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Administration and Office Management Best Practices

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Administration and Office Management Best Practice principles, processes, techniques and tools

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Administration and Office Management Best Practices

  1. 1. ADMINISTRATION AND OFFICE MANAGEMENT BEST PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES CHARLES COTTER PhD, MBA, B.A (Hons), B.A www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter LYNDHURST 9-12 JULY 2018
  2. 2. 4-DAY, TRAINING PROGRAMME OVERVIEW • Roles, responsibilities and skills of an Office Professional • Office Management & Administration skills • Interpersonal Communication • Business Communication • Stress Management • Time Management • Reception and Telephone etiquette • Event Management • Customer service • Records Management
  3. 3. INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY • Individual activity: • Complete the following statement by inserting one word only. In order to be an effective Office Professional/Manager, I need to/to be……………………………………………………… • Jot this word down and find other learners who have written down the same word. • Write this word down on the flip-chart. • You’ll be given the opportunity to substantiate your choice of word.
  4. 4. ROLES, RESPONSIBILITIES & SKILLS OF AN OFFICE PROFESSIONAL
  5. 5. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  6. 6. VALUE OF AN OFFICE PROFESSIONAL In a survey of the Managing Directors of the Top 5 000 businesses in the UK, they concluded that having their P.A made them more than 32% more effective.
  7. 7. PROFESSIONAL VALUE AND WORTH
  8. 8. THE SKILLS AND ATTRIBUTES THAT EXECUTIVES ARE LOOKING FOR IN OFFICE PROFESSIONALS • #1: Understanding the business strategy • #2: Understanding the wider business issues • #3: Operating efficiently and effectively • #4: Being a natural problem solver • #5: Being a rigorous planner • #6: Being a strong influencer
  9. 9. THE SKILLS AND ATTRIBUTES THAT EXECUTIVES ARE LOOKING FOR IN OFFICE PROFESIONALS • #7: Using initiative and being pro-active • #8: Focusing on providing support and being a sounding board • #9: Interpersonal skills, efficiency and work ethic • #10: Ability to understand and anticipate the needs of the CEO • #11: Other crucial attributes are organizational ability, an awareness of world events and “mutual respect.” • #12: Skills variety e.g. “exceptional organizational skills,” the ability to utilize new technology, “knowledge of cultural differences” around the world, good communication skills, EQ and professionalism.
  10. 10. ATTRIBUTES OF PROFESSIONALISM • Specialized Knowledge • Competency • Honesty and Integrity • Accountability • Self-Regulation • Image
  11. 11. CORE COMPETENCIES OF BEING A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL • Identify our most valuable skill sets • Market our skills that are most in-demand • Target who we want to market ourselves to • Articulate our ability to solve an employer's problems and alleviate their pain • Proactively start and engage in meaningful industry conversations • Position ourselves as a subject-matter expert • Know our worth and limits
  12. 12. NETWORKING AND BUSINESS CONTACTS • “It’s not what you know, but who you know.” • Research has proven that those employees better equipped with the social skills necessary to network effectively and build sustainable, professional relationships with key organizational decision-makers, tend to climb the corporate ladder substantially faster than those who lack this capability. • Research indicates that between 50% and 75% of jobs are never advertised. So networking can be 12 times more effective than answering an advertisement. • Networking is a process of building strong and enduring relationships that are mutually beneficial.
  13. 13. NETWORKING POINTERS • The first thing you must do is develop a network list • Clarify exactly what it is you have to offer • Identify the right decision maker with respect to what you want to achieve • Do some research before making contact • Use a mutual connection/acquaintance, with their permission first • Ensure that your communication is interesting, useful and value- adding
  14. 14. NETWORKING POINTERS • Turn every contact into a multiple contact • Identify and win over gatekeepers, assistants who screen communications • Awaken people to your talent, get them to sit up and take notice of your worth • Always be prepared to deliver (in terms of time, quality and according to expectation) • Always follow-up, don’t lose initial momentum and impetus • Grasp every chance to broaden your networking opportunities - attend exhibitions, conferences or trade fairs relevant to your target field • Keep your contact information up to date and keep others updated of your details
  15. 15. THE PRINCIPLES OF PROFESSIONAL SOCIAL MEDIA ETIQUETTE • LinkedIn • Twitter • Facebook
  16. 16. QUALITIES AND SKILLS OF AN OFFICE PROFESSIONAL • Organizational skills • Tact and diplomacy • Effective communication skills • Maintain confidentiality in sensitive matters • Display excellent judgment • Some of the key, soft skills required by PA/EA’s include: ❑Resilience ❑Emotional Intelligence ❑Assertiveness
  17. 17. THE ASSERTIVENESS CONTINUUM
  18. 18. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 Group Discussion: • Identify and describe your primary and supportive roles as an Office Manager/Administrator. Identify opportunities for growth in your current role. • Identify the key skills and competencies that you require to be an effective Office Manager/Administrator. Identify developmental gaps and indicate improvement strategies. • Evaluate your current competency against the 12 criteria of what executives expect. Identify developmental gaps and indicate improvement strategies.
  19. 19. LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 Group Discussion: • By referring to the attributes of professionalism, describe how you, as an Office Professional, can enhance your professionalism and improve business ethics in your organization. • As an Office Professional, develop strategies to improve your business networking skills. • As an Office Professional, develop strategies to build your personal, professional brand, by means of social media.
