job must suit the employee’s personality
• Respect and recognise individual differences
• Provide immediate feedback to employees on their performance
• Rewards should be individualistic
• Link rewards to performance
• Honour the principle of internal equity (i.e. fairness for all employees)
• Motivational theories should be regarded as cultural bound
LEARNING
ACTIVITY 6
• Group discussion
• By referring to the
performance equation,
compute the PPS of your
Volvo Group S.A work
team. Develop strategies
to improve any of the
deficient variables.
• As a Manager at Volvo
Group S.A, describe how
you can motivate and
inspire your team
members.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
AND -RESOLUTION
FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT
• Functional conflict leads to open discussion, a better understanding of
differences, innovative solutions and greater commitment.
• Functional conflict contributes to the achievement of organizational
goals and enhances relationship-building.
• Dysfunctional conflict tends be more focused on emotions than on the
goal/task at hand known as affect conflict/interpersonal conflict, it is
destructive when a solution is not reached, energy is diverted away
from the core problem and morale is negatively affected.
• Dysfunctional conflict is detrimental to relationships within the team
and team performance.
CAUSES/SOURCES OF
CONFLICT
•Intra-personal
•Interpersonal
•Intra-group
•Inter-group
OPTIMAL LEVELS OF CONFLICT
CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES
•Shark (Competing)
•Turtle (Avoiding)
•Fox (Compromising)
•Teddy-bear (Accommodating)
•Owl (Collaborating)
LEARNING ACTIVITY 7
•Individual activity:
•Complete the 30
question/item Thomas-
Kilmann Conflict Mode
instrument/questionnaire
and by using the scoring
sheet, determine your
predominant conflict
management style.
•Follow the instructions.
SHARK
CHARACTERISTICS
• Sharks use a forcing or competing conflict management style
• Sharks are highly goal-oriented
• Relationships take on a lower priority
• Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behaviour to resolve
conflicts
• Sharks can be autocratic, authoritative, and uncooperative;
threatening and intimidating
• Sharks have a need to win; therefore others must lose, creating
win-lose situations
• Advantage: If the shark's decision is correct, a better decision
without compromise can result
• Disadvantage: May breed hostility and resentment toward the
person using it
TURTLE
CHARACTERISTICS
• Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict
management style
• Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than
resolve it; this leads them uncooperative and
unassertive
• Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display
passive behaviour creating lose-lose situations
• Advantage: may help to maintain relationships that
would be hurt by conflict resolution
• Disadvantage: Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of
the style leads to others walking over them
FOX CHARACTERISTICS
• Foxes use a compromising conflict management style;
concern is for goals and relationships
• Foxes are willing to sacrifice some of their goals while
persuading others to give up part of theirs
• Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is either
win-lose or lose-lose
• Advantage: relationships are maintained and conflicts
are removed
• Disadvantage: compromise may create less than ideal
outcome and game playing can result
TEDDY-BEAR
CHARACTERISTICS
• Teddy bears use a smoothing or
accommodating conflict management style
with emphasis on human relationships
• Teddy bears ignore their own goals and resolve
conflict by giving into others; unassertive and
cooperative creating a win-lose (bear is loser)
situation
• Advantage: Accommodating maintains
relationships
• Disadvantage: Giving in may not be
productive, bear may be taken advantage of
OWL
CHARACTERISTICS
• Owls use a collaborating or problem
confronting conflict management style
valuing their goals and relationships
• Owls view conflicts as problems to be solved
finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win-
win)
• Advantage: both sides get what they want
and negative feelings eliminated
• Disadvantage: takes a great deal of time and
effort
CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES
THE 4-STEP CONFLICT
RESOLUTION PROCESS –
THERAPEUTIC MODEL
• Step 1: Identify sources of potential
and actual conflict (DIAGNOSIS)
• Step 2: Develop conflict resolution
strategies/techniques
(EXAMINATION)
• Step 3: Apply conflict resolution
strategies/techniques (REMEDY)
• Step 4: Control and review the
effectiveness of the conflict
resolution strategy/technique
(FOLLOW-UP)
STEP 1: DIAGNOSIS
• Identify the sources/causes
of conflict:
❑Intra-personal
❑Interpersonal
❑Intra-group or Inter-
group
• The best approach to
manage conflict effectively is
to be proactive.
STEP 2:
EXAMINATION
• Develop conflict resolution
strategies/techniques:
❑Shark (Competing)
❑Turtle (Avoiding)
❑Fox (Compromising)
❑Teddy-bear (Accommodating)
❑Owl (Collaborating)
• There is no one best way to deal with conflict.
It is dependent on the current situation as
well as the team members involved in the
conflict.
