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Basic concept of Hazards

DRRR chapter 3

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Basic concept of Hazards

  2. 2. HAZARD • Elements of the physical environment, harmful to man and caused by forces extraneous to him. • A source of potential harm or situation with a potential to cause loss • A natural event that has the potential to cause a harm or loss • A phenomenon or situation, which has the potential to cause the disruption or damage to people, their services and their environment
  3. 3. GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARD 1. Natural hazard such as earthquakes or floods arise from purely natural processes in the environment. 2. Quasi – natural hazard such as smog or desertification that arise through the interaction of natural processes and human activity. 3. Technological (or human – made) hazards such as the toxicity of pesticides to agricultural lands, accidental leaks of chemicals from chemical laboratories or radiation from a nuclear plant. These arise directly as a result of human activities.
  4. 4. TYPES OF HAZARD Atmospheric (Single Element) (Combined Element) Excess Rainfall Hurricanes Freezing Rain (Glaze) Glaze storm Hail Thunderstorm Heavy Snow Falls Blizzard High wind speeds Tornadoes Extreme Temperature Heat/Cold Stress
  5. 5. TYPES OF HAZARD Hydrologic • Floods • Wave Action • Drought • Rapid glacier advance Geologic • Mass movement (Landslides, Mudslides, Avalanche) • Tsunami • Earthquake • Volcanic Eruption • Rapid sediment movement
  6. 6. TYPES OF HAZARD Biologic • Epidemic in humans, plants, animals • Locusts Technologic • Transportation accident • Industrial explosions and fire • Accidental release of toxic elements • Nuclear accidents • Collapse of public buildings • Cyber Terrorism
  7. 7. IMPACTS OF VARIOUS ON DIFFERENT EXPOSED ELEMENTS According to the International Center for integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) the impacts of various hazards vary in severity and vary in regard to how long they last. In many ways wealth and development assist in the way people recover from hazards. A more economically developed country can prepare for and predict hazards more effectively and they have more resources to support a faster recovery. However there is also a need for resilience. In many developing countries people who experienced hardship can often recover more quickly from hazard
  8. 8. COMMON LONG TERM IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARD Physical • Death of People • Destruction and loss of vital infrastructure like transport system , roads, bridges, power, lines and communication lines. • Wide spread loss of housing
  9. 9. Psychological impact • Grief and psychological trauma • Marital conflicts • Depression due to loss of loved ones and properties • Chronic anxiety among children severely affected COMMON LONG TERM IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARD
  10. 10. COMMON LONG TERM IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARD Socio – Cultural Impact • Displacement of population • Loss of Cultural Identity • Forced adoption of new sets of culture • Ethnic conflicts
  11. 11. Economic Impact • Loss of job due to displacement • Loss of harvest and livestock • Loss of farms, fish cages, and other sources of living • Loss of money and other valuables like jewelries, furniture and appliances COMMON LONG TERM IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARD
  12. 12. Environmental Impact • Loss of forest due to forest fires • Loss of fresh water due to salination (intrusion of salt water to fresh water sources) • Disturbance of biodiversity • Loss of natural rivers and other tributaries COMMON LONG TERM IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARD
  13. 13. Biological Impact • Epidemic to people, flora and fauna • Chronic and permanent illness due to nuclear radiation • Mental disorder developed from consumption of contaminated foods • Proliferation of different viral and bacterial diseases COMMON LONG TERM IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARD
  14. 14. ASSIGNMENT 1. Define Earthquake 2. What are the different earthquake hazard?