  20. 20. THE FUTURE-FIT CODE: 10 STRATEGIES TO FUTURE- PROOF YOUR OFFICE PROFESSIONAL CAREER • Future-fit, career-minded Virtual Assistants (V.A’s) will apply the following strategies: ❑#1: Relevance ❑#2: Differentiation ❑#3: Unique Value Proposition (UVP) ❑#4: Specialization ❑#5: Agility
  21. 21. THE FUTURE-FIT CODE: 10 STRATEGIES TO FUTURE- PROOF YOUR OFFICE PROFESSIONAL CAREER • Future-fit, career-minded Virtual Assistants (V.A’s) will apply the following strategies: ❑#6: Re-invention ❑#7: Value Amplification ❑#8: Next Dimension Thinking ❑#9: Digital Literacy and -Citizenship ❑#10: Hyperconnected Collaborator • Refer to link: https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/future- fit-code-10-strategies-future-proof-your-career-charles- cotter/
  22. 22. SOURCE OF RELEVANCE: MINDSET FUTURE-FIT HRM CONSULTANT FUTURE UNFIT HRM CONSULTANT Growth Fixed Abundance Scarcity Optimalist Perfectionist Investment Cost/expenditure Future-focused (strategist) Present and short-term (tactician) Aspires to success and sustainability Aspires to safety and stability
  23. 23. LEARNING ACTIVITY 2: FUTURE-FIT V.A HEALTH CHECK • In light of the above Future-fit Code, do you believe that you are ready for the future workplace? Please refer to the following link: • https://www.survey monkey.com/r/HWJR 5FW
  24. 24. CONSOLIDATION INTO A PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN (PDP)
  25. 25. OFFICE MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE • The necessity of management • Defining management • Management roles • Management skills • Management functions • Management resources
  26. 26. CONTEXT OF MANAGEMENT
  27. 27. THE NATURE OF THE BUSINESS/TECHNICAL ENVIRONMENT – V-U-C-A
  28. 28. THE IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF MANAGEMENT • Management directs a business towards its goals • Management sets and keeps the operations of a business on a balanced course • Management keeps the organization in a equilibrium with its environment • Management is necessary to reach the goals of the organization at the highest possible level of productivity
  29. 29. MANAGEMENT SKILLS
  30. 30. RESPONSIBILITY, AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY
  31. 31. DELEGATION PROCESS
  32. 32. DECIDING WHAT JOBS TO DELEGATE?
  33. 33. • Performance equation • Benefits of motivated workforce • Motivation strategies
  34. 34. PERFORMANCE EQUATION
  35. 35. BENEFITS OF A MOTIVATED WORKFORCE • Quality performance • High levels of productivity (“a team member is a productive team member”) • High levels of commitment (to both the team and organization) • High levels of team cohesion
  36. 36. OFFICE MANAGER MOTIVATION ACTIONS • Set specific goals for employees • Goals should be realistic and attainable • Job must suit the employee’s personality • Respect and recognise individual differences • Provide immediate feedback to employees on their performance • Rewards should be individualistic • Link rewards to performance • Honour the principle of internal equity (i.e. fairness for all employees) • Motivational theories should be regarded as cultural bound
  37. 37. PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT FOCAL POINTS Processes Resources Structures Behaviour Systems
  38. 38. PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES • Job design • Intra-preneurial incentives • Training and education • Incentives • Empowerment and participation • Devising reward systems
  39. 39. 3 E’s OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
  40. 40. OFFICE SPACE AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT
  41. 41. MEANING OF FENG SHUI • A Chinese system of laws considered to govern spatial arrangement and orientation in relation to the flow of energy (chi), and whose favourable or unfavourable effects are taken into account when siting and designing buildings. • The art of placement – knowing what to put where and in what colours, shapes and materials, to create an environment that facilitates happiness, serenity, tranquility and harmony.
  42. 42. FENG SHUI OFFICE RE-DESIGN
  43. 43. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Group discussion: • Identify the most important management and administrative functions and skills that you require to function effectively as a P.A/EA/Secretary • Identify one office management task. By applying the 5-step delegation process, explain how you as an office manager will effectively delegate this task. • As an Office Manager, describe how you can motivate and inspire your team members.
  44. 44. LEARNING ACTIVITY 3 • Group discussion: • By referring to team structures, processes, behaviour and systems, develop productivity, office space and workflow improvement strategies for your office/team at your organization. • Describe how you will efficiently, effectively, economically and ethically utilize the assigned and allocated office management resources.
  45. 45. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  46. 46. DEFINING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • Communication is more than merely imparting meaning – it must also be understood. • Fundamental definition of effective communication is when the intended message of the sender is correctly interpreted, understood and acted upon by the recipient/listener. • Communication is the lifeblood of teams. No team or organization can exist without communication i.e. the transference of meaning among its team members. • It is only through transmitting meaning from one person to another that information and ideas can be conveyed.
  47. 47. 3 PRIMARY COMMUNICATION SKILLS • Informing skills – the ability to articulate and express ideas and thoughts (as sender) • The ability to express, read, interpret and respond appropriately to non-verbal communication • Listening skills – the ability to listen attentively and actively (as receiver)
  48. 48. COMMUNICATION IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES • Plan what you want to say and how you will say it • Use multiple channels and mediums • Tailor the message to the audience • Use clear, simple and understandable language • Empathize with others • Remember the value of face-to-face communication when dealing with change
  49. 49. COMMUNICATION IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES • Use two-way communication • Practice active listening • Match your words and actions (congruency) • Ask for feedback/questions to confirm understanding • Use the grapevine (as a source of employee issues) • Use feedback • Use assertive communication
  50. 50. BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • Intra-personal • Interpersonal • Structural • Physical, technological and/or environmental
  51. 51. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  52. 52. JOHARI’S WINDOW • Managers can utilize Johari’s Window, in order to affect openness and interpersonal trust. • Designed to understand the communication process between people and consists of varying degrees of information held in common between two people as well as methods that can be used to increase the size of one’s window. • Communication will be enhanced if the Arena is increased in size by: ❑ Exposure of self to others ❑ Soliciting feedback from others • Exposure requires an open, candid and trusting approach, while feedback requires an active solicitation of feelings, opinions and values from others. • For these processes to be fully developed, reciprocity is required.