• The golden rule is that managers should take
prompt action in resolving conflict.
• By failing to act, it may result in the conflict
escalating beyond control and “spreading like
a cancer” negatively affecting team
performance and relationships.
STEP 3: REMEDY
• Apply conflict resolution
strategies/techniques
• The key is to match strategies to
situations
• Influential considerations:
❑Time pressure
❑Issue importance
❑Relationship importance
❑Relative power
SUITABILITY AND
APPROPRIATENESS:
SHARK
• When conflict involves personal differences
that are difficult to change
• When fostering intimate or supportive
relationships is not critical
• When others are likely to take advantage of
non-competitive behaviour
• When conflict resolution is urgent; when
decision is vital and when in a crisis
• When unpopular decisions need to be
implemented
• Use when you have a very strong conviction
about your position
• If time is precious and if you have enough
power to impose your will
SUITABILITY AND
APPROPRIATENESS:
TURTLE
• When the stakes are not high or issue is trivial
• When confrontation will hurt a working
relationship
• When there is little chance of satisfying your wants
• When disruption outweighs benefit of conflict
resolution
• When gathering information is more important
than an immediate decision
• When others can more effectively resolve the
conflict
• When time constraints demand a delay
• Use it when it simply is not worth the effort to
argue
SUITABILITY AND
APPROPRIATENESS: FOX
• When important/complex
issues leave no clear or
simple solutions
• When all conflicting people
are equal in power and have
strong interests in different
solutions
• When there are no time
restraints
• Use when the goal is to get
past the issue and move on
SUITABILITY AND
APPROPRIATENESS:
TEDDY-BEAR
• When maintaining the relationship
outweighs other considerations
• When suggestions/changes are not
important to the accommodator
• When minimizing losses in situations
where outmatched or losing
• When time is limited or when harmony
and stability are valued
• Use this approach very sparingly and
infrequently, for example, in situations
when you know that you will have
another more useful approach in the
very near future
SUITABILITY AND
APPROPRIATENESS: OWL
• When maintaining relationships is important
• When time is not a concern
• When peer conflict is involved
• When trying to gain commitment through
consensus building
• When learning and trying to merge differing
perspectives
• Use when the goal is to meet as many current
needs as possible by using mutual resources.
This approach sometimes raises new mutual
needs.
• Use when the goal is to cultivate ownership and
commitment
STEP 4: FOLLOW-UP
• Managers will need to confirm
whether this technique has
adequately resolved the conflict.
• In the event that this dysfunctional
conflict persists, managers may have
to resort to alternative (third party)
strategies:
❑Mediation
❑Counseling
❑Organizational development (OD)
interventions
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT GUIDING PRINCIPLES –
TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
WE HAVE TO TALK: A STEP-BY-STEP CHECKLIST FOR
DIFFICULT CONVERSATIONS (Judy Ringer)
• https://www.judyringer.com/resources/articles/we-have-to-talk-a-stepbystep-checklist-for-difficult-conversations.php
• Working on Yourself: How to Prepare for the Conversation
• Before going into the conversation, ask yourself some questions
• 4 Steps to a Successful Outcome
❑ Step #1: Inquiry
❑ Step #2: Acknowledgment
❑ Step #3: Advocacy
❑ Step #4: Problem-Solving
• Practice, Practice, Practice
• Some additional tips and suggestions
• How Do I Begin?
• Write a possible opening for your conversation
LEARNING ACTIVITY 8
• Group discussion
• As a Manager, identify a current
conflict situation in the Volvo
Group S.A work environment.
Apply the 4-step conflict
resolution process, to find a
solution for this conflict.
• Review the article (Ringer) and
extract the most relevant lessons
within the Volvo Group S.A work
environment.
LIST OF SOURCES
• CIPD. (2013). Employee Engagement: Fact Sheet. Updated August 2013.
• Cotter, C.A (2008-2019). Various People Management Learner Manuals. Rantsane Mario
Training Solutions in-house and public training programmes: RMT: Randburg.
• Covey, S. R. (1989). The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Franklin Covey
Company: New York.
• Gallup Research. (2013). State of the American Workplace: Employee Engagement
Insights for U.S Business Leaders. Gallup Inc. 2013.
• Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence Workbook. Learning Resources.
• Nienaber, H., Martins, N. (2014). Developing an employee engagement measurement
instrument for a South African context. UNISA. Submitted for publication, SA Journal of
Industrial Psychology. 2014.
• Robbins, S.P & Coulter, M. (2009). Management. 10th edition. Pearson: Prentice Hall. New
Jersey
LIST OF SOURCES
• SABPP. (2014). Fact sheet: Employee Engagement. Prepared by Penny Abbott. October 2014. No. 2014/9.