  53. 53. INTERPERSONAL STYLE
  54. 54. PARENT-ADULT-CHILD (PAC) MODEL
  55. 55. DEFINING NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION (NVC) • Non-verbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless (mostly visual) cues between people. • Face-to-face interaction, NVC can be classified into three principal areas: ❑Environmental conditions where communication takes place ❑Physical characteristics of the communicators ❑Behaviours of communicators during interaction
  56. 56. COMPREHENSION COMPONENTS OF NVC
  57. 57. COMPONENTS OF NVC
  58. 58. ANALYSIS OF NVC SCENARIO
  59. 59. LEARNING ACTIVITY 4 • Group discussion: • By referring to the barriers to effective communication, from your office management experience, identify the most common causes of communication break-downs between yourself and your manager and other colleagues. • Propose/develop solutions to these identified communication break- downs. • By referring to the different examples of NVC, explain how you as a sender and receiver, can improve your interpersonal communication.
  60. 60. BUSINESS COMMUNICATION • Report Writing • Minute-taking • E-mail communication • Business Presentations
  61. 61. CAKE-BAKING ANALOGY • BEST PRACTICE BUSINESS WRITING PRINCIPLES - INGREDIENTS • THE “LOOK AND FEEL” COMPONENTS OF AN EFFECTIVE BUSINESS REPORT – PICTURE OF THE CAKE • THE 6-STEP, REPORT WRITING PROCESS - RECIPE
  62. 62. DOES THIS LOOK FAMILIAR?
  63. 63. BEST PRACTICE WRITING PRINCIPLES
  64. 64. 20 FUNDAMENTAL, BEST PRACTICE WRITING PRINCIPLES • #1: A – B – C (ACCURACY – BREVITY – CLARITY) – “BE ON POINT AND TO THE POINT” • #2: A – I – D –A (ATTENTION – INTEREST – DESIRE – ACTION) – “TELL THE READER WHAT YOU’RE GOING TO TELL THEM; TELL THEM AND THEN TELL THEM WHAT YOU TOLD THEM.” • #3: “THINK BEFORE YOU INK” – USE 80 (THINKING)/20 (INKING) PRINCIPLE • #4: HARMONIZATION OF THE BEST FIT METHODS – FIT FOR PURPOSE/MESSAGE/READER • #5: BE STRATEGIC AND SELECTIVE - PROVIDE ONLY VALUE ADDING AND RELEVANT INFORMATION
  65. 65. 20 FUNDAMENTAL, BEST PRACTICE WRITING PRINCIPLES • #6: “LESS IS MORE” – HAVE AN EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL WRITING STYLE • #7: EMPATHIZE - “CUSTOMIZATION IS KING/QUEEN” – CONDUCT A READERSHIP ANALYSIS TO ACCOMMODATE THEM AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE – “SPEAK THE LANGUAGE THAT YOUR READER UNDERSTANDS” • #8: INTEGRATE RATIONAL (LEFT BRAIN) AND CREATIVE (RIGHT BRAIN) THOUGHT PROCESSES • #9: MARRY BEING METICULOUS (“EYE FOR DETAIL”) WITH FINDING CREATIVE WRITING SPACE (PSYCHOLOGICAL, EMOTIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL) • #10: USE OF VISUAL STIMULI AND TECHNIQUES TO COMPLEMENT, SUPPORT AND PROMOTE A HIGHER LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING
  66. 66. 20 FUNDAMENTAL, BEST PRACTICE WRITING PRINCIPLES • #11: ENSURE QUALITY ASSURANCE E.G. PROOF-READING; EDITING; SPELL CHECKING AND VERIFICATION OF INFORMATION • #12: USE THE PURPOSE AS YOUR WRITING “GPS” – TO CONCENTRATE/DIRECT FOCUS TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF OUTCOMES/OBJECTIVES • #13: “DON’T WRITE TO IMPRESS, WRITE TO PROMOTE A HIGHER LEVEL OF UNDERSTANDING.” – BE A AGENT OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION • #14: EMPLOY A “COMMUNITY OF WRITERS” APPROACH – THE VALUE OF CONSULTATION AND ENGAGEMENT • #15: PROPER STRUCTURE - USE THE PYRAMID (CASCADING) METHOD – INITIALLY PRESENT LESS IMPORTANCE INFORMATION AND CLIMAX WITH MOST CRITICAL INFORMATION
  67. 67. 20 FUNDAMENTAL, BEST PRACTICE WRITING PRINCIPLES • #16: APPLY THE WATERFALL APPROACH – VERTICAL ALIGNMENT AND SYNERGY BETWEEN THE REPORT FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS • #17: “TOUR GUIDE” MENTALITY – DIRECT; NAVIGATE; ORIENTATE, INFORM; ADVISE, ENLIGHTEN AND CAPTIVATE THE READER • #18: ADOPT A STORY TELLING MODE – LOGICAL AND COHERENT FLOW OF INFORMATION – NO SURPRISES! • #19: THE REPORT SHOULD GENERATE BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE – ENABLING SMART OPERATIONAL AND STRATEGIC DECISION-MAKING • #20: ADOPT A STRATEGIC MIND-SET – DEVELOP STRUCTURED, HOLISTIC AND WELL-PREPARED BUSINESS WRITING HABITS
  68. 68. STRUCTURE • VARIES DEPENDENT ON WHETHER INFORMATIVE (“TELLING”) OR EVALUATIVE (“SELLING”) TYPE OF BUSINESS REPORT • EXTERNAL STRUCTURE – FRONT-END AND BACK- END • INTERNAL STRUCTURE
  69. 69. EXTERNAL STRUCTURE – FRONT-END • TITLE PAGE • TABLE OF CONTENTS • EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  70. 70. EXTERNAL STRUCTURE – BACK-END • GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS AND ACRONYMS • LIST OF SOURCES/REFERENCES • ATTACHMENTS – APPENDICES AND ANNEXURES
  71. 71. INTERNAL STRUCTURE • INTRODUCTION • BACKGROUND/CONTEXTUALIZATION • RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCESS • FINDINGS • CONCLUSIONS • RECOMMENDATIONS
  72. 72. REPORT WRITING PROCESS • STEP 1: PLANNING • STEP 2: RESEARCHING THINKING (80%) • STEP 3: ORGANIZING • STEP 4: WRITING THE FIRST DRAFT • STEP 5: QUALITY ASSURANCE INKING (20%) • STEP 6: SUBMIT FINAL DRAFT FOR APPROVAL AND ADOPTION
  73. 73. REPORT WRITING PHASES • Crafting (Conceptualizing) • Drafting (Writing) • Shafting (Submitting)
  74. 74. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  75. 75. MIND-MAPPING EXAMPLE
  76. 76. MINUTE-TAKING FUNDAMENTALS • The scope of minutes • Tips and warnings • The criteria of effective minutes
  77. 77. MINUTE-TAKING: TIPS AND WARNINGS • You do not need to record topics irrelevant to the business at hand. Taking minutes is not the same as taking dictation. • Consult only the chairperson or executive officer, not the attendees, if you have questions. • The person taking minutes does not participate in the meeting. • Write in a concise, accurate manner, taking care not to include any sort of subjective opinion. • No matter what type of minutes you take, focus on capturing and communicating all important actions that took place. • Make sure all attendees sign the minutes before they are filed to demonstrate their agreement with the contents of the minutes
  78. 78. CRITERIA FOR GOOD MINUTES • Be factual and accurate • Be short and to the point (concise) • Clearly indicate the meeting proceedings and discussions • Concentrate on resolutions and decisions taken at the meeting • Show decisions clearly marked “agreed” by the Committee Members • Follow the agenda headings so that they are easily understood
  79. 79. CRITERIA FOR GOOD MINUTES • Be written in full sentences • Indicate how many members attended the meeting or list their names • State the time the meeting was opened and closed • Be written in the past tense • Be written in plain, easily understood language • Be consistent in their format and content
  80. 80. BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR MINUTE- TAKERS • Preparation (pre-meeting) • Transcribing (during meeting) • Writing minutes (after the meeting)
  81. 81. PREPARATION (PRE-MEETING) • Obtain the meeting agenda, minutes from the last meeting, and any background documents to be discussed. • Prepare an outline based on the agenda ahead of time, and leave plenty of white space for notes. • Prepare a list of expected attendees and check off the names as people enter the room. • To be sure about who said what, make a map of the seating arrangement, and make sure to ask for introductions of unfamiliar people. • If you are an active participant in the meeting, be prepared. • Don't be intimidated by the prospect of taking minutes. Concise and coherent minutes are the mark of a professional.
  82. 82. TRANSCRIBING (DURING MEETING) • Sit beside the chairperson for convenient clarification or help as the meeting proceeds. • Ensure that all of the essential elements are noted • Note who arrives late or leaves early so that these people can be briefed on what they missed. • Don't make the mistake of recording every single comment. Concentrate on getting the gist of the discussion and taking enough notes to summarize it later. • Listen for key words or phrases. Try to capture basic ideas and the essence of what people say.
  83. 83. TRANSCRIBING (DURING MEETING) • Use whatever recording method is comfortable for you • Write down items in the order in which they are discussed. • Write as clearly as possible. Abbreviate words, use initials to save time circle key ideas, statements or decisions. Underline highlights and differentiate important ideas. Use stars, arrows, numbers. • Number all sheets. Note ‘Action’ beside motions or decisions requiring specific tasks. Note who is responsible for the action. • Speak up (via the Chairperson) when the action is too fast. • Record the motions made and the names of people who originate them. • Record whether motions are adopted or rejected, how the vote is taken and whether the vote is unanimous. For small meetings, write the names of the attendees who approve, oppose and abstain from each motion.
  84. 84. WRITING MINUTES (AFTER THE MEETING) • Don't wait too long (procrastinate) to type up the minutes, especially while your memory is fresh. • Use the approved format/template of minutes. • Consider attaching long resolutions, reports or other supplementary material to the minutes as an annexure/appendix. • Consult with subject matter experts and/or attendees to verify the accuracy of recorded minutes. • Proofread the minutes before submitting them. • Be sure to have the minutes approved by the chair or facilitator before distributing them to the attendees.
  85. 85. FORMAT OF GOOD MINUTES
  86. 86. E-MAIL COMMUNICATION
  87. 87. FUNDAMENTALS OF E-MAIL COMMUNICATION • Guidelines to improve e-mail writing skills • Writing professional e-mails • Improving your e-mail writing style • Writing business e-mails • Golden Rules of Email Etiquette
  88. 88. GUIDELINES TO EFFECTIVE E-MAIL COMMUNICATION
  89. 89. • Do not, under any circumstances, forward chain letters • Respond to group e-mails appropriately • Use actual English • Don’t use your company e-mail for private e-mails • Utilize CC and BCC properly • Be careful what you say
  90. 90. • Lose the attitude • Don’t be a spammer • Respect laws and regulations • Get clarification • Delete unnecessary content • Keep signatures simple
  91. 91. BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS
  92. 92. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD PRESENTER Good eye contact Confident manner Interesting voice Appropriate pace Knowledge Enthusiasm Imagination
  93. 93. SECRETS OF A GOOD PRESENTATION Clear objectives Logical structure Complementary/Supportive Visuals Thorough and proper preparation Correct pitch Opportunity for questions
  94. 94. PRESENTATION ICEBERG • PUT IT ACROSS (PIA) – Delivery • PUT IT TOGETHER (PIT) – Planning and Preparation
  95. 95. BUSINESS PRESENTATIONS FRAMEWORK • Planning and preparation • Audience analysis • Self-Management (dealing with your nerves and building confidence) • Materials, Visual Aids and Technology • Rehearse • Impact, Impression and Influence • Delivery
  96. 96. LEARNING ACTIVITY 5 • Group discussion: • As an Office Professional, develop a set of best practice guidelines for the following forms of business communication: ❑ Report writing ❑ Minute-taking ❑ Email ❑ Business presentations
  97. 97. STRESS MANAGEMENT • Defining stress • Perception of stress • The Four Common Types of Stress • Causes of stress • Outcomes of stress • The Pyramid Approach • Stress management strategies
  98. 98. COMMON TYPES OF STRESS • Time stress • Anticipatory stress • Situational stress • Encounter stress
  99. 99. OUTCOMES OF STRESS
  100. 100. INDIVIDUAL STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
  101. 101. ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES • Supportive organizational practices • Job design • Employee Assistance Programmes • Employee counselling • Employees Wellness programs
  102. 102. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Individual Activity: • By referring to the Pyramid approach, assess your current degree of stress threshold and stress coping methods. • By referring to the types and causes of stress, identify your foremost personal and workplace stressors, as an Office Professional.