Parktown.
• TINYpulse. (2014). The 7 key trends impacting today’s workplace. TINYpulse.
• https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/deloitte-review/issue-16/employee-engagement-
strategies.html (accessed 8 January 2018)
• http://www.digitalistmag.com/future-of-work/2016/09/30/5-employee-engagement-ideas-that-make-
difference-04504075 (accessed 2 November 2016)
• https://www.judyringer.com/resources/articles/we-have-to-talk-a-stepbystep-checklist-for-difficult-
conversations.php (accessed 7 January 2018)
• https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/conflict-management-and-communication-skills (accessed 3
February 2019)
• https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/emotional-intelligence-and-personal-effectiveness (accessed 3
February 2019)
• https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/employee-engagementbest-practice-principles-and-strategies
(accessed 3 February 2019)
CONCLUSION
• Key points
• Summary
• Questions
• Training Administration
People management skills

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People management skills

  • 1. PEOPLE MANAGEMENT SKILLS VOLVO GROUP SOUTHERN AFRICA CHARLES COTTER PhD, MBA, B.A (Hons), B.A www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter 5-6 FEBRUARY 2019
  • 2. 2-DAY, TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW • People Management Maturity Model • Interpersonal Skills • Emotional Intelligence ------------ • Employee Engagement and -Retention • Motivational Strategies • Conflict Management and -Resolution
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY •Complete the statement by inserting one (1) word. In order to effectively manage employees at Volvo Group S.A, I need to/to be……………………………………………… •Jot this word down and find other learners who have written down the same word. •Write this word down on the flip-chart. •Each learner will have the opportunity to elaborate on their choice of word.
  • 7. THE STAGES OF THE PEOPLE MANAGEMENT MATURITY HIERARCHY – THE 4 C’s MODEL (COTTER, 2018)
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12. JOHARI’S WINDOW • Managers can utilize Johari’s Window, in order to affect openness and interpersonal trust. • Designed to understand the communication process between people and consists of varying degrees of information held in common between two people as well as methods that can be used to increase the size of one’s window. • Communication will be enhanced if the Arena is increased in size by: ❑Exposure of self to others ❑Soliciting feedback from others • Exposure requires an open, candid and trusting approach, while feedback requires an active solicitation of feelings, opinions and values from others. • For these processes to be fully developed, reciprocity is required.
  • 13.
  • 14. DEFINING RESILIENCE • Resilience in psychology refers to the idea of an individual's tendency to cope with stress and adversity. • This coping may result in the individual "bouncing back" to a previous state of normal functioning, or using the experience of exposure to adversity to produce a "steeling effect" and function better than expected • Resilience is most commonly understood as a process, and not a trait of an individual. • Resilience is a dynamic process whereby individuals exhibit positive behavioural adaptation when they encounter significant adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or even significant sources of stress.
  • 15. RESILIENCE BUILDING STRATEGIES •Positive (they see life as complex but filled with opportunity) •Focused (they have a clear vision of what they want to achieve) •Flexible (they demonstrate pliability when responding to uncertainty) •Organized (they develop structured approaches to managing ambiguity) •Proactive (they engage with change rather than defending against it)
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18. DEFINING ASSERTIVENESS Assertiveness is the ability to express one’s feelings and assert one’s rights while respecting the feelings and rights of others. Assertive communication is appropriately direct, open and honest and clarifies one’s needs to the other person. People who have mastered the skill of assertiveness are able to greatly reduce the level of interpersonal conflict in their lives, thereby reducing a major source of stress.
  • 20.
  • 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSERTIVE PEOPLE Are firm and direct Don’t blame others but take full responsibility for their own feelings Concentrate on the present Can express their needs and feelings calmly and easily Are confident about who they are Speak firmly and make eye contact Respect others’ rights and expect the same in return
  • 22. MEASURING YOUR ASSERTIVENESS Do you have difficulty accepting constructive criticism? Do you find yourself saying ‘yes’ to requests that you should really say ‘no’ to, just to avoid disappointing people? Do you have trouble voicing a difference of opinion with others? Do people tend to feel alienated by your communication style when you do disagree with them? Do you feel attacked when someone has an opinion different from your own?
  • 23. LEARNING TO SAY NO – “WHO’S GOT THE MONKEY?”
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 • Group Discussion: • In the Volvo Group S.A work context, describe how you can build your intra- personal competencies to master Stage 1: Self Awareness – Cognition of the People Management Maturity model.