  103. 103. LEARNING ACTIVITY 6 • Group discussion: • How do these causes impact on your workplace productivity and performance? • At both an individual and an organizational level, describe what stress management strategies can be applied to the above, identified stressors
  104. 104. TIME MANAGEMENT
  105. 105. TIME WASTERS ❑Self-generated ❑Environmental
  106. 106. SELF-GENERATED TIME WASTERS • Personnel factors • Disorganized • Procrastination • Inability to say no • Burnout and stress
  107. 107. ENVIRONMENTAL TIME WASTERS • Organizational factors • Organizational Cultural factors • Management factors • Top management • Work processes, procedures & habits • Supply chain • Unproductive meetings
  108. 108. APPLYING THE PARETO PRINCIPLE (80/20%)
  109. 109. AVOID PROCRASTINATION
  110. 110. SUMMARY: TIME MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES
  111. 111. TIME MANAGEMENT TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES • Time and activity management log/audit • Compiling a To-Do list • Prioritize your time (ABC) • Scheduling • Other practical time management techniques
  112. 112. TIME AND ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT LOG/AUDIT
  113. 113. COMPILING A TO- DO LIST • Daily register of intended tasks/activities to be completed. • Productivity and time management can be measured at the end of the day by using the To- Do List as a check-list of accomplishment. • This will invariably lead to improved levels of accountability and productivity. • If you use To-Do Lists, you will ensure that: ❑ You remember to carry out all necessary tasks ❑ You tackle the most important jobs first, and do not waste time on trivial tasks. ❑ You do not get stressed by a large number of unimportant jobs.
  114. 114. URGENCY/IMPORTANCE MATRIX
  115. 115. PRACTICE THE 4 D’s
  116. 116. SCHEDULING • Scheduling is the process by which you look at the time available to you, and plan how you will use it to achieve the goals you have identified. • Scheduling is a five-step process: ❑Identify the time you have available. ❑Block in the essential tasks you must carry out to succeed in your job. Schedule in high priority urgent tasks and vital "house-keeping" activities. ❑Block in appropriate contingency time to handle unpredictable interruptions. ❑In the time that remains, schedule the activities that address your priorities and personal goals. ❑If you have little or no discretionary time left by the time you reach step five, then revisit the assumptions you have made in steps one to four.
  117. 117. OTHER TIME MANAGEMENT PRACTICES • Focus on one thing at a time • Shift focus • Goal-setting • Delegate, outsource and/or utilize support • Establish routines and stick to them • Use of time management tools • Get your systems and processes organized • Stop procrastinating • Take at least 24 - 36 hours off each weekend
  118. 118. LEARNING ACTIVITY 7 • Group discussion: • As an Office Professional, apply the above effective time management principles and practice by: ❑ Identify the three (3) foremost time wasters – both self-generated and environmental. ❑ Apply appropriate time management tools/techniques to address these time wasters. ❑ How balanced is your Wheel of Life?
  119. 119. RECEPTION AND TELEPHONE SKILLS AND ETIQUETTE
  120. 120. TOP 10 (GOLDEN BELL), RECEPTION SKILLS • #1: Personal presentation • #2: Name badges and identification • #3: Clean and organised workspace • #4: Professional greeting • #5: Acknowledge multiple visitors
  121. 121. TOP 10 (GOLDEN BELL), RECEPTION SKILLS • #6: Respect everybody • #7: Good communicator • #8: Willingness to help • #9: Manage waiting period • #10: Avoid pet hates
  122. 122. TELEPHONE ETIQUETE & SKILLS • #1: Speak clearly • #2: Use your normal tone of voice when answering a call • #3: Do not eat or drink while you are on telephone duty • #4: Do not use slang words or Poor Language • #5: Address the caller properly by his or her title
  123. 123. TELEPHONE ETIQUETE & SKILLS • #6: Listen to the Caller and what they have to say • #7: Be patient and helpful • #8: Always ask if you can put the caller on hold • #9: Always focus on the call • Refer to the 20 Telephone Etiquette Tips for Customer Service (pages 99-100 in the Learner Manual)
  124. 124. LEARNING ACTIVITY 8 • Group discussion: • As an Office Manager, develop a set of best practice, impression management principles and practices for: ❑ Reception skills ❑ Telephone etiquette
  125. 125. AGREE OR DISAGREE? WHY?
  126. 126. WHY UNPRODUCTIVE MEETINGS? • Meetings can fail to be useful for any number of reasons: ❑Lack of purpose ❑Lack of direction ❑Failure to stick to topic ❑Absence of topic ❑Hidden agendas ❑Attendees not prepared ❑No record of decisions made • This is avoidable – through effective meetings management.