  • 29. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Group Discussion: • Part A: • Individual activity: • Complete the Interpersonal Style Questionnaire
  • 31. UNDERSTANDING TRANSACTIONS • According to TA, there are three kinds of transactions: ❑Complementary - effective and successful communication. Complementary transactions are when two people’s ego states are sympathetic or complementary to one another. ❑Crossed - Person 1 says something from one ego state and receives a different response than he/she is expecting. ❑Ulterior - these are the transactions that lead to Games, and a lot of confusion, miscommunication and conflict in our lives. 2 messages are conveyed simultaneously – one that is overt (social level) and other covert (psychological level).
  • 35. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 • Part B: • Group Discussion: • By referring to your interpersonal style, describe how you can improve your communication with the 3 other interpersonal styles of colleagues and team members in the Volvo Group S.A work environment. • Part C: • Describe how you can apply the PAC model with three kinds of transactions in the Volvo Group S.A work context.
  • 37. DEFINING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ) EQ is the skill to recognize different emotions in yourself and the world around you and to interpret and use these emotions to enhance your quality of life. EQ is a set of abilities that helps you manage your emotions and relate to others. EQ is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they're telling you and realize how your emotions affect people around you. EQ is the ability to understand and manage both your own emotions and those of the people around you.
  • 38.
  • 39.
  • 40.
  • 42.
  • 43.
  • 44.
  • 45. THE VALUE OF EMOTIONS
  • 46. BUILDING A BUSINESS CASE FOR EQ • “The single most important factor that distinguished star performers was EQ.”
  • 47.
  • 48. THE FIVE (5) COMPETENCIES OF EQ
  • 50. SELF AWARENESS • It must come first because if we don’t know ourselves and what we’re feeling, how can we possibly know or understand someone else and how they feel? • Self-awareness is about knowing what drives us and what we’re passionate about. • The more we know about ourselves, the better we are able to control and choose what kind of behaviours we’’ display in a work setting. • Without self-awareness, our emotions can blind us and guide us to do things or to become people we really don’t want to be. • If we are aware of our feelings and thoughts, we can choose how we will act or react in a given situation or to a certain person. • With this choice comes power - the kind of intrinsic power that no one can take away from us.
  • 51. SELF AWARENESS • People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware. • They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them. • They're confident – because they trust their intuition and don't let their emotions get out of control. • They're also willing to take an honest look at themselves. • They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better.
  • 52. SELF REGULATION • The second step is to regulate those feelings and manage them so they do more good than harm. • Our passions can be contagious and energize others, but our ranting and ravings can damage work relations beyond repair. • Checking those emotions is what self-regulation is all about. It’s giving the rational side time to temper our feelings when needed. • When we are angry, we cannot make good decisions and often react inappropriately by blowing an incident out of proportion - we lose our perspective. • By learning to manage our emotions, we become more adaptable and innovative in stressful situations.
  • 53. SELF REGULATION • Self-regulation helps us act intentionally rather than reactively. • Self-regulation helps us act deliberately and not destructively. • Self-Regulation is the ability to control emotions and impulses. • People who self-regulate typically don't allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make impulsive, careless decisions - they think before they act. • Characteristics of self-regulation are thoughtfulness, comfort with change, integrity and the ability to say no.
  • 54. SELF MOTIVATION • The third step is to direct the power of our emotions towards a purpose that will motivate and inspire us. • Self-motivation is about visualizing the achievement of a goal and taking the necessary steps to get there. • Athletes use their emotions to psyche themselves up for competition. • The same technique is effective in the workplace to raise job performance. • “Self-motivated people can envision reaching the goal which gives meaning to the mundane.” • “Stand firm even when you are buffeted by events and emotions.”
  • 55. SELF MOTIVATION • The strongly self-motivated workers also accept change and are more flexible. New twists and unexpected turns don’t bend them out of shape. • They have better attitudes, take more initiative and do balanced risk taking. But most of all, self-motivated employees persist toward goals, despite obstacles and setbacks. • People with a high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated. • They're willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. • They're highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever they do.
  • 56. EMPATHY • Empathy is defined as an outwardly-looking approach to managing relationships that enables people to see from another person’s perspective. • It means responding to others appropriately with sensitivity and compassion. • Empathy begins with listening i.e. with the purpose to understand and respond and display sensitivity and concern. • “Nobody in life will listen to us unless they feel we have listened to them.” • A team leader, who is empathetic, listens and responds and naturally displays sensitivity and concern - this makes a connection with people. • It is important for team leaders to be attuned to different people’s needs and emotional responses as well as reading these cues.