  127. 127. CRITERIA FOR EFFECTIVE MEETINGS • Effective meetings really boil down to three things: ❑They achieve the meeting's objective ❑They take up a minimum amount of time ❑They leave participants feeling that a sensible process has been followed • If you structure your meeting planning, preparation, execution and follow up around these three basic criteria, the result will be an effective meeting.
  128. 128. OBJECTIVES OF MEETINGS • A meeting is only a success if it achieves the objectives set for that meeting. • As a meeting Secretary, you should be clear about ❑Why any meeting is called ❑Who should attend ❑How the numbers of people can be reduced, (or how people can come for the part of a meeting which affects them etc.) ❑What is long-winded waffle, irrelevant, frustrating, boring and irritating - and not leading to any results - and how to limit this ❑What is actually achieved in the meeting ❑What preparation you, your chairman and the meeting participants need to do (and how to get them to do it)
  129. 129. MEETING OBJECTIVES ❑Do you want a decision? ❑Do you want to generate ideas? ❑Are you getting status reports? ❑Are you communicating something? ❑Are you making plans? • As a meeting secretary, before you do any meeting planning, you need to focus your objective.
  130. 130. USING TIME WISELY • To ensure you cover only what needs to be covered and you stick to relevant activities, you need to create an agenda. • To prepare an agenda, consider the following factors: ❑Priorities – what absolutely must be covered? ❑Results – what do need to accomplish at the meeting? ❑Participants – who needs to attend the meeting for it to be successful? ❑Sequence – in what order will you cover the topics? ❑Timing – how much time will spend on each topic? ❑Date and Time – when will the meeting take place? ❑Place – where will the meeting take place?
  131. 131. USING TIME WISELY • The meeting secretary can then look at the information that should be prepared beforehand. What do the participants need to know in order to make the most of the meeting time? • What role are they expected to perform in the meeting, so that they can do the right preparation? • If it's a meeting to solve a problem, ask the participants to come prepared with a viable solution. If you are discussing an on-going project, have each participant summarize his or her progress to date and circulate the reports amongst members. • Assigning a particular topic of discussion to various people is another great way to increase involvement and interest. On the agenda, indicate who will lead the discussion or presentation of each item.
  132. 132. USING TIME WISELY • Use your agenda as your time guide. When you notice that time is running out for a particular item, consider hurrying the discussion, pushing to a decision, deferring discussion until another time, or assigning it for discussion by a subcommittee. • An important aspect of running effective meetings is insisting that everyone respects the time allotted. Start the meeting on time, do not spend time recapping for latecomers, and, when you can, finish on time. • Whatever can be done outside the meeting time should be. This includes circulating reports for people to read beforehand, and assigning smaller group meetings to discuss issues relevant to only certain people.
  133. 133. SATISFYING PARTICIPANTS THAT A SENSIBLE PROCESS HAS BEEN FOLLOWED • Running a meeting is not a dictatorial role: You have to be participative right from the start. ❑ If certain people are dominating the conversation, make a point of asking others for their ideas. ❑ At the end of each agenda item, quickly summarize what was said, and ask people to confirm that that's a fair summary. Then make notes regarding follow-up. ❑ Note items that require further discussion. ❑ Watch body language and make adjustments as necessary. Maybe you need a break, or you need to stop someone from speaking too much. ❑ Ensure the meeting stays on topic. ❑ List all tasks that are generated at the meeting. Make a note of who is assigned to do what, and by when. • At the close of the meeting, quickly summarize next steps and inform everyone that you will be sending out a meeting summary.
  134. 134. SATISFYING PARTICIPANTS THAT A SENSIBLE PROCESS HAS BEEN FOLLOWED • After the meeting is over, take some time to debrief, and determine what went well and what could have been done better. • Evaluate the meeting's effectiveness based on how well you met the objective. This will help you continue to improve your process of running effective meetings. • You may even want to get the participants' feedback as well. • Finally, prepare the meeting summary. It is a record of what was accomplished and who is responsible for what as the team moves forward. • This is a very crucial part of effective meetings that often gets overlooked. You need a written record of what transpired, along with a list of actions that named individuals have agreed to perform. Make sure someone is assigned to take notes during the meeting if you think you will be too busy to do so yourself.
  135. 135. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEETING PARTICIPANTS
  136. 136. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF MEETING PARTICIPANTS • Chairperson/Facilitator (refer to pages 107-108 in the Learner Manual) • Participants/Attendees (refer to pages 108-109 in the Learner Manual) • Secretary/Scribe: ❑Take notes and document decisions ❑At end of meeting, recap and validate decisions made ❑Read Action Items to attendees to confirm correctness ❑Publish final notes to pre-approved distribution list
  137. 137. LEARNING ACTIVITY 9 • Group discussion: • Identify the most critical challenges/constraints to effective meetings at your organization. For each of these constraints, recommend an improvement strategy.
  138. 138. NOTICES AND AGENDA’S • All formal meetings require three primary documents: ❑A notice ❑An agenda ❑Minutes • The notice of a meeting is sent out about a proposed meeting, long before the meeting to inform the members about the date, time and place. • The agenda is to facilitate the procedure of the meeting and to ensure that no important discussions are overlooked. • Refer to the examples of notices and agendas (pages 113-117 in the Learner Manual)
  139. 139. GENERIC AGENDA FORMAT • Opening and Welcome • Attendance register • Apologies • Personalia • Approval of Minutes of the previous meeting • Matters arising (from previous meeting): • Points of discussion (new matters): • General (AOB): • Date of subsequent meeting • Closing
  140. 140. NOTICES AND AGENDA’S: BEST PRACTICE GUIDELINES • Notices and agenda’s are written on the letterhead of the club or organization. • The notice must contain the following information: what and type of meeting, who must attend the meeting, where the meeting will be held, when - the day, date time at which the meeting will be held. • Each type of meeting will have a specific format and content for the agenda. • The notice and agenda can appear on the same page. • It must be signed by the secretary and must be dated. • The notice for the Annual General Meeting must be sent out at least 21 days before the meeting. • The notice for the monthly general meeting must be sent out 14 days before the meeting.
  141. 141. LEARNING ACTIVITY 10 • Group discussion: • Compile a notice and agenda for a monthly general or operational meeting at your organization. • Choose topics that you would like to address, e.g. changing the length of the lunch break, improving the service in the cafeteria, the possibility of working flexi hours, etc.
  142. 142. DEFINING EVENT MANAGEMENT • Event management is the application of the management practice of event management to the creation and development of festivals and events. • Event management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities in order to meet the requirements of the particular event. • Event management is the process by which an event is planned, prepared, and produced. As with any other form of management, it encompasses the assessment, definition, acquisition, allocation, direction, control, and analysis of time, finances, people, products, services and other resources to achieve objectives. • Event management is concerned with the overall planning and co-ordination of an event from inception to completion aimed at meeting the client's requirements and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to the required quality standards. • Event management is considered to be one of the most effective marketing communication tools that an organization can employ to create awareness of the organization, its products and services and its brand.
  143. 143. CATEGORIES OF EVENTS • Events can be classified into four broad categories based on their purpose and objective: ❑Leisure events e.g. leisure sport, music, recreation. ❑Cultural events e.g. ceremonial, religious, art, heritage, and folklore. ❑Personal events e.g. weddings, birthdays, anniversaries. ❑Organizational events e.g. commercial, political, charitable, sales, product launch, expo.
  144. 144. ILLUSTRATION: EVENTS MANAGEMENT PROCESS/CYCLE
  145. 145. EVENTS MANAGEMENT PROCESS/CYCLE • Phase 1: Conceptualization (and Market Research) • Phase 2: Strategic Planning (and Marketing) • Phase 3: Event Implementation (Organizing and Logistics Management) • Phase 4: Event Evaluation (and Performance Feedback)
  146. 146. PHASE 1: CONCEPTUALIZATION • Conducting Market Research • Building a business case for the event • Writing an Event Proposal • Pitching the Event Proposal
  147. 147. CONDUCTING STRATEGIC MARKET RESEARCH • The first step of this process is to identify a prospective event, based on an opportunity, occasion and/or market-driven need. • Conduct a SWOT Analysis: ❖Micro ❖Market ❖Stakeholder Analysis ❖Macro
  148. 148. STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT – POWER-INTEREST MATRIX
  149. 149. PESTEL ANALYSIS
  150. 150. BUILDING A BUSINESS CASE FOR THE EVENT • Cost-benefit Analysis ❖Viability ❖Feasibility • Triple –P Sustainable events management (green events) ❖People ❖Profit ❖Planet
  151. 151. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS
  152. 152. SUSTAINABILITY (TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE)
  153. 153. WRITING AN EVENT PROPOSAL - PROCESS
  154. 154. WRITING AN EVENT PROPOSAL - CONTENT • Description of the Event • Experience of the Event Bidder • Venue and facilities offered • The event programme • The (estimated) proposed event budget
  155. 155. PITCHING THE EVENT PROPOSAL • Persuasive, compelling and captivating sales pitch • Focus on differentiation • Tenders • Contracting • Terms of Reference (event scope)
  156. 156. PHASE 2: STRATEGIC PLANNING • Formulating an Event Strategy (Plan) • Compiling a Financial Plan (Budget) • Developing an Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) strategy
  157. 157. FORMULATING AN EVENT STRATEGY (PLAN)
  158. 158. FORMULATING AN EVENT STRATEGY (PLANNING QUESTIONS) • Define the purpose (why?) • Identify your Objective or Goal (what?) • Identify your Target Market (who?) • What would delight them and what are their expectations? • How many participants will attend? • Schedule a date and time (when?) • Select a venue (where?) • How will we create an impactful event experience?
  159. 159. PLAN THE EVENT EXPERIENCE • Type of experience • Selecting speakers, presenters and entertainment • Presentation and production techniques • Catering and hospitality management
  160. 160. COMPILING A FINANCIAL PLAN (BUDGET) • Booking the venue • Guest speakers • Catering • Furniture/material rentals • Logistical and operational costs • Security
  161. 161. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC)
  162. 162. INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION (IMC) • Event marketing • Public relations • Communication management • Promotion • Social media
  163. 163. PHASE 3: EVENT IMPLEMENTATION • Event Administration • Event Risk Management • Event Logistics and Operations Management
  164. 164. EVENT ADMINISTRATION • Effective and comprehensive administration systems e.g. financial, procedural, operational, contractual and informational • Event must be supported and complemented by documentation, systems, mechanisms and procedures • Event administration must be organized, controlled and methodical • Event management teams are responsible for the entire budget, and if administration falls down, so will the profits of the event
  165. 165. EVENT RISK MATRIX
  166. 166. EVENT RISK RESPONSE STRATEGIES
  167. 167. ILLUSTRATION: EVENT LOGISTICS APPROACH
  168. 168. PHASE 4: EVENT EVALUATION • Benefits Management • Event measurement performance metrics • Strategic events measurement • Strategies (Tools) for measuring an events success
  169. 169. EVENT PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT METRICS • Return on Investment (ROI) – financial metric • Return on Expectation (ROE) – stakeholder satisfaction metric • Return on Learning (ROL) – innovation, growth and improvement metric • Return on Objectives (ROO) – operations, logistics and process efficiency metric
  170. 170. LEARNING ACTIVITY 11 • Group discussion: • Apply the 4-stages of the Event Management life- cycle to a small-scale, office-based event e.g. planning/organizing a year-end function.