  • 57. EMPATHY “Empathy is the glue that will bind the group together to work successfully.” The ability to model empathy is the best way to motivate others. Empathetic people are usually excellent at managing relationships, listening and relating to others. They avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly and they live their lives in a very open, honest way.
  • 58. THE VALUE OF SOCIAL AND RELATIONAL CAPITAL • “The new business currency is human (social) and relational capital, not financial capital. Given the economic downturn, the value of financial capital is depreciating, whereas social and relational capital is exponentially appreciating and yields a significant positive return-on- investment (ROI).” Charles Cotter (2016)
  • 59. RELATIONSHIP/SOCIAL SKILLS • This fifth competency is about interacting with people successfully and being adept at managing emotions in others. • With heightened social skills, leaders are better communicators and better collaborators. • It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social skills, another sign of high emotional intelligence. • Those with strong social skills are typically team players. • Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others develop and shine. • They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are masters at building and maintaining relationships.
  • 60. SUMMARY OF EQ COMPETENCIES
  • 61.
  • 62. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Individual activity: • Complete the Emotional Intelligence Self-Evaluation survey i.e. Parts I (Rating) and II (Scoring). • Analyze the results/findings and identify your strengths and shortcomings i.e. Part III (Interpreting).
  • 63.
  • 64. HOW TO IMPROVE YOUR EQ – GENERAL ADVICE • Observe how you react to people • Look at your work environment • Do a self-evaluation • Examine how you react to stressful situations • Take responsibility for your actions • Examine how your actions will affect others – before you take those actions • With appropriate education and training, you can develop EQ throughout your life
  • 66. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF AWARENESS • Learn the difference between thoughts or feelings • Ask yourself how you’re feeling throughout the day and be honest • Be open to input from other • Keep a journal • Slow down
  • 67. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF CONTROL Use Use humour Reframe Reframe an irritating situation into a problem- solving exercise Anticipate Anticipate emotional “triggers” and prepare to manage them Accept Accept responsibility for your emotional responses in the workplace Monitor Monitor your self-talk
  • 68. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF CONTROL • Never underestimate the power of taking deep breaths • Remove yourself from the situation and keep moving • Know your values • Hold yourself accountable • Practice being calm
  • 69. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF MOTIVATION • Be aware of how you explain setbacks to yourself - stay realistic • Connect your goals with your values to get energized • Strive for reaching a “flow” state while working on projects • Visualization • Keep learning
  • 70. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SELF MOTIVATION •Re-examine why you're doing this •Make sure that your goal statements are fresh and energizing •Know where you stand •Be hopeful and find something good
  • 71. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES - EMPATHY •Look for nonverbal cues as well as listening for verbal •Pay attention to body language •Share and be honest about your feelings •Be consistent so that your spoken and unspoken messages match
  • 72. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES - EMPATHY • Take the kinder road whenever possible • Try to see from the other person’s perspective • Respond to feelings • Put yourself in someone else's position
  • 73. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SOCIAL SKILLS •Share your passion and enthusiasm for your job and the organization’s vision – it’s contagious! •Create an inspiring work environment •Engage in creative brainstorming •Be willing to coach or mentor other and be open to being coached yourself
  • 74. TARGETED EQ DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES – SOCIAL SKILLS •Learn conflict resolution •Improve your communication skills •Learn how to praise others
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 77. TRUST ENHANCING STRATEGIES Open and transparent communication Mutual respect and tolerance for individual differences Demonstrated care and sincere interest Recognition for the value of each individual team member Co-operation and shared commitment
  • 78. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group Discussion: • By referring to the outcomes/ratings of your EQ Self- Evaluation survey, identify strategies to improve your two most deficient EQ competencies.
  • 80.
  • 81. FOUR STAGES OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • How can I grow? • Do I belong? • What do I give? • What do I get?
  • 82.
  • 83. COTTER’S 5 C’S OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • Are employees COMMITTED to the organization? • Are employees proud to work for the organization – company/brand ambassadors? CITIZEN • Do employees put forth extra/discretionary effort to help the organization and their colleagues achieve business objectives? COMRADE • Are employees enthusiastic and passionate about their work/jobs? CREATOR • Are employees CONNECTED (intellectually and emotionally) to their work/jobs – offer value add?
  • 84. ❖#1 Role clarity and expectations ❖#2 Resources – materials and equipment ❖#3 Role optimization and opportunities ❖#4 Receipt of recognition and praise ❖#5 Managerial care and interest ❖#6 Encouragement of personal and professional development GALLUP Q12
  • 85. ❖#7 Opinions and inputs are valued ❖#8 Job/task significance ❖#9 Fellow employee commitment to performance excellence/quality ❖#10 Collegial and harmonious working relationships ❖#11 Managerial interest in career progression and development ❖#12 Ample opportunities to learn and grow GALLUP Q12
  • 86.
  • 87. DEGREE OF USA EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT (GALLUP 2013) • 71% of employees are disengaged: ❖45% are not engaged (BASICS) ❖26% are actively disengaged (BREAKERS) • 29% of the workforce are engaged (BUILDERS)
  • 88.
  • 89. DEGREE OF S.A EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT (GALLUP 2013)
  • 90.
  • 92. BENEFITS OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
  • 93. THE STRATEGIC IMPERATIVE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96. KEY FINDINGS: GALLUP (2013) • $11 billion is lost annually due to employee turnover • Highly engaged employees are 26% more productive than disengaged employees • Employees are not prepared to engage customers. When organizations successfully engage their customers and their employees, they experience a 240% performance boost. • Managers and leaders play a critical role • 90% of leaders think an engagement strategy will impact business success
  • 97. KEY FINDINGS: GALLUP (2013) • Different types of workers need different engagement strategies • Engagement makes a difference to the bottom line - companies earned 13% greater total returns for shareholders over a 5-year financial period • Companies with engaged employees perform 202% better than those without • Engagement has a greater impact on performance than corporate policies and perks • The most compelling evidence of the benefits of an engaged workforce is the identification of a positive impact on 9 business performance indicators.
  • 98. ENGAGEMENT’S EFFECT ON 9 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
  • 101. CIPD STRATEGIES (2013) • “Giving employees meaningful voice: facilitating upwards feedback, having respectful, adult to-adult conversations and responding to employee views • Effective communications that keep employees well informed and reinforce the organisation’s purpose • Role modelling: employees need to see that managers are committed to the organisation and uphold the values of employee engagement in how they act • Fair and just management processes for dealing with problems and supporting employee well-being.”
  • 102. STRATEGIES TO ACCELERATE EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • According to Gallup (2013), three (3) strategies to accelerate employee engagement are: ❖Select the Right People and Managers ❖Develop employees’ strengths ❖Enhance employees’ well-being
  • 103. BEST PRACTICE EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT • According to Gallup (2013) research, the best organizations deeply integrate employee engagement into the following four (4) areas: ❖Strategy and Leadership Philosophy ❖Accountability and Performance ❖Communication and Knowledge Management ❖Development and on-going Learning Opportunities
  • 104. ARMSTRONG’S EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES ❑Leadership ❑The work environment ❑Job design ❑Opportunities for personal growth ❑Performance Management
  • 105. TINYpulse (2014) STRATEGIES • Showing employee appreciation and recognition • Fostering a positive work culture • Mapping professional growth plans • Recruiting collegial, hard-working colleagues • Hiring managers that are truly leaders • Empowering employees with tools to succeed • Enabling peer recognition
  • 106. MOST IMPACTFUL EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT DRIVERS (HARVARD BUSINESS REVIEW – 2014)
  • 107.
  • 108.
  • 110. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group Discussion: • Critically review the Employee Engagement strategies. Indicate which strategies are most viable, feasible and sustainable at Volvo Group S.A. • Evaluate the current degree of Volvo Group S.A employee retention by gauging against the Irresistible Organization factors and sub- factors. • In the Volvo Group S.A work context, describe how you can leverage employee voice strategies to promote workplace democracy and stimulate innovation.
  • 112. MOTIVATION • Defining employee motivation • Performance Potential Score (PPS) • Benefits of motivated workforce • Motivation strategies
  • 113.
  • 114.
  • 115.
  • 116. PERCEPTUAL GAP – EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
  • 118. BENEFITS OF A MOTIVATED WORKFORCE • Quality performance • High levels of productivity (“a team member is a productive team member”) • High levels of commitment (to both the team and organization) • High levels of team cohesion
  • 119. THE PIVOTAL MOTIVATIONAL ROLE OF THE MANAGERS
  • 120. MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES • Set specific goals for employees • Goals should be realistic and attainable • Job must suit the employee’s personality • Respect and recognise individual differences • Provide immediate feedback to employees on their performance • Rewards should be individualistic • Link rewards to performance • Honour the principle of internal equity (i.e. fairness for all employees) • Motivational theories should be regarded as cultural bound
  • 121.
  • 122. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Group discussion • By referring to the performance equation, compute the PPS of your Volvo Group S.A work team. Develop strategies to improve any of the deficient variables. • As a Manager at Volvo Group S.A, describe how you can motivate and inspire your team members.
  • 124. FUNCTIONAL AND DYSFUNCTIONAL CONFLICT • Functional conflict leads to open discussion, a better understanding of differences, innovative solutions and greater commitment. • Functional conflict contributes to the achievement of organizational goals and enhances relationship-building. • Dysfunctional conflict tends be more focused on emotions than on the goal/task at hand known as affect conflict/interpersonal conflict, it is destructive when a solution is not reached, energy is diverted away from the core problem and morale is negatively affected. • Dysfunctional conflict is detrimental to relationships within the team and team performance.
  • 126. OPTIMAL LEVELS OF CONFLICT
  • 127. CONFLICT RESOLUTION STYLES •Shark (Competing) •Turtle (Avoiding) •Fox (Compromising) •Teddy-bear (Accommodating) •Owl (Collaborating)
  • 128. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 •Individual activity: •Complete the 30 question/item Thomas- Kilmann Conflict Mode instrument/questionnaire and by using the scoring sheet, determine your predominant conflict management style. •Follow the instructions.
  • 129. SHARK CHARACTERISTICS • Sharks use a forcing or competing conflict management style • Sharks are highly goal-oriented • Relationships take on a lower priority • Sharks do not hesitate to use aggressive behaviour to resolve conflicts • Sharks can be autocratic, authoritative, and uncooperative; threatening and intimidating • Sharks have a need to win; therefore others must lose, creating win-lose situations • Advantage: If the shark's decision is correct, a better decision without compromise can result • Disadvantage: May breed hostility and resentment toward the person using it
  • 130. TURTLE CHARACTERISTICS • Turtles adopt an avoiding or withdrawing conflict management style • Turtles would rather hide and ignore conflict than resolve it; this leads them uncooperative and unassertive • Turtles tend to give up personal goals and display passive behaviour creating lose-lose situations • Advantage: may help to maintain relationships that would be hurt by conflict resolution • Disadvantage: Conflicts remain unresolved, overuse of the style leads to others walking over them
  • 131. FOX CHARACTERISTICS • Foxes use a compromising conflict management style; concern is for goals and relationships • Foxes are willing to sacrifice some of their goals while persuading others to give up part of theirs • Compromise is assertive and cooperative-result is either win-lose or lose-lose • Advantage: relationships are maintained and conflicts are removed • Disadvantage: compromise may create less than ideal outcome and game playing can result
  • 132. TEDDY-BEAR CHARACTERISTICS • Teddy bears use a smoothing or accommodating conflict management style with emphasis on human relationships • Teddy bears ignore their own goals and resolve conflict by giving into others; unassertive and cooperative creating a win-lose (bear is loser) situation • Advantage: Accommodating maintains relationships • Disadvantage: Giving in may not be productive, bear may be taken advantage of
  • 133. OWL CHARACTERISTICS • Owls use a collaborating or problem confronting conflict management style valuing their goals and relationships • Owls view conflicts as problems to be solved finding solutions agreeable to all sides (win- win) • Advantage: both sides get what they want and negative feelings eliminated • Disadvantage: takes a great deal of time and effort
  • 135.
  • 136. THE 4-STEP CONFLICT RESOLUTION PROCESS – THERAPEUTIC MODEL • Step 1: Identify sources of potential and actual conflict (DIAGNOSIS) • Step 2: Develop conflict resolution strategies/techniques (EXAMINATION) • Step 3: Apply conflict resolution strategies/techniques (REMEDY) • Step 4: Control and review the effectiveness of the conflict resolution strategy/technique (FOLLOW-UP)
  • 137. STEP 1: DIAGNOSIS • Identify the sources/causes of conflict: ❑Intra-personal ❑Interpersonal ❑Intra-group or Inter- group • The best approach to manage conflict effectively is to be proactive.
  • 138. STEP 2: EXAMINATION • Develop conflict resolution strategies/techniques: ❑Shark (Competing) ❑Turtle (Avoiding) ❑Fox (Compromising) ❑Teddy-bear (Accommodating) ❑Owl (Collaborating) • There is no one best way to deal with conflict. It is dependent on the current situation as well as the team members involved in the conflict. • The golden rule is that managers should take prompt action in resolving conflict. • By failing to act, it may result in the conflict escalating beyond control and “spreading like a cancer” negatively affecting team performance and relationships.
  • 139. STEP 3: REMEDY • Apply conflict resolution strategies/techniques • The key is to match strategies to situations • Influential considerations: ❑Time pressure ❑Issue importance ❑Relationship importance ❑Relative power
  • 140. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: SHARK • When conflict involves personal differences that are difficult to change • When fostering intimate or supportive relationships is not critical • When others are likely to take advantage of non-competitive behaviour • When conflict resolution is urgent; when decision is vital and when in a crisis • When unpopular decisions need to be implemented • Use when you have a very strong conviction about your position • If time is precious and if you have enough power to impose your will
  • 141. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: TURTLE • When the stakes are not high or issue is trivial • When confrontation will hurt a working relationship • When there is little chance of satisfying your wants • When disruption outweighs benefit of conflict resolution • When gathering information is more important than an immediate decision • When others can more effectively resolve the conflict • When time constraints demand a delay • Use it when it simply is not worth the effort to argue
  • 142. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: FOX • When important/complex issues leave no clear or simple solutions • When all conflicting people are equal in power and have strong interests in different solutions • When there are no time restraints • Use when the goal is to get past the issue and move on
  • 143. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: TEDDY-BEAR • When maintaining the relationship outweighs other considerations • When suggestions/changes are not important to the accommodator • When minimizing losses in situations where outmatched or losing • When time is limited or when harmony and stability are valued • Use this approach very sparingly and infrequently, for example, in situations when you know that you will have another more useful approach in the very near future
  • 144. SUITABILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS: OWL • When maintaining relationships is important • When time is not a concern • When peer conflict is involved • When trying to gain commitment through consensus building • When learning and trying to merge differing perspectives • Use when the goal is to meet as many current needs as possible by using mutual resources. This approach sometimes raises new mutual needs. • Use when the goal is to cultivate ownership and commitment
  • 145. STEP 4: FOLLOW-UP • Managers will need to confirm whether this technique has adequately resolved the conflict. • In the event that this dysfunctional conflict persists, managers may have to resort to alternative (third party) strategies: ❑Mediation ❑Counseling ❑Organizational development (OD) interventions
  • 146. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT GUIDING PRINCIPLES – TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
  • 147.
  • 148.
  • 149. WE HAVE TO TALK: A STEP-BY-STEP CHECKLIST FOR DIFFICULT CONVERSATIONS (Judy Ringer) • https://www.judyringer.com/resources/articles/we-have-to-talk-a-stepbystep-checklist-for-difficult-conversations.php • Working on Yourself: How to Prepare for the Conversation • Before going into the conversation, ask yourself some questions • 4 Steps to a Successful Outcome ❑ Step #1: Inquiry ❑ Step #2: Acknowledgment ❑ Step #3: Advocacy ❑ Step #4: Problem-Solving • Practice, Practice, Practice • Some additional tips and suggestions • How Do I Begin? • Write a possible opening for your conversation
  • 150. LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 • Group discussion • As a Manager, identify a current conflict situation in the Volvo Group S.A work environment. Apply the 4-step conflict resolution process, to find a solution for this conflict. • Review the article (Ringer) and extract the most relevant lessons within the Volvo Group S.A work environment.
  • 151. LIST OF SOURCES • CIPD. (2013). Employee Engagement: Fact Sheet. Updated August 2013. • Cotter, C.A (2008-2019). Various People Management Learner Manuals. Rantsane Mario Training Solutions in-house and public training programmes: RMT: Randburg. • Covey, S. R. (1989). The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. Franklin Covey Company: New York. • Gallup Research. (2013). State of the American Workplace: Employee Engagement Insights for U.S Business Leaders. Gallup Inc. 2013. • Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence Workbook. Learning Resources. • Nienaber, H., Martins, N. (2014). Developing an employee engagement measurement instrument for a South African context. UNISA. Submitted for publication, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 2014. • Robbins, S.P & Coulter, M. (2009). Management. 10th edition. Pearson: Prentice Hall. New Jersey
  • 152. LIST OF SOURCES • SABPP. (2014). Fact sheet: Employee Engagement. Prepared by Penny Abbott. October 2014. No. 2014/9. Parktown. • TINYpulse. (2014). The 7 key trends impacting today’s workplace. TINYpulse. • https://www2.deloitte.com/insights/us/en/deloitte-review/issue-16/employee-engagement- strategies.html (accessed 8 January 2018) • http://www.digitalistmag.com/future-of-work/2016/09/30/5-employee-engagement-ideas-that-make- difference-04504075 (accessed 2 November 2016) • https://www.judyringer.com/resources/articles/we-have-to-talk-a-stepbystep-checklist-for-difficult- conversations.php (accessed 7 January 2018) • https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/conflict-management-and-communication-skills (accessed 3 February 2019) • https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/emotional-intelligence-and-personal-effectiveness (accessed 3 February 2019) • https://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter/employee-engagementbest-practice-principles-and-strategies (accessed 3 February 2019)
  • 153. CONCLUSION • Key points • Summary • Questions • Training Administration