  171. 171. DEFINING CUSTOMER SERVICE • Customer service can be defined as a process for providing competitive advantage and adding benefits in order to maximize the total value to the customer. • Customer service is any contact between a customer and a company that causes a negative or positive perception by a customer. • Other experts define customer service as, “The totality of what the organisation does to add value to its products and services in the eyes of the customer.” • The aim of customer service is to enhance the customer’s experience (Cx)
  172. 172. BATHO PELE PRINCIPLES Consultation Service Standards Access Information CourtesyOpenness + Transparency Redress Value for Money
  173. 173. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITY SERVICE
  174. 174. CHARACTERISTICS OF QUALITY SERVICE • Responsive to customer needs • Timely • Accuracy • Reliability • Complete • Value added service
  175. 175. OPTIMIZING CUSTOMER SERVICE • Formulating a value proposition • Creating customer value space
  176. 176. FORMULATING A VALUE PROPOSITION • A value proposition is a statement about the experience customers will have from delivering the value offering. A value proposition is a cluster of benefits the company promises to deliver. These benefits may include the following: ❑ Functional (e.g. reliable and quality products and/or trustworthy service) ❑ Emotional (e.g. pleasure, satisfaction and contentment) ❑ Image (e.g. status, esteem and ego) ❑ Social (e.g. recognition from peers) ❑ Service (e.g. guarantees, free delivery and credit) ❑ Experiential (e.g. shopping enjoyment and fulfillment) • These perceived benefits must outweigh the perceived costs (e.g. monetary, time, energy, psychic and the element of risk). • This value proposition should be seen as a commitment/contract of customer service excellence which binds/obligates the company and its entire staff to delivering these benefits.
  177. 177. CREATING CUSTOMER VALUE SPACE • The value space is the space that companies create to deliver their customers the greatest value. • Many experts believe that this is the missing link in achieving customer loyalty. • A framework for customer value space creation consists of the three P’s, namely: • Performance • Price and • Personalization. • Refer to the customer value space table (learner manual page 140)
  178. 178. LEARNING ACTIVITY 12 • Group discussion: • If working in the public sector - By referring to the 8 Batho Pele principles, describe how Office Managers can apply each of these principles to their office work environment in their daily interactions with customers. OR • If working in the private sector - By referring to the characteristics of quality service, rate your current level of service to both internal and external customers. Identify improvement areas and suggest ways of achieving customer service excellence.
  179. 179. LEARNING ACTIVITY 12 • Group discussion: • Formulate a value proposition for your work team. • How will you create value space?
  180. 180. • Records Management is the practice of identifying, classifying, archiving, preserving and destroying records. • A record is defined as information created, received and maintained as evidence and information by an organization. • The management of records is an important component of the work of any organization. • Records themselves provide evidence of your documentation work and activities, therefore, they form part of the institutional memory of an organization. RECORDS MANAGEMENT – BEST PRACTICE PRINCIPLES
  181. 181. • In order to keep and maintain your records well, an organization requires a good records management system, space and the appropriate equipment and materials for storing the records. • The system should allow for indexing all the records, which provides notification of the location of the records and specifies who is responsible for record keeping. • The system should also show who has authority to access the records. RECORDS MANAGEMENT – BEST PRACTICE PRINCIPLES
  182. 182. • Creating, approving and enforcing records policies including a classification system and a records retention policy. • Developing a records storage plan, which includes the short and long term housing of physical records and digital information. • Identifying existing and newly created records, classifying them and then storing them according to agreed organizational policies and procedures. • Co-ordinating the access to circulation of records within and even outside of an organization • Executing a retention policy to archive and destroy records according to operational needs and statutory requirements KEY ELEMENTS OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT
  183. 183. • If an item is presented for record, it must first be examined to establish its relevance and authenticity. • Records must be stored where they can be easily accessed as well as safeguarded against environmental damage. • Some file rooms employ specialized environmental controls which include regulating temperature and humidity. • Vital records are kept in strong rooms that are disaster resistant safe to protect them from fire or floods. • Records are stored because they need to be retrieved at some point. Retrieving or tracking the record while it is being used away from the records room and then returning the record, is referred as circulation. RECORDS MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  184. 184. • Circulation is handled by manual methods such as simply indicating who took the record and when they should return it. • However , most organizations have computerized their records and have a system that includes the ability to bar code items to track their movement from office to office or even out of the building. • The disposition of records does not always mean destruction. It can also mean transfer of records to a historical archive after a given time has elapsed (according to the organizations policy) • Keep a record of what has been destroyed or archived. • Make sure authority is given before taking any of the actions. RECORDS MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  185. 185. TYPES OF RECORDS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS • Filing shelves/ cabinets in which records are organized by classification in alphabetical order. • An index system records what is contained and where. • Many records are now kept in a digital format. Unlike physical records, electronic records cannot be managed without a computer. • Electronic records require the appropriate software and an operating system.
  186. 186. • Records management is not just about keeping records, it involves creating records policies, developing a storage plan, identifying records, classifying them, storing them, allowing access to them and archiving or destroying them as per organizational policies and procedures. • Without a system where you can keep records safely and access them when necessary, in support of your work, there is little value producing excellent reports or documents. • All members of an organization need to take management of records seriously. SUMMARY: RECORDS MANAGEMENT
  187. 187. LEARNING ACTIVITY 13 • Group discussion: • Review your organization’s current records management system and indicate areas of improvement. Recommend best practice strategies in each of these areas.
  188. 188. CONCLUSION • Key points • Summary • Questions • Training administration • Certification
  189. 189. CONTACT DETAILS • Dr. Charles Cotter • (+27) 84 562 9446 • charlescot@polka.co.za • LinkedIn • Twitter: @Charles_Cotter • https://www.facebook.com/CharlesACotter/ • http://www.slideshare.net/CharlesCotter